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P 11 K S S O F 



m a s s . 



N T E . 

This volume of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
Society, being the seventh of the New Series, contains reports of 
the Annual Meetii is in October, 18i)0, and October, 1891 j and of the 
Semi-Annual Meeti lg in April, 1891, together with the By-Laws of 
the Society and Rules and Regulations for the Govern^ "nt of the 
Library, also the action of the Council on the dea i of George 
Bancroft, LL.D. 

The papers by members of the Council presented in connection 
with the reports of the Council, are by Samuel A. Green, on The 
Northern Boundary of Massachusetts in its relations to New Hamp- 
shire; by George F. Hoar, on Government in Canada and the United 
States Compared, and by Egbert C. Smyth, on the French-Canadians in 
New England. 

Other papers are by Edward II. Hall, Henry S. Nourse, G. Stanley 
Hall, Charles C. Smith, Frederic W. Putnam, P. Emory Aldrich, 
Charles A. Chase, James F. Ilnnncwell, John M. Merriam, Samuel S. 
Green, Thomas Chase, Herbert B. Adams, and George Baur of Clark 


Worcester, August, 1892. 


Page 40, line l(i, for Carman road daman. 

Page 143, lino : 
Page 211, lino : 
Pane 227, line I 

2, for Elisabeth read Lucrolia. 
1, for /vS'77 read 7<S\s7. 
;>, for •:/ co/.s. read 77 «»/.$, 

Pa<iO 1572, lino 1?/, for Franccso read Francesco. 





By-Laws ix 




Proceedings at the Meeting l 

Report of the Council, Samuel A. Gh'een 7 

Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. Samuel A. Great . 11 

Report of the Treasurer . ,'>;} 

Report of the Lirrarian ;>s 

(fleers and Gifts 58 

Reminiscences of 1)k. John Park. Edward II. Hall 0><) 

A Forgotten Patriot. Henry S. Nourse ( ,M 

Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. G. Stanley Hall. . .... 107 

Financial Embarrassments of New England Ministers in the 

last Century. Charles C. Smith \ . . l2!t 

A Singular Ancient Work. Frederic W. Putnam 18G 

Action of the Council on the Death of Vice-President 

Bancroft i.">8 


Proceedings at the Meeting 149 

ItEi'OiiT of the Council. George F. Hoar Ki2 

Government in Canada and the United Stales. Geonjc F. Hoar. 17s 

Report of the Treasurer 201 

Report of the Lirrarian 206 

Givers and Gifts --«> 

George Bancroft. Samuel Swett Green 2::7 

l)l{. SCIILIEMANN AND JUS DlHCOYBRIES. Thomas Chase 2.">7 

AihjE BraSSEUR DE BOUBBOUKG. Herbert V>. Adams 274 


I V 

vni. Contents, 


Proceedings at the Annual Meeting 2i)i 

Report op the Council. P. Emory Ahlrirk. Charles A. Chase . . 303 

The French-Canadians in New England. Egbert C. Smyth . . :ilO 


Kki'ui; t of tiik Librarian ... • :U2 

Givers and Gifts . 359 

Illustrated Americana of Tiie Revolution. James F. Hunne- 

wclL :>71 

Historic Burial-places of Boston and Vicinity. John M. 

Marviam <>si 

Tiik Galapagos Islands, (feorye Baur 418 

William Lincoln, diaries A. Chase 124 

By-Laws. i X . 




Adopted at the Meeting of the Society, Oct. 21st, 1881, 
with Amendments. 

Article I. — Opficeks. 

The officers shall be a President, two Vice-Presidents, Record- 
ing Secretary, a Secretary for Foreign, and a Secretary for 
Domestic Correspondence, and a Treasurer, who shall be mem- 
bers .' ex'-officip of the Council, and ten Councillors ; and also a 
Committee of Publication and two Auditors, all of whom shall 
be elected by ballot at the Annual Meeting in October, and hold 
their respective offices one year, and until their successors shall 
be elected. 

Article II . — Meet ing s . 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society and 
of the Council when present, and in his absence one of the Y ice- 
Presidents shall preside ; and in the absence of the President and 
Vice-Presidents, the Senior Councillor present shall preside. 

The President shall see that the duties of the several offices are 
faithfully performed, and the Laws executed. 

~ Article III. — Secretaries. 

The Recording Secretary shall keep a fair record of all the 
doings of the Society and Council, to be deposited, when not in 
use, with all papers of his department, in the Library Building 
of the Society, in Worcester. He shall give notice of each slated 
meeting of the Society, by publishing the same in such news- 
papers in Boston and Worcester, and by such other means as the 
Council shall direct. But negligence on the part of the Secretary 

x. American Antiquarian Society. 

in giving such notice, shall not prevent the holding of any slated 
meeting, nor vender its proceedings invalid. 

All letters received and copies of those written by tin; Cones- 
ponding Secretaries shall be preserved, and communicated by 
them to the Society. 

Article IV. — Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive and keep the funds of the Society, 
and all books and papers relating thereto, and shall invest and 
manage the funds of the Society, under, the direction of the 
Council. He shall keep accurate accounts of the same, and of 
all receipts and payments, subject at all times to the inspection 
of the officers of the Society, and shall present a copy thereof to 
the Council, at their meeting next preceding any stated meeting 
of the Society. 

He shall give bonds to be approved by the Council for the 
faithful performance of the duties of his ollice, and shall receive; 
such compensation as the Council may determine. 

Article V. — The Council. 

The Council shall have the control and general management of 
all the property of the Society, both personal and real, and may 
take, release, or transfer securities for any portion of the funds 
of the Society, and may receive and execute deeds of real estate 
on behalf of the Society, and they may determine by what officer 
or officers deeds of the Society shall be executed. 

The Council may make or authorize disbursements for curre t 
expenses and other objects of the Society, to an amount nc 
exceeding the annual income. 

Twice, at least, in every year, they shall carefully examine, or 
cause to be examined by a Committee appointed for that pur- 
pose, the Library, Cabinet and other property, and make report 
to the Society of the state of the funds, and amount and charac- 
ter of the investments. 

They may appoint a Librarian and Cabinet Keeper, and Assis- 
tant-Librarian, and such other subordinate officers and agents as 
they may judge necessary, allow them reasonable compensation, 
and prescribe such duties to them as they may think proper, not 
inconsistent with the laws and objects of the Society. The 



officers and agents so appointed shall hold their respective oflices 
during- the pleasure of the Council. The Council may meet at 
such times and places as they may deem necessary, and provide 
for the manner in which such meetings shall be called. Five 
members shall constitute a quorum of the Council ; they shall, at 
eacli stated meeting of the Society, make a report of their doings, 
which shall be subject to the control of the Society. The Council 
shall have power to make such rules and regulations as to the 
superintendence and use of the Library and Cabinet as they shall 
consider most conducive to the preservation and highest utility 
of the same. 

Article VI. 

[As amended April 24, ISB'J.] 

The Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held every year, 
at the Library Building of the Society, in Worcester, on the 
twenty-first day of October, and when the same falls on Sunday 
or Monday, the meeting shall be on a day to be fixed by the 
Council. The Semi-Annual Meeting shall be held in Boston every 
year, on the last Wednesday of April, at such place as the Coun- 

cil shall designate 

Article \\l. 

The American members of the Society shall at no time exceed 
one hundred and forty. No person shall be elected a member 
until his nomination for membership has been at least one mouth 
before the Council, nor until he has been recommended to the 
Society by the Council; nor shall any person be elected a mem- 
ber at any other than a stated meeting of the Society and it 
shall require at least three-fourths of all the ballots cast v > elect. 

It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary to send 1 T mail 
a written notice to every newly-elected member, of his election. 
And if any person so elected and uotiiied neglects for four months 
to signify in writing to the Secretary his acceptance of member- 
ship, the Secretary shall report such neglect to the Council at its 
next meeting, and the Council shall then determine whether the 
name of such person shall be stricken from the list of members. 

Special meetings of the Society may be called by the Recording 
Secretary under the direction of the President, or in his absence 
or inability to act, under the direction of one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents, and in the absence of the President and Vice-Presidents 

xii. America?) Antiquarian Society. 

the Secretary may call a special meeting, upon the written request 
of any two members of the Council. Notice of such special 
meetings shall be published in the same manner as notices of the 
stated meetings of the Society are required to be published by 
the Third Article of these By-Laws. 

The Society shall not, at any meeting, proceed to business 
unless five at least of the Council are present, but the meeting 
may be adjourned from time to time until such quorum shall 

At each stated meeting the Secretaries and Council shall report 
their respective doings since the last meeting. 


Every new member residing in the United States shall pay an 
admission fee of live dollars; and all members residing in New 
England shall pay an annual fee of live dollars. A payment <>f 
fifty dollars at one time shall exempt the member so paying from 
the payment of the annual fee of live dollars. 

Aktki.k IX. 

No new law or alteration of any of these By-Laws shall he 
made, unless recommended by the Council and adopted by the 
Society at a stated meeting. 

Article X. 

All By-Laws and votes of the Society inconsistent with the 
foregoing are hereby repealed and rescinded. 

Akticlk XI. 

[Adopted Oci. -.'1, 1SS2.] 

Whenever any member of the Society shall tender, in writing, 
a resignation of his membership, the Council may accept the 
same, and his name shall thereafter be omitted from the roll of 

Rules and Regulations. xin. 






Two members of the Council shall annually be appointed a 
Committee on the Library, whose duty it shall be to decide upon 
the details of administration, and to superintend and direct in 
regard to the use of the Library and its collections, subject to 
the approval of the Council. 


The Librarian and Assistants shall have charge and custody of 
the books and collections, subject to the direct ion of the Library 
Committee, and shall administer the details of the Library to the 
approval of said Committee, who shall prescribe the hours fur 
the use of books and all matters of administration. 


The Committee of Publication shall be permitted to take such 
books and manuscripts from the Library as they may 1. ed in 
order to perform the duty assigned to them by the Society, but a 
record of all books and manuscripts so taken shall be ente» jd in 
a book prepared for tbe purpose, and it shall be the duty of tbe 
Librarian and Assistants to require a return of such books and 
manuscripts as soon as the publication for which they were bor- 
rowed is issued. 


1. Members of the Society, on notifying the Librarian or an 
Assistant, are entitled to enter and remain in the alcoves and to 
have access to any of the rooms excepting the manuscript room. 

xiv. American Antiquarian Society. 

Other persons, with a specific purpose in view, may be permitted 
by the Librarian, if accompanied by him or an Assistant, to 
enter the aleoves and have such aeeess ; only, however, for the 
purpose of selecting books and not of remaining at the shelves. 

2. Any person who desires to use books in the Library may 
be furnished with volumes for consultation upon application to 
the Librarian or Assistants, subject, however, to the provisions 
of Rule 7. 

o. When any book, map, chart or manuscript, shall be delivered 
to any one for consultation or reference, it shall be the duty of the 
Librarian or Assistant to make a memorandum of the title of the 
same and the name and address of the person applying for it. 
which memorandum shall be kept on file in the Librarian's room, 
till the return of the volume shall be duly verified. 

4. All volumes or other matter issued for use in the building 
shall be returned to the Librarian or Assistant before the user 
leaves the Library. 

5. It shall be the duty of the Librarian and Assistants to 
examine all books and manuscripts after their use in the Library, 
to ascertain if they are returned in as good condition as when 
they were given out. 

(5. It shall be the province of the Library Committee and of 
them alone, to authorize the temporary removal and use of books 
or articles belonging to the Society outside of the Library, and it 
shall also be their duty to cause a description of the books or 
articles thus loaned to be kept in a book prepared for the pur- 
pose, which entry shall contain a receipt for the same on the part 
of the borrower and also the endorsed approval of one of the 
Library Committee with the date of the transaction. 

7. Valuable books, maps, manuscripts, charts, etc., hall lie 
consulted only in the presence and at the discretion of the libra- 
rian or Assistants. 

H. All manuscripts belonging to the Society shall be kept 
under lock and key. 

9. No manuscript and no part of a manuscript belonging to 
the Society shall be copied except on permission granted by the 
Council after an application in writing, specifying the manuscript 
or part thereof desired to be copied; and if any manuscript 
belonging to the Society shall in consequence of such permission 

Rules and Regulations. 


be published in whole or in part, the fact that it was obtained 
from the Society shall be required to he stated hi its publication. 
But nothing herein shall be construed to prevent the publication 
of names and chronological memoranda without special permission. 

No person shall enter or remain in the manuscript room or use 
the manuscripts except in the presence of the Librarian or an 
Assistant or of a member of the Library Committee. 

1U. Manuscripts of a confidential nature shall be consulted 
only under such regulations as may be prescribed in each case hy 
a vote of the Council. 

No maps, newspapers or books of great rarity shall be taken 
from the Library building except by a vote of the Council. 

11. All tracts, books, maps and manuscripts belonging to the 
Society shall be distinctly marked as its property ; and any such 
tract, book, etc., that may be presented to the Society shall be 
marked with the name of the giver and recorded as his gift. 

12. A record shall be kept of all books, pamphlets or other 
articles presented to the Society, which shall specify the name of 
the giver and the date of presentation. All books presented 
shall be entered upon the card catalogue and placed in their 
proper position hi the Library as soon after their receipt as 

In all cases the first consideration of the Librarian and Assis- 
tants in construing and enforcing the rides shall be the safety 
of the collection. The Librarian shall be held responsible for 
the strict enforcement of the rules and security of the collection 
and shall have the power to exclude from the Library any person 
whose conduct he considers objectionable or whose purposes 
seem foreign to those for which the Library is provki 1. 


gjuncrkmt gmtiquarhw Jlortetg, 

New. Series. 

Part 1, 


:*:• * 


4 '* 



00T0BER 21, 1890; 

l , • v . 




1 J; ■ 



31 1 Main Street. 

C N T E N T'S 


Proceedings at the Meeting 1 

Report of the Council. Samuel A. Green 7 

Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. Samuel A. Green . . 11 

Report of the Treasurer 33 

Report of the Librarian 38 

Givers and Gifts . . 58 

Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. Edward H Hall ...... GO 

A Forgotten Patriot. Henry S. Nourse 94 

Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. G. Stanley Hall 107 

Financial Embarrassments of New England Ministers in the 

last Century. Charlea C. Smith 129 

A Singular Ancient Work. Frederick W. Putnam 136 

Action of the Council on the Death of Vice-President 

Bancroft t. . 138 


Oct. 1890.] 




The President, Stephen Salisbury, A.M., in the chair. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in the order of seniority of membership) : George 
E. Ellis, George F. Hoar, Andrew P. Peabody, George 
Chandler, Nathaniel Paine, Stephen Salisbury, P. Emory 
Aldrich, Samuel A. Green, Elijah B. Stoddard, George S. 
Paine, Edward L. Davis, William A. Smith, Henry i\I. 
Dexter, Egbert C. Smyth, John D. Washburn, Edward H. 
Hall, Charles C. Smith, Edmund M. Barton, Thomas L. 
Nelson, Lucius R. Paige, Franklin B. Dexter, Charles A. 
Chase, Samuel S. Green, Henry W. Haynes, Edward I. 
Thomas, Frederick W. Putnam, Solomon Lincoln, Andrew 
McF. Davis, J. Evarts Greene, Charles M. Lamson, 
Henry S. Nourse, William B. Weeden, Daniel Alcrriman, 
Ebenezer Cutler, Reuben Colton, William W. Rice, Robert 
N. Toppan, Henry H. Edes, George E. Francis, Frank P. 
Goulding, Thomas Chase, A. George Bullock, Granville S. 
Hall, John McK. Merriam, William E. Foster. 

The record of the last meeting was read and approved. 

The Recordinu Secretary communicated the recom- 
mendation by the Council of the following-named gentlemen 
for membership in the Society : — 

James Burrill Anoell, LL.D., of Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Hon. Rutherford Birchard Hayes, LL.D., of Fremont, 

John Franklin Jameson, Ph.D., of Providenee, R. I. 
And for foreign membership : — 

Dr. Nicolas Leon, Director of the Museo Mic/touca/io, 
Morelia, Mexico. 



2 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Each of these gentlemen was declared elected, a separate 
ballot having been taken on each name. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green read the report which had been 
prepared by him and adopted by the Council as a part of 
their report to the Society. 

Prof. Frederick W. Putnam : — » 'I should like to have Dr. 
Green make one addition to his report. There is another cast 
of the Endicott Rock at the Peabody Museum, which should 
come to this Society. It is out of place there ; I simply took 
it because it came to us. It is really the first monument in 
this country. I thought it might be of some interest to see 
how it withstood the effects of time. Do you suppose that it 
is in better condition exposed to the air than in the water?" 

Dr. Green: — "I think the change will tend to its bet- 
ter preservation. The crack was probably made at the 
time it was raised. In regard to this rock, when I was at 
the hotel at The Weirs, I asked two or three persons if they 
could tell me anything about it, but nobody seemed to know 
of its existence. They all thought that I was a lunatic. At 
last I found a native who took me to the bridge and point- 
ing off, said: 'That is what is called the Endicott Rock; 
they say there is an inscription on it, but my son tells me 
that he has examined it, and there is no sign of any inscrip- 
tion.' Mr. Balcom and myself went out to the rock in a boat, 
and the boatman told me about all I know of it. The raising 
probably took place in the summer of 1884. The letters 
4 EI' and 'SW are the initials of the Commissioners, and 
' WP' was the title of dignity given to Governor Endicott." 

Mr. Henry W. Haynes : — "Are they on the four cor- 
ners of the rock ? " 

Dr. Green : — "No. The rock is about seven feet long, 
and a man can climb it. I could read the letters very 
well ; could make out every one of them. The long diameter 
is north and south, and the line of the letters runs parallel 
with it. There is a good cast of it at the rooms of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society." 

1890.] Proceedings. 8 

The report of the Treasurer was read by Nathaniel 
Paine, Esq. 

The report of the Librarian was read by Mr. Edmund 
M. Barton. 

On motion, the last two reports, together with the report 
of Dr. Green, were adopted as together constituting the 
report of the Council, and were referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

Stephen Salisbury, A.M., was unanimously elected 
President, by ballot. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., Rev. Erenezer 
Cutler, D.D., and Hon. Elijah B. Stoddard, appointed 
a committee to nominate the other officers of the Society, 
made the following report : — 

Vice-Presidents : 
Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D., of Newport, R. I. 
Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.l)., of Worcester, 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence : 
Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D., of Hartford, Ct. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence : 
Rev. George E. Ellis, LL.D., of Boston. 

Recording Secretary : 
Hon. John D. Washburn, LL.B., of Worcester. 

Treasurer : 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of AVorcester. 

All of the above being ex-officio members of the Council ; 
and the following 

American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Councillors : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Roxbury. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., of Boston. 
Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, LL.D., of Worcester. 
Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D., of Andover. 
Samuel S. Green, A.M., of Worcester. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, LL.D., of Cambridge. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
Hon. Edward L. Davis, of Worcester, 
Franklin B. Dexter, A.M., of New Haven, Ct. 
J. Evarts Greene, A.B., of Worcester. 

Committee of Publication: 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Roxbury. 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
Charles C. Smith, A.M., of Boston. 


William A. Smith, A.B., of Worcester. 
A. George Bullock, A.M., of Worcester. 

The report was accepted, and all the officers above-named 
were elected by ballot. 

The Recording Secretary spoke in appreciative terms of 
those members of the Society, whose traces- he had recently 
seen abroad. Of Justin Winsor, librarian of Harvard 
s College, a member, also, of the Massachusetts Historical 

Society, with whose credentials he is visiting Europe. He 
continued: — "The American window in Shakespeare's 
Church at Stratford-on-Avon has been finished, and another 
has been begun. Bulwer's bust is there, trying to convince 
men that Shakespeare was a stupid man. The Shakespeare 



fountain is near, the gift of our fellow-member, George W. 
Guilds. Lord Sackville, who was minister at Washington, 
ami claims to be owner of the land on which Mr. Cjiilds has 
placed the Shakespeare fountain, notified the City Council 
that unless the City paid him certain rent lie would have 
the fountain removed. They talked about it and concluded 
that they would not pay rent. Then he said, 'if you will 
agree that I have the title paramount and could enforce the 
payment of rent, I will let it stand. I must have admission 
that I have the title or the fountain must be removed.' The 
oouncil replied that they would do neither, and the result 
is that our fellow-member has been vindicated by the Coun- 
cil of the people. I heard not infrequently our very dis- 
tinguished foreign associate, Mr. Gladstone, in the days 
when he was leading triumphant majorities. It was very 
interesting to see him then ; but it is far more interesting 
to see him in these days of minorities, in the days of doubt- 
ful power, standing there and dashing himself against the 
solid phalanx of the majority. I doubt if there is a more 
magnificent embodiment of soul and body than in Mr. 
Gladstone. I thought this when I saw him the last time 
make one of his tremendous oratorical assaults. 

'•ULs brows, black yet, and white uiii'allen hair 
Set in strange frame the face of his despair, 
And 1 despised not, nor can God despise, 
The splendid, silent anger of his eyes. 
A hundred years of search for Hying truth 
Had left their glowing with no gleam of youth. 
A hundred years of vast and vain desire, 
Had lit and tilled them with consuming lire. 
There through I saw his Jierce immortal soul 
Gaze from beneath that argent aureole." 

It was a magnificent scene. No man living to-day will 
ever see such a scene. A few days ago 1 went to see some 
of the peaceful associations of this grand warrior, and went 
down to Hawarden from Chester. I was with our associate, 
Solomon Lincoln. We strolled about the grounds; we 
did the things that he was doing ; we saw the trees, the 

6 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

stumps, the church, the graves, Mr. Gladstone's prayer- 
book, etc." 

Rev. Edward H. Hall, of Cambridge, read a memoir 
of Dr. John Park, a former member of the Society. 

Eev. Dr. George E. Ellis: — "Mr. Hall's paper re- 
vives very pleasant reminiscences. I always went to see 
Dr. Park when I came to Worcester. In my school days, 
Dr. Park's school was on Mount Vernon street, which was 
then called Sumner street." 

Senator George F. Hoar : — "I hope Mr. Hall will give 
us as ample extracts from Dr. Park's diary as possible. 
That most charming portrait which he has drawn recalls to 
memory one of the most pleasant examples of old age that 
I have ever seen. Dr. Park was full of kind and gentle 
ways, especially to young people. I am very glad that Mr 1 . 
Hall has given us this delightful picture." 

Hon. Henry S. Nourse read a paper on Major-General 
John Whetcomb, "A forgotten Patriot." 

G. Stanley Hall, LL.D., read a paper upon "Boy Life 
in a Massachusetts Country Town Thirty Years Ago." 

Mr. Charles C. Smith gave a paper on "The Financial 
Embarrassments of the New England Ministers in the Last 

Prof. Frederick W. Putnam gave a brief account of the 
exploration of a singular ancient work on a high plateau in 
the Little Miami valley. 

On motion of Hon. Samuel A. Green, all the papers 
which had been read, were referred to the Committee of 


The meeting was then dissolved, 


Recording /Secretary. 


Report of the Council. 


The Council of the American Antiquarian Society have the 
houor to submit the following report, which, in connection 
with the reports of the Treasurer and of the Librarian, makes 
up their usual semi-annual report. They congratulate the 
Society on the favorable statements of both officers ; and, 
for the condition of the finances as well as for the details of 
the library administration, they refer the members to the 
reports themselves. 

During the past six months, so far as is known, death 
has not invaded our ranks, which js a remarkable fact, 
though in that period information has been received of the 
death of three members, which took place shortly before 
the last semi-annual meeting. 

Martin Brewer Anderson died after a long illness, 
at Lake Helen, Florida, on February 25, 1890. He was a 
native of Brunswick, Maine, where he was born on Febru- 
ary 12, 1815. When a boy he was apprenticed to a ship 
carpenter at Bath, but his thirst for knowledge impelled 
him to give up his chosen trade and take an advanced 
course of study. He entered Colby University, then known 
as Waterville College, where he graduated in the Class of 
1840. After a year spent at the Newton Theological Semi- 
nary he was appointed to a tutorship at Waterville, which 
position he tilled during two years, and in 1843 to a pro- 
fessorship, which he tilled with distinguished ability during 
seven years. In the meantime, in the year 1842, he was 
chosen Librarian of the college, and he acted as such 
until his retirement from the institution. In 1850 he 


8 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

became the editor of the New York Recorder, a journal 
since merged in The Examiner (New York). The editorial 
columns of this newspaper, coming from his vigorous pen, 
bore ample witness to the strength of his mind as well as 
to the breadth of his literary acquirements. In L853 he 
was called to the presidency of the University of Rochester, 
where he remained during thirty-live years; and in this 
position he found his true calling. As President and as 
Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy in the same 
institution he made his mark in the class-room, teaching 
his branches with clearness and power, and inspiring the 
students with his own enthusiasm. In the year 18f>3 the 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by his Alma 
Mater, and in 1883 the same honorary distinction was re- 
ceived from the University of New York. Mr. Anderson 
v as married in August, 1848, at Brooklyn, New York, to 
Elizabeth M., youngest daughter of Julius and Alice B. 
Gilbert, of New York City. His wife died also at Lake 
Helen, on February 22, 1890, only three days before 
his own decease ; and the two Avere buried together on 
March 4, in Rochester, New York. They "were lovely 
and pleasant in their lives, and in their death they were not 
divided." Mr. Anderson became a member of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society on April 27, 18t)4. 

Guillermo Rawson died in Paris, France, near the 
beginning of last March. He was a native of the city of 
San Juan, Argentine Republic, where he was born in the 
year 1821. tia father was Aman Rawson, a native of this 
Commonwealth and a descendant of Edward, who was the 
Secretary of the Massachusetts Colony from May 22, 1650, 
till the charter was taken away. Aman served in the United 
States Navy during the last war with England, and soon 
afterward went to Buenos Ayres, and thence to San Juan, 
where he practised the profession of medicine. Here he 
married Dona Jiistina Rojo, the mother of Guillermo. 
The son followed in the steps of the father and studied 


Report of the Council. 


medicine ; and for some years practised his profession in 
San J nan, where at the same time he took an active interest 
in the politics of his country. He always espoused the 
liberal side, and throughout the Republic he gained a wide 
reputation as a public speaker. Later he took up his 
abode in Buenos Ay res, where he was chosen a member 
both of the National House of Representatives and of the 
Senate, and tilled many other positions of trust and respon- 
sibilty. In our Centennial Year of 187(5 he was sent by 
the Medical Association of Buenos Ayres as a delegate to 
the International Medical Congress, which met in Philadel- 
phia, and during that period he visited Boston, where I had 
the pleasure to escort him through the abattoir at Brighton 
as well as through several of the hospitals within the limits 
of the city proper. He was much interested in sanitary 
scienre, and at one time was Professor of Public Hygiene 
in tie Medical School at Buenos Ayres. His remains were 
taken from Paris to Buenos Ayres, where memorial services 
were held in honor of the physician and patriot. Dr. 
Rawson was chosen a member of the Society on April 30, 

James Valentine Campbell died at his home in 
Detroit, Michigan, after a short illness, on March 26, 1890. 
He was born in Buffalo, New York, on February 25, 1823, 
and, when but three years old, his parents removed to 
Detroit, which was afterward his place of residence. He 
went to school at Flushing, Long Island, and matriculated 
at St. Paul's Allege in that town, where he graduated in 
the Class of 1841. His Alma Mater was under the control 
of the Episcopal denomination, but it has since passed out 
of existence. At the end of his college course returning to 
Detroit, Mr. Campbell began the study of law under the 
instruction of Douglas and Walker, at that time a well 
known firm. He was admitted to practise at the bar in 
October, 1844, when he formed a partnership with his for- 
mer preceptors, which continued until the senior partner 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

was chosen to the bench. At the bar, as in every other 
relation of life, Mr. Campbell was remarkable for acuteness 
of intellect and oratorical facility, and for that breadth and 
exactness of knowledge, which earned him the reputation 
for learning that he had acquired among his professional 
brethren. In the spring of 1857 Mr. Campbell was elected 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan, and of 
three other justices then chosen, at the time of his death, 
he was the last official survivor. His term of service was 
the longest ever rendered by any judge of that court. 
Chief Justice Campbell became a member of the Society on 
October 22, 1877. 

These three deaths among our associates have occurred 
In widely separated places, and all within the short space 
of a month, an unusual mortality for that period of time ; 
and not one of them has happened during the last six 

For the Council, 


1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 




The Colonial Charter of Massachusetts Bay, granted by 
Charles I., under date of March 4, 1628-9, gave to the 
Governor and other representatives of the Massachusetts 
Company, on certain conditions, all the territory lying 
between an easterly and westerly line running three miles 
north of any part of the Merrimack River and extending 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacitic, and a similar paral- 
lel line running three miles south of any part of the Charles 
River. To be more exact, and to quote the ipsissi ma verba 
of the original instrument, the bounds of this tract of land 
were as follows : — 

All that parte of Newe England in America which lyes 
and extendes betweene a great river there comonlie called 
Monomack river, alias Merrimack river, and a certen other 
river there called Charles river, being in the bottome of a 
certen bay there comonlie called Massachusetts, alias Mat- 
tachusetts, alias Massatusetts bay : And also all and singu- 
ler those landes and hereditaments whatsoever, lyeing within 
the space of three Englishe myles on the south parte of the 
saide river called Charles river, or of any or every parte 
thereof: And also all and singuler the landes and heredita- 
ments whatsoever lyeing and being within the space of three 
Englishe myles to the southward of the souther most parte 
of the said baye called Massachusetts, alias Mattachusetts, 
alias Massatusetts bay : And also all those lands and hered- 
itaments whatsoever which lye and be within the space of 
three English myles to the northward of the saide river 
called Monomack, alias Merrymack, or to be horward of 



12 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

any and every parte thereof, and all landes and heredita- 
ments whatsoever, lyeing within the lymitts utbresaide, 
north and south, in latitude and bredth, and in length 
and longitude, of and within all the bredth aforesaide, 
throughout the mayne landes there from the Atlantick and 
westerne sea and ocean on the east parte, to the south sea 
on the west parte : 

Without attempting to trace in detail, from the time of 
the Cabots to the days of the Charter, the continuity of the 
English title to this transcontinental strip of territory, it is 
enough to know that the precedents and usages of that 
period gave to Great Britain, in theory at least, undisputed 
sway over the region, and forged every link in the chain of 
authority and sovereignty. It has been claimed that the 
rights and privileges given by the contract conilicted with 
those already granted by the Crown to Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges and his son Robert and to John Mason ; but I do 
not purpose now to enter on the discussion of that question. 

At that time it was supposed that America was a narrow 
strip of land, — perhaps ail arm of the continent of Asia, — 
and that the distance across from ocean to ocean was com- 
paratively short. It was then known that the Isthmus of 
Darien was narrow, and it was therefore incorrectly pre- 
sumed that the whole continent also was narrow. New 
England was a region about which little was known beyond 
the slight examinations made from the coast line. The riv- 
ers were unexplored, and all knowledge concerning them 
was confined to the neighborhood of the places where they 
emptied into the sea. The early navigators thought that 
the general course of the Merrimack was easterly and west- 
erly; as it runs in that direction near the mouth ; and their 
error was perpetuated inferentially by the words of the 
Charter. By later exploration this strip of territory has since 
been lengthened out into a belt three thousand miles long. It 
crosses a continent, and includes within its limits various 
large towns of the United States. The cities of Albany, 
Syracuse, Rochester, Bull'alo, Detroit and Milwaukee all lie 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 13 

within the zone. There have been many social and commer- 
cial ties between the capital of \ew England and these sev- 
eral municipalities, but in comparison with another bond 
they are of recent date, as the ground on which they stand 
was granted to the Massachusetts Company by the Charter 
of Charles I., more than two hundred and .^ixty years ago. 1 
Through this misapprehension in regard to the coarse of 
the Merrimack River, there have arisen certain disputes over 
the boundary line between the adjoining States of Massa- 
chusetts and Xew Hampshire, which are not yet settled even 
in our time. The royal grant comprised a large tract of 
laud, which was then a dense wilderness, situated outside 
of Christendom. After the lapse of some years the settlers 
took steps to rind out the territorial boundaries of the Col- 
ony on the north in order to establish the limits of their 
jurisdictional authority. To this end at an early day a 
Commission was appointed by the General Court, composed 
of Captain Simon Willard and Captain Edward Johnson, 
two of the foremost men in the Colony at that time. Cap- 
tain Willard was a native of Kent, England, and came to 
Massachusetts in the year 1634. He lived first at Cam- 
bridge and Concord, then at Lancaster, from which town 
ahout the year KJ71 he removed to Groton, and in all these 
places he exerted a wide influence. In his day he filled 
various civil offices, and was a noted military man, holding 
a major's commission. His farm in Groton was situated at 

1 Some of the early records of the Massachusetts Company arc printed in the 
•• Arclneologia Americana" (iii. 1-107) of Ibis Society; and « >n page lO.'J <>t* the 
copy there is a singular error in the- reading of a word in the original text. It 
occur:) in the Company's second Letter of instructions to Kndicott and his 
Council, where reference is made to " llookes, Lynes, knives, bootes anil Bar- 
rells." An examination of the original manuscript in the Suffolk Uegistrj of 
Deeds shows the last quoted word to he " Barvelfe." According to the Century 
Dictionary, now in the course of publication, thi> word means "a kind of 
leather apron,"— an article that might well go with the other items mention. d. 
It is correctly given in the ''Records of the Governor and Company of the 
Massachusetts Day" (i. 404), a- edited by our late associate, Dr. Nathaniel 
Bradrftreet Shartleff, as well as in the u Suffolk Deeds" (i. xviiij, where it is 
again printed. 

14 Amemmlm Amiigmariam Aae* <j \ 

Nonacoicus, now within the limit- of Aver; and hi 
ia g b o n ne was the first boihwng burned at the attack ion 
town, March 13, lo7»;, in Philip's War. JJuririL' - 
months previously Major VVillard had heen ei._ _ . ith 
hi-, command in fcouting ._/ the line or :. U le- 

nient* and protecting the inhabitants At this Ban nil 
came with a company or' cavalry to the leM 
though he did not reach the place in time to I 
in its defence. He (tic I al Ch niestown on April 24 I i 
a very few week- after Groton was ahan Major 

Willard was the wtor of two pro lof Harvard ( - 

lege, and of our late a- J » . fa Ififlard, E- 

for twenty year- was one or" the Cooncillors of this S 

Captain Johnson, the other Com:.. 
Kentish soldier, and at the date of fa antmeol 

her of the General Court. He first eaa _ md 

with Governor Winthrop during the summer of 1630, though 
at that time he did not tarry _ I while : hut a fie 
later he returned with his family, and remained until the 
time of his death. In the early Colonial R - boom 

appears always with the prefix of "Ml.," which she | 
he was a man of property and social position. He was 
actively engaged in the settlement of the town irn, 

where he held both CUril and ecelesi . -. F Of U 

than twenty-rive years he represented the I H ise 

of Deputies, and for one year was the speaker. He was 
the recorder of the town from the d aeorpwrafl 

until his death, which took place on April _ . ' i. At 
the present time he is known mainly \>y hi- ;: 
England, a quaint work entitled •• Wonder-Working Pi 
dence of Sion's Saviour in New England," which ■ 
puhh\>hed in the year 1654. It contains many facts 
cerning the early settlement of the country not found else- 
where, and forms an important addition to our historical 

Such were the two men constituting the Commission. 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 15 

were to interpret the meaning of the Charter in reference to 
the northernmost boundary of the Colony, and to say where 
the line should be drawn. They derived their authority 
from the action of the General Court, found in the records 
as follows : — 

The 31 lh of the 34 mo 1 ". 1652 on gvsal] of o r Charter it 
woos this day voted by the whole court That the extent of 
the Line is to be from the Northcrmost part of y c Riuer 
Merimacke & Three miles more North where it is to be 
found be it an hundred miles more or less from the sea & 
Thence vppon a streygnt line east & west to each sea & this 
to be the True interp'tatio of the Termes of the Lymitte 
Northward granted in the Patent (111. 347) 

ffor the better discouery of the North Line of o 1 * pattent 
It is ordred by this Court That Capt. Symon Willard & 
Capt. Edward Johnson be appoynted as CoiTiissione ls to 
pcure such Artists & other Assistants as they shall Judge 
incete to goe with them to find out the most Northerly part 
of Merimacke Riuer & that they be supplyed with all man- 
ner of nessessaryes by the Treasurer fit t for this Journey & 
that they vse theire vttmost skill & a bi Hi tie to take a true 
observation of the Latitude of that place & that they doe it 
with all Convenient speed & make returne thereof to the 
next session of this court (III. 353) 

The order appointing the Commission, just given, was 
passed on a day subsequent to May 31, 1(552, although, in 
the printed edition of the Colonial Records, it appears to 
be of that date. In the early history of Massachusetts tb n 
proceedings of the General Court, as a rule, are not dat 
day by day, — though there are many exceptions, — but f 
beginning of the session is always given, and occasiona 
the days of the month are also given. These dates in tl. 
printed edition of the Colonial Records are often carried 
along without authority, at times extending over a period 
of several days, or even a week or more ; and for this rea- 
son, in some instances, it is impossible to learn the exact 
date of particular legislation, unless there are contempora- 
neous papers bearing on the subject. The vote and the 

16 . American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

order, as found in the records, arc separated by six manu- 
script pages, which would imply several days of ordinary 
business between the passage of the two. It will be seen 
that the Commissioners were empowered, under the order, 
to engage "such Artists & other Assistants," as were needed 
for the purpose. In early times a surveyor was called an 
artist, and in old records the word is often found with that 
meaning. Under the authority thus given, the Commission- 
ers employed Sergeant John Sherman, of Watertown, and 
Jonathan luce, of Cambridge, to join the party and do the 
scientific work of the expedition. 

Sergeant Sherman was a land surveyor, and a prominent 
inhabitant of Watertown. He was often chosen a selectman, 
and for many years the town-clerk, besides being several 
times elected to the Legislature. lie was the great-grand- 
father of linger Sherman, one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the ancestor, on his mother's side, 
of the junior V r icc-President of this Society. 

Jonathan luce, the other "artist," was a graduate of Har- 
vard College in the Class of 1050, who, alter taking the 
decree of Bachelor of Arts, remained at Cambridge for 
more than three years. During this period he appears to 
have been acting in various capacities connected with the 
institution, and, like an undergraduate, he was regularly 
charged for the usual small items in the college accounts. 
In a certain way he was the confidential clerk of President 
Dunster, and at the date of his appointment by the Coin- 
mission he was tilling the butlership of the College, a posi- 
tion which placed him in charge of the commons. A fe 
years afterward, — according to our late associate, the Re 
erend Dr. Joseph Barlow Felt, in his "Ecclesiastic 
History of New England" (II. 103), —the Apostle Elio 
wrote a letter to the Treasurer of the Missionary Corpora- 
tion, in which he recommended Ince "as a godly young 
man, a scholar who hath a singular faculty to learn and pro- 
nounce the Indian tongue." 

1890. J Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 17 

The two surveyors were allowed "a daily stipend of ten 
shillings in the best pay of the country"; and it is known 
that the whole party proceeded up the Merrimack River by 
boat as far as the outlet of Lake Winnepisaukee. The 
expedition consisted of eight or ten men, including several 
Indian guides or "pilatts," and started, it is supposed, 
from some place in what is now Lowell, probably above 
Pawtucket Falls. When they reached the confluence of the 
two rivers in the present town of Franklin, New Hampshire, 
they followed up the eastern branch, as being at that season 
of the year the larger stream, and soon they came to the 
outlet of the lake, at The Weirs. In this neighborhood the 
Commissioners considered the source of the river to be ; 
and in their report nride a few weeks later to the General 
Court they gave it "the name of the head of Merremack." 
The place has now been called for many years "The 
Weirs," so named from the fact that the Indians, from very 
earty times, had weirs set in the stream at this point for the 
catching of fish. It is a spot very favorable for the purpose, 
as it is the only outlet to the lake, and all the water within 
this large body Hows through a narrow channel into the 
river. Through the clear and limpid water the remains of 
these weirs are still distinctly seen at the bottom of the 
lake, where they have rested for many generations. Near 
by there is now a small settlement, a favorite spot during 
the summer season for Old Soldiers' reunions, camp meet- 
ings and conventions, as. well as a resort for tourists. This 
village is known as The Weirs, and conies within the town- 
ship of Laconia. 

In October, 1652, the Commissioners made a return to 
the General Court, giving the result of their labors, and in- 
cluding the affidavits of the two surveyors. According to 
this report they fixed upon a place then called by the 
Indians " Aquedahtan" as the head of the Merrimack 
River. By due observation they found the latitude of this 
spot to be 43° 40' 12" ; and the northern limit of the patent 


American Antiquarian Society. 


was three miles north of this point. Their report is as 
follows : — 

Captajne Symon willard & Captajne Edward Johnson a 
coraittee Appointed by the last Gennerall Court to procure 
Artists to Joyne wth them to trade out the most Northerly 
part of Merremacke Riuer Respecting the lyne of our Pat- 
tent having procured Sarjeant John Sherman of water Toune 
& Jonathan Ince student at Harvard Colledge as Artists to 
goe Along wth them made their Retourne of what they had 
donne and found, viz John Sherman and Joitathan Ince on 
their oathes say that at Aquedahtan the name of the head 
of merremac-k Where it Issues out of the lake called winna- 
puscakit vppon the first day of August one thousand sixe 
hundred fifty two wee observed and by observation found 
that the Lattitude of the place was fourty three degrees 
forty minutes and twelve seconds besides those minutes 
which are to be allowed for the three miles more North 
which runn into the lake In witnes whereof they have sub- 
scribed their names this nineteenth of October one thousand 
sixe hundred fifty and two Jur. Cor me Jn° Endecot. Guber 1 : 

Jn 0, Sherman. Jonathan Ince. 

The sajd Comissioners brought in their bill of chardge 
which they expended & praised on & to those that went 
that Journey to finde out the most northerly part of merre- 
macke which was twenty eight pounds twelve shillings and 
term pence which the Court allowed and ordered that the 
psons concerned should be sattisfied out of the Rate accord- 
ing as they were praised And further doth Order the 
Treasurer to Sattisfy to Captajne willard and Captajne 
Johnson twenty markes a peece for their pajnes :/: ■ 

(General Court Records, IV. 103.) 

Lying tin the bed of the stream, near the outlet of the 
lake, and projecting above the surface, is a large granite 
bowlder running north and south, perhaps seven feet long, 
which is a conspicuous object as seen from the shore. For 
a guess, it is a hundred feet from the western bank, and a 
hundred and twenty-five feet from the eastern bank ; and 
at low water, even before the stone was raised, it was 
always uncovered. This rock caught the eye of the Commis- 

i A mark is an old English coin, valued at 13 s 4 d sterling, or about $3.22. 


20 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

protect it further, a large iron bolt has been put through 
the short diameter, with heav}' nuts screwed on at each 
end. Its dimensions, speaking roughly, are seven feet in 
length, six feet in width, and five feet in height. The 
bowlder is situated on the property of the Winnepissiogee 
Lake Cotton and Woollen Manufacturing Company, who use 
the lake as a storage basin, and in dry season draw upon it 
for a supply of water. About ten years ago, with due fore- 
sight, this Company had seven casts in plaster tal^en of the 
inscription. One of these was given to the cabinet of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, on March 12, 1881 ; 
another to the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
at Cambridge ; a third to the New Hampshire Historical 
Society ; a fourth to the Proprietors of the Locks and 
Canals on Merrimack River, whose office is in Lowell ; 
a fifth to the Essex Company at Lawrence ; a sixth to the 
Winnespissiogee Lake Cotton and Woolen Manufacturing 
Company at Lake Village ; and a seventh to the Long 
Island Historical Society at Brooklyn. 

It is somewhat singular that the existence of this inscrip- 
tion and of the Rock as a memorial stone should have been 
lost sight of for more than a century and a half, and entirely 
forgotten, as is the fact. The letters were cut either in July 
or August, 1G52; and there is no subsequent allusion or 
reference to them until they were brought to light anew in 
a letter of Colonel Philip Carrigain written to John Farmer, 
Esq., the antiquary. This communication is printed in the 
"Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society" 
(IV. 194-200), and gives some interesting details in con- 
nection with the discovery. The volume was published in 
the year 1834 ; and the letter, which is undated, was writ- 
ten near that time, probably in the autumn of 1833. A 
dam was made across the outlet to the lake, in order to 
clear the channel so that a steamboat — then recently 
built — might pass to a winter harbor at Lake Village five 
miles below. During the excavation the rock and inscrip- 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 21 

tion were first noticed by Daniel Tucker, Esq., and Mr, 
John T. Coffin, President and Cashier, respectively, of the 
Winnipisiogee Bank at Meredith, and by them reported to 
Colonel Carrigain, who hastened to visit the spot, and who 
promptly communicated the discovery to Mr; Farmer, then 
a member of this Society. At that time The Weirs came 
within the limits of Meredith, as Laconia had not yet been 
set oft' as a separate township. It is an interesting fact to 
note that Colonel Carrigain, in his letter, rirst suggested that 
the stone be called the Endicott Rock, a name by which it 
has since been known. 

On the second day of last August, during a very delight- 
ful drive through parts of Vermont and New Hampshire, in 
company with the Honorable George Lewis Balcom, of 
Claremont, I visited this interesting bowlder. It is situated 
a short distance below the railroad station, and just above 
the bridge leading from The Weirs to the other side of the 
river, and easily accessible by a boat. The 'stone is the 
earliest public monument found within the limits of New 
England which was made by the English settlers, and as 
such is worthy to be kept in mind. For nearly two centu- 
ries and a half the inscription has battled the storms of all 
seasons, and now bids fair to withstand them for ages to 
come. The State of New Hampshire showed a due regard 
for right sentiment when she made an appropriation to pre- 
serve and protect such an historical relic. 

The northern boundary of the original grant to the Col- 
ony of Massachusetts Bay, as has been shown, was based 
on a misapprehension ; and this ignorance of the topography 
of the country on the part of the English authorities after- 
ward gave rise to considerable controversy between the ad- 
joining Provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 
So long as the territory in question remained unsettled, the 
dispute was a matter of little practical importance; but 
after a time it led to much confusion and assumed grave 
proportions. Grants made by one Province clashed with those 


American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

made by the other ; and there was no ready tribunal to pass 
on the claims of the two parties. Towns were chartered by 
Massachusetts in territory claimed by New Hampshire ; 
and this action was the cause of bitter feeling and provok- 
ing legislation. Massachusetts contended for the tract of 
land '•nominated in the bond," which would carry the juris- 
dictional line fifty miles northward, into the very heart of 
New Hampshire ; and, on the other hand, that Province 
strenuously opposed this view of the case, and claimed that 
the line should run, east and west, three miles north of the 
mouth of the Merrimack River. In order to settle these con- 
flicting claims, a Royal Commission was appointed to con- 
sider the subject and establish the contested line. The 
Commissioners were selected from the Councillors of the 
Provinces of New York, New Jersey, Nova Scotia, and 
Rhode Island, — men supposed to be free from any local 
prejudices in the matter and impartial in their feelings ; and, 
without doubt, they were such. The Board — as appointed 
under the Great Seal — consisted of nineteen members, 
although only seven served in their capacity as Commis- 
sioners. They met at Hampton, New Hampshire, on Au- 
gust 1, 1737; and for mutual convenience the Legislative 
Assemblies of the two Provinces met in the same neighbor- 
hood, — the Assembly of New Hampshire at Hampton Falls, 
and that of Massachusetts at Salisbury, places only live 
miles apart. This was done in order that the claims of each 
side- might be considered with greater despatch than they 
would otherwise receive. The General Court of Massachu- 
setts met at Salisbury in the First Parish Meeting-house on 
August 10, 1737, and continued to hold its sessions in that 
town until October 20 inclusive, though with several ad- 
journments, of which one was for thirty-five days. The 
printed Journal of the House of Representatives, during 
this period, gives the proceedings of that body, which con- 
tain much in regard to the controversy besides the ordinary 
business of legislation. Many years previously the two 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

she had chartered twenty-four towns lying within the limits 
of the tract. These several settlements all looked to her 
for protection, and naturally sympathized with her during 
the controversy. 

To offset this statement in favor of Massachusetts, I will 
give the following extract from "A Summary, Historical 
and Political, of the first Planting, progressive Improve- 
ments, and present State of the British Settlements in 
North-America" (Boston, 1749), a work written by Dr. 
William Douglass. The author was a noted physician of 
Boston during the last century, of whom it was once wittily 
said that he was always positive and sometimes accurate : — 

A few Years since, the .General Assembly of the Massa- 
chusetts-Bay, was in the Humour of distributing the Proper- 
ty of much vacant or Province Land ; perhaps in good Policy 
and Foresight, to secure to the Massachusetts People, by 
Possession, the Property of Part of some controverted 
Lands ; accordingly it came to pass, that upon a royal 
Commission from the Court of Great-Britain, to determine 
this Controversy, the Jurisdiction but not the Property 
was allotted to New-Hampshire , or rather to the Crown 
(I. 424). 

As just stated, neither party was satisfied with the verdict 
of the Royal Commissioners, and both sides appealed from 
their judgment. The matter was then taken to England for 
a decision, which was given by the King on March 4, 1739- 
40. His judgment was final, and in favor of New Hamp- 
shire. - It gave that Province not only all the territory in 
dispute, but a strip of land fourteen miles in width lying 
along her southern border — mostly west of the Merri- 
mack — which she had never claimed. This strip was the 
tract of land between the line running east and west three 
miles north of the southernmost trend of the river, and a 
similar line three miles north of its mouth* By the decision 
many townships were taken from Massachusetts and given 
to New Hampshire. It is said that the King reprimanded 
Governor Belcher for the partisan way in which he pre- 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts, 


sented bis side of the case, and this fact may have biassed 
his Majesty. The settlement of the disputed question was 
undoubtedly a public benefit, although it caused at the time 
a great deal of hard feeling. 

In establishing the new boundary west of the Merrimack, 
Pawtucket Falls — situated at the present time in the city 
of Lowell, and near the southern portion of the river's 
course — was taken as the starting-place; and the line 
which now separates the two States was run west three 
miles north of this point. It was surveyed officially in the 
spring of 1741, with reference to the settlement of the dis- 
pute according to the King's decree. Coiicerning the 
boundary east of the Merrimack there was but little contro- 
versy, as the river was a good guide in the matter, although 
there were a few minor points under discussion. After the 
King's decision was rendered, the question of expense came 
up in regard to the surveys and the marking of the line. It 
seems to have been generally understood that the entire cost 
of these preliminary steps should be borne by the Province 
of Massachusetts, but Governor Belcher did not so regard 
it ; and this misunderstanding caused further delay in the 
settlement of the dispute. George Mitchell was appointed to 
make the survey from the Atlantic Ocean to the point three 
miles north of Pawtucket Falls, afterward known as the 
Boundary Pine, though now the tree has disappeared ; and 
Richard Hazen from the Boundary Pine to the Hudson 
River. Mitchell worked from a fixed line, as he had to es- 
tablish a boundary three miles from the Merrimack; but 
Hazen was to run a straight line through the wilderness 
with the help of only a compass, — a much harder task than 

Surveys dependent on the compass are always subject to 
many sources of inaccuracy, — such as the loss of magnetic 
virtue in the poles of the needle ; blunting of the centre- 
pin ; unsuspected local attractions ; oversight or mistake as 
to the secular variation ; and variability from the influence 

26 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

of the sun, known as the diurnal variation. Error from the 
diurnal variation may amount, in the distance of a mile, to 
twenty feet or more of lateral deviation. Notwithstanding 
these difficulties) and drawbacks, the accuracy of Hazen's 

survey has been confirmed to a remarkable degree ; and the 
controversy over the boundary line has been wholly in re- 
gard to the variation of the needle which Hazen allowed in 
making the .survey. His Journal, fortunately, ha* beec 
preserved, and is printed in "The New-England Historical 
and Genealogical Register" (XXXIII. 323-333) for duly, 
1879. It shows the hardships he encountered and the ob- 
structions he met during the progress of the survey, which 
was hegun on March 21, 1741, and ended at the Hudson 
River, on April 16. In less than four weeks he established 
a straight line one hundred and nine miles long through an 
unbroken wilderness, when the ground a large part of the 
way was covered with snow. At one place, he write- : 
"The Snow in Generall was near three feet Deep, & where 
we lodged near live"; and in many other places the snow 
was between two and three feet deep. 

According to the Journal, the surveyors began to meas- 
ure the line, running three miles due north from the Merri- 
mack, at a place called "The Great Bunt," near the Paw- 
tucket Falls, now in the city of Lowell. This .-pot lay on 
the west side of the mouth of Beaver Brook, and was once 
a noted fishing-ground. Formerly, before the dam was 
built, the Falls covered a longer stretch of the river than 
they do at the present time ; and a hundred and fifty years 
ago the entire course of the rapids was probably included 
under the name of Pawtucket Falls. The designation of 
"The Gl'eat Bunt" has now disappeared from the local no- 
menclature of that neighborhood, though some of its cog- 
nate forms were kept up for a long time. When the same 
line was re-surveyed in the summer of 1825, it began at a 
point called the "great pot-hole place," which was presum- 
ably the same spot under another name. "Bunt" is a 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 27 

nautical word applied to the middle part or belly of a sail, 
as well as to the sag of a net, and perhaps allied to "bent" ; 
and- it requires no great stretch of the imagination to see 
why a cavity or hole in the river was called a "l>unt." 

The boundary line between the two Provinces, as estab- 
lished by Hazen, ran straight through the wilderness, over 
hill and dale, across fields and pastures in a sparsely settled 
country, frequently cutting oiflarge slices of towns, as well 
as of farms, and sometimes bisecting them, and suddenly 
transferring the allegiance of the people from one political 
power to another. To the plain and sturdy yeomanry it 
seemed a kind of revolution, which they could not under- 
stand. In many instances they were taxed for their lands 
in adjoining towns, where previously the tax had been paid 
wholly in one town ; and much confusion was created. 
Even to-day many of the border farms overlap the boundary 
and lie in both States, and often the owners cannot say 
exactly where the line should run. A man living near the 
line once told me that he had paid taxes on the same parcel 
of land in two different towns, — one in Massachusetts and 
the other in New Hampshire. Another man living in close 
proximity to the line has told me during the present autumn 
that he could not say within several rods where the bound- 
ary came. Ordinarily, in agricultural districts, State lines 
divide the social and religious relations of a community with 
an edge nearly as clean-cut and distinct as that which sepa- 
rates the political relations. In a great measure the average 
family is more intimate with those who go to the same relig- 
ious meeting and with those who belong to the same political 
party, because there is so much in common between them. 
But this state of aifairs does not hold good to the same 
extent among the people living along the northern boundary 
of Massachusetts and the southern boundary of New Hamp- 
shire ; aud I attribute the fact largely to the continuity of 
local traditions and to the common origin of the original 
settlers of the neighborhood. 

28 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

By the new line the following Massachusetts towns be- 
tween the Merrimack River and the Connecticut, in their 
geographical order, lost portions of their territory : — • 

First, Dunstable, a large township originally containing 
128,000 acres, and lying on both sides of the river, was so 
cut in two that by far the larger part came within the limits 
of New Hampshire. Even the meeting-house and the bury- 
ing-ground were separated from that portion still remaining 
in Massachusetts, and this fact added not a little to the 
animosity felt by the inhabitants when the disputed question 
was settled. It is no exaggeration to say that throughout 
the old township the feelings and sympathies of the neigh- 
bors on both sides of the line were entirely with Massachu- 
setts. A short time before this period the town of Notting- 
ham had been incorporated by the General Court, and its 
territory was taken from Dunstable. It comprised all the 
lands of that town lying on the easterly side of the Merri- 
mack River ; and in a great measure the difficulty of attend- 
ing public worship led to the division. When the new line 
was established it affected Nottingham, like many other 
towns, most unfavorably. It divided its territory, and left a 
tract of land in Massachusetts too small for a separate town- 
ship, but by its associations and traditions belonging to 
Dunstable. This tract to-day is that part of Tyngsborough 
lying east of the river. The larger portion of the town, by 
the new line, came under the jurisdiction of New Hamp- 
shire ; but as there was another town of Nottingham in the 
eastern quarter of that Province, the name was subse- 
quently changed by an Act of Legislature, on July 5, 174(5, 
to Nottingham West; and still later, on July 1, 1830, this 
was again changed to Hudson. Counting the city of Nashua, 
there are in the State of New Hampshire at the present time 
no less than seven towns made up wholly or in part of the 
territory which was taken from Dunstable by the running 
of the line. ' 

Secondly, Groton, though suffering much less severely 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 29 

than Dunstable, lost more land than she eared to spare, ly- 
ing now mostly in Nashua, though a small portion of it — 
not mueh larger than a good-sized potato pateh — comes 
within the limits of Ilollis, near the railroad station. 

Thirdly, Townsend was deprived of more than one quar- 
ter of her territory; and the present towns of Brookline, 
Mason, and New Ipswich in New Hampshire are enjoying 
the benefit derived from it. 

Fourthly, two of the Canada townships, so called, — now 
known as Ashburnhain and Warwick and Royalston, the 
last two not at that time incorporated as separate towns, — 
shared the same fate as the other towns lying along the new 
line. Ashburnham lost a thousand acres ; and Warwick 
and Royalston, then called "Canada to lloxbury," or 
'\Roxbury Canada," a considerably larger slice of land. 

Fifthly and lastly, Northtield was deprived of a strip of 
its territory more than four miles and a half in width, run- 
ning the whole length of its northern frontier. This portion 
of the town is now included within the limits of Hinsdale 
and Winchester, New Hampshire, and of Vernon, Vermont. 

Besides these losses a tract of unappropriated land, usu- 
ally denominated Province land, was transferred to New 

On the easterly side of the Merrimack, between the river 
and the ocean, there had always been much less uncertainty 
in regard to the divisional line — as, in a general way, it 
followed the bend of the river — and therefore much less 
controversy over the jurisdiction. 

At the period when the new line was established it was 
generally thought that the question was permanently set- 
tled, but such did not prove to be the fact. Early in the 
present century, owing to the uncertainty of the line at 
that time, public attention was again called to the subject. 
It was claimed by the State of New Hampshire that, in es- 
tablishing the boundary, Ilazen had allowed too many de- 
grees for the variation of the needle, and consequently the 


30 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

line had been curried too far north, or, in other words, that 
there was a narrow gore of land lying along the northern 
boundary of Massachusetts, and coining within the limits of 
that State, which rightfully belonged to New Hampshire. 
It was further said that Governor Belcher was responsible 
for this allowance in the variation of the needle, and that he 
had given instructions to Hazen to allow this variation in 
order to circumvent the decree of the King, and to defraud 
New Hampshire. Fortunately, to refute this charge, the 
warrant given to Hazen by the Governor is still extant, and 
shows that no such directions were given ; and furthermore, 
if such directions had been given, it would have added as 
much territory on the eastern boundary of New Hampshire 
as was lost by that State on the southern boundary. 

In order to settle the disputes at this period between the 
citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and those of 
the State of New Hampshire, the Governor of Massachusetts 
was authorized by a Resolve of the General Court, on Feb- 
ruary 24, 1825, to appoint three Commissioners, who were 
empowered to meet similar Commissioners appointed on the 
part of New Hampshire; and they were jointly authorized 
to agree upon sueh principles respecting the running of the 
boundary line as to them should seem just and reasonable. 
Under this authority Lieutenant-Governor Marcus Morton, 
at that time Acting Governor, in consequence of the death 
of Governor Fust is, named on May 10, as Commissioners 
the Honorable Samuel Dana, of Groton ; David Cummings, 
Fsq., of Salem; and Ivers Jewett, Fsq., of Fitchburg ; 
and they were met by the Honorable Samuel Bell, Henry 
B. Chase, Fsq., and Samuel Dinsmore, Fsq., who had been 
named as Commissioners by the Governor of New Hamp- 
shire. Caleb Butler, Fsq., of Groton, was appointed Sur- 
veyor on the part of Massachusetts, and Fliphalet Hunt, 
Fsq., on the part of New Hampshire; and each one was 
supplied with an Assistant Surveyor. Under the manage- 
ment of these gentlemen the line was re-surveyed from the 
Atlantic Ocean to the Connecticut River, but, owing to dis- 

1890.] Northern Boundary of Massachusetts. 31 

agreements between the two Boards of Commissioners, no 
final conclusions were readied. The Report of the Massa- 
chusetts Commission was made to the Governor on January 
31, 1827, and that of the other Commission was previously 
made to the Governor of New Hampshire ; and they each 
recommended practically, though not totidem verbis, that 
the whole matter be indefinitely postponed, as no satisfac- 
tory result was likely to be reached at that period. 

Nothing further was done by either State looking to the 
settlement of this vexed question until very recent times. 
On April 25, 1883, a Resolve was passed by the General 
Court of Massachusetts, authorizing the Governor to ap- 
point a Commission for the purpose of establishing the 
boundary, line between the two States, which was to act in 
conjunction with a similar Commission to be appointed by 
the Governor of New Hampshire. The Commissioners 
were to reset and replace the monuments wherever neces- 
sary, in accordance with the lusport of the Commissioners 
of the Commonwealth made on February 28, 1827. Under 
the authority of this Resolve, the following Commissioners 
were appointed: l)e Witt Partington, Esq., of Lowell; 
Alpheus Roberts Brown, Esq., of Somerville ; and Clemens 
Herschel, Esq., of Holyoke. The tirst two members of this 
Board were duly qualified, but the third declined. From 
the want of co-operation on the part of New Hampshire no 
definite result was readied, and no Report was made to the 
General Court, as provided for in the Resolve. On June 
19, 1885, another Resolve was passed by the Legislature of 
Massachusetts, authorizing the Governor to appoint a Com- 
mission for the purpose of ascertaining and establishing the 
true jurisdictional boundary line between the two States, 
which was to act with a similar Commission to be appointed 
by the Governor of New Hampshire. This Resolve repealed 
and superseded all previous legislation on the subject; and 
a new Commission was appointed, consisting of Henry 
Carter, Esq., of Bradford ; George W. Cate, Esq., of Ames- 
bury ; and Nelson Spolford, Esq., of Haverhill. The make- 

32 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

up of this Board was soon changed by the resignation of Mr. 
Spoitbrd, who was at once appointed surveyor on the part of 
Massachusetts, and his place tilled by George Whitney, Esq., 

of lvoyalston. Soon afterward, Mr. Cate resigned, and the 
vacancy was filled by Edward B. Savage, Esq., of Haverhill. 

The Commissioners appointed on the part of New Hamp- 
shire were: the Honorable John James Bell, of Exeter; 
Nathaniel Haven Clark, Esq., of Plaistow ; and Charles H. 
Roberts, Esq., of Concord. The Chairman of the New 
Hampshire Commission is a member of this Society, and 
often honors the meetings by his presence. 

Each of these two Commissions has presented to the Leg- 
islature of its respective State two reports, which are 
models for clearness and conciseness, and show a thorough 
investigation of the whole subject ; but unfortunately they 
do not agree in regard to the disputed line. It is under- 
stood that they have reached definite and satisfactory con- 
clusions respecting the boundary between the ocean and the 
Merrimack Uiver; but between this river and the Connecti- 
cut they do not concur. So far as that portion of the line 
is concerned, the matter remains in statu quo. 

At the present time it does not seem likely that the 
boundary line between the two States, as it runs from the 
Merrimack River to the Connecticut, will ever be substan- 
tially changed ; but perhaps the day may come when it will 
be definitely marked by monuments on every road, so that 
the dwellers along the border will know exactly where it 
lies. For generations the public sentiment of the neighbor- 
hood has placed the disputed territory within the limits of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the occupants of 
the land have always claimed that State as their home. In 
their opinion they are citizens of Massachusetts, and no 
judgment based upon the decree of a king, rendered a 
hundred and fifty years ago, can dispossess them of their 
birthright. The customs and traditions, that have strained 
through a century and a half, in their case make a law on 
this point stronger than any human enactment. 


Report of the Treasurer. 



The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report of receipts and dis- 
bursements for the six months ending October 1, 1890, 

By direction of the Finance Committee there has been 
carried to each fund, from the income of the investments 
for the past six months, three per cent, on the amount of 
the several funds April 1, 1890. 

A detailed statement of the investments is given as a 
part of this report, showing the par and market value of 
the various stocks and bonds. 

The reserved "Income Fund" now amounts to $l,l&4>.40« 

The total of the investments iiid cash on hand October 1, 
1890, was $109,444.00, divided among the several funds 
as follows : 

The Librarian's and General Fund, :jp30,4K5.09 

The Collection and Research Fund, 1S,7S!).S0 

The Bookbinding Fund, 0,109.43 

The Publishing Fund 22,178.46 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund, 1,626.02 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 3,028.62 

The Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund, 1,01)2.20 

The Salisbury Building Fuud, 1 ,040.41 

The Allien Fund,. 1,233.8] 

The Tcnney Fund, 5,000.00 

The Ha veil Fund, ■> 1 ,292.45 

The George Chandler Fund, 515.32 

TheFrancis II. Dewey Fund > 2,201.01 

Premium Account, •' 070.90 

Income Account, 1,100.40 

Subscription to Stevcus's " Facsimiles" 10.35 



34 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The cash on hand, included in the following statement, 
is $911.53. 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the past six months, ending October I, 1890, is as 
follows : 


1390. April 1. Balance of cash as per last report, $8,315.38 

" Oct. 1. Received for interest to date, 3,4-ts.H) 

" Received for annual assessments, 155.00 

" Reeeh ed for life assessment (J.N. Brown,) 50.00 

" Received from sale of books and pamphlets, 175.50 

" Received puyinent on mortgage notes, 2,150.00 

" " Subscription to Stevens's "Facsimiles"... 50.00 



By salaries to October 1, 1800, $l,47.s.02 

By expense of repairs, 42.55 

By printing- " Proceedings " 3S2.2G 

Books purchased, 317.04 

For binding, 80.00 

Incidental expenses, including coal, 402.03 

For Stevens's " Facsimiles," 63.05 

For Insurance, 100.00 

Loans on Mortgage Notes, 10,500.00 


Balance in cash October 1, 1800, 011.53 


Condition of the skvkuai. Funds. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

Balance of Fund, April 1, 1800, $30,588.10 

Income to October 1, 1800, 1,187.64 

Transferred from Tonne y Fund, 150.00 

Life assessment, 50.00 


Paid for salaries, $928.02 

Incidental expenses 102.03 

For Insurance, 100.00 


Balance October 1,1800, : $30,1S5.0!) 


1890.] Report of the Treasurer. 35 

The Collection and Research Fund. 

Balance April 1, 181)0, $18,(549.58 

For books sold, 153.00 

Income to October 1 , 1890, 559.48 


Expenditure from tbe Fund for salaries and incidentals,.. 572.26 

Balance October 1, 1890, $18,789.80 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890, ... $0,394.21 

Income to October 1, 1890, 191.82 

Paid for binding, 80.00 

Balance Oetober 1, 1890, $0,199.43 

The Publishing Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890, $21,89i.l3 

Income to October 1, 1S90, 050.79 

Publications sold, 10.50 

Cost of printing " Proceedings," 382.20 

Balance October 1, 1890, $22,178.40 

The Isaac Davis '" ,ok Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890, $1,080.31 

Income to Oetober 1, 1890, 50.40 

Paid for books, 104.09 

Balance October 1, 1890, $1,020.02 

Hie Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890, $2,935.50 

Income to Oetober 1, 1890, ,.. 88.00 

Balance October 1, 1890, $3,023.02 

The Ben). F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890,..-. $1,090.27 

Income to Oetober 1, 1890, 32.70 

Paid for books, 30.(58 

Balanee October 1, 1890, $1,092.29 

36 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890, $4,562.30 

Income to October 1, 1800, 136.57 

Paid for repairs,... - 42.55 

Balance October 1, 1800, $4,040.41 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1800, $1,240.42 

Income to October 1 , 1800, 37.39 

On Account of Cataloguing 50.00 

Balance October 1, 1800, $1,233.81 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1800, $5,000.00 

Income to October 1 , 1800 150.00 

Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund, 15U.00 

Balance October 1, 1800, $5,000.00 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1890 $1,319.78 

Income to October 1, 1800, 39.58 

Paid for books, 00.01 

Balance October 1, 1800, $1,292.40 

The George Chandler Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1800 $589.98 

Income to October 1, 1890, 15. NO 

Books sold 12.00 

$557. 89 
Paid for books, 42.50 

Balance October 1, 1800, $515.32 

The Francis H. Dewey Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1800, $2,137.52 

Income to October 1, 1890 U .12 

Balance October 1, 1890, $2,201.04 

Total of the thirteen funds, $107,584.29 

Balance to the credit of Premium Account 070.90 

Balance to the credit of Income Account, 1,160.10 

Subscriptions to Stevens's "Facsimiles," 16.36 

October 1, 1S90, total, $109,114.00 

1890.] Report of the Treasurer. 37 


No. of STOCKS. Pur Market 

Shares. Value. Value. 

6 Central National Bank, Worcester $ 600.00 $ 894.00 

22 City National Bank, Worcester, 2,200.00 3,234.00 

10 Citizens National Bank, Worcester, 1,000.00 1,3.00.00 

4 Boston National Bank, 400.00 480.00 

G Fitchburg National Bank, G00.00 900.00 

5 Massachusetts National Bank, Boston, 500.00 050.00 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston 3,200.00 4,352.00 

6 National Bank of North America, Boston, GOO. 00 762.00 

5 North National Bank, Boston, 500.00 715.00 

24 Quinsigamond National Bank, Worcester, 2,400.00 2,880.00 

4G Shawmut National Bank, Boston, 4,600.00 6,026.00 

33 Webster National Bank, Boston, 3,300.00 3,498.0Q 

31 Worcester National Bank, 3,100.00 4,650.00 

Total of Bank Stock, $23,000.00 $30,201.00 

30 Northern (N. II.) K. It. Co $3,000.00 $4,200.00 

5 Worcester Gas Light Co., 500.00 750.00 


Boston & Albany It. It. Bonds, 7s., $7,000.00 $7,210.00 

Central Pacific It. It. Bonds, 6,000.00 (5,720.00 

Eastern It. It. Bonds, 1.000.00 1,240.00 

Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf It. It., -±, 100.00 5,041.00 

Chicago, Santa Fe £ California U.K., 3,000.00 2,600.00 

Quincy Water Bond.s, 6,000.00 6,000.00 

Notes secured by mortgage of real estate, 51,250.00 51 ,250.00 

Deposited in Worcester savings banks, 3,4«2.47 6,482.47 

Cash in National Bank on interest 911.53 911.53 

$109,444.00 $119,606.00 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1S90. 

ltespectfully submitted, 



The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that we have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to October 
1, 1S90, and find the same to be correct and properly vouched; that the securi- 
ties held by him are as stated, and that the balance of cash, a.s stated to 
be on hand, is satisfactorily accounted for. 



October 18, 1890. 

38 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


Six months of marked activity have passed since my last re- 
port, during which time, with the aid of the Salisbury Build- 
ing Fund, under direction of the Library Committee, better 
accommodations for our increase of treasures have been 
afforded. Early in July the lower main hall was shelved 
on the east and west sides to conform to the shelving on the 
north and south. Our large, classified collection of text- 
books which has for years been in double tiers on portable 
shelves, now occupies with the added accumulation of the past 
ten years, the newly shelved east side ol* the lower hall. 
The furnishing of such hand-books by the State has greatly 
reduced the recent receipts of this material. It is as true 
now as in April, 1852, when Mr. Haven in his library 
report said, "The school books of former days are the rep- 
resentatives of obsolete systems of education, and their 
coarse and dingy paper and blotted wood-cuts are vivid 
illustrations of the condition of the mechanic arts, and their 
progressive changes are annals replete with information to 
the student of intellectual philosophy." The transfers 
already made to the hall below have somewhat relieved the 
overcrowded condition of the north lobbies above. In 
order to increase our sense of security from danger by fire, 
it has been thought wise to place the Worcester Fire Appli- 
ance Company's chemical tire-pails in various parts of the 
building. This Society's earliest and latest administrators 
have agreed as to the necessity of making its hall as safe 
a repository for American history as circumstances will 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 39 

Since the April meeting, your librarian has been notified 
by the Smithsonian Institution that " The increasing 
demand for its annual reports and its inability to supply 
these on account of the limited number of copies furnished 
by Congress, render it necessary to economize in their dis- 
tribution and to withdraw as a rule from its lists those libra- 
ries which have been designated as Public Depositories of 
Documents and which receive at present two copies of the 
report; one through the Department of the Interior and a 
second directly from the Institution." Three facts were 
submitted in our behalf, and have been considered of suf- 
ficient force to cause the retention of our name as hereto- 
fore, namely : that the accumulations of Smithsonian dupli- 
cates for forty years, were sent last year to head-quarters for 
re-distribution ; that this Society early furnished valuable 
papers for the " Smithsonian, Contributions to Knowledge " ; 
and that aside from our regular set of government reports 
we have an alcove devoted to learned society publications in 
which a set of the Smithsonian publications is preserved. 
It may be added that our general system of ^.-distributing 
our duplicate documents of learned societies and institu- 
tions continues to work to our and doubtless to their 

The invaluable character of our early newspaper tiles has 
many times been proved since my last report, notably by 
Mr. George O. Seilhamer in the preparation of material for 
his work on the American Theatre, two volumes of which 
have already been issued from the press. 

I note for record the fact that the moulds taken by Mr. 
Edward H. Thompson from a facade of a temple at Labna, 
Yucatan, the portal of which is in our Salisbury annex, 
were on the 9th of July transferred to the Peabody Museum 
of Archaeology and Ethnology at Cambridge, where 
undoubtedly the whole facade will be reproduced as a larger 
specimen of the ancient architecture of Yucatan. 

In my report of two years since reference; was made, by 

40 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

way of illustration, to the mythical Mother Goose, her age, 
nationality and work. In connection with the renewed 
interest in the good dame created by Mr. William H. 
VVhitmore's recent issue in facsimile of our founder's 
edition of her Melody, the following paragraphs from a 
letter dated May 21, 1890, from the Bodleian Library in 
reply to Dr. Samuel P. Langley's letter to Rev. Dr. 
Edward E. Hale, November 3, 1888, — which letter was 
appended to the Librarian's remarks, — ought perhaps in 
strict justice -to appear in our Proceedings : 

"The gentleman who supposes that John Marshall, the 
publisher of Mother Goose's Melody and other children's 
books, is identical with J. M. who printed from 1 (>U(> to 
170() or later, is certainly wrong. John. Marshall was a 
contemporary and rival of JMewbery and his partner 
Carman, and published children's books during the latter 
half of the 18th century and beginning of the present. 
Our o2mo. Mother Goose's Melody has for imprint, 
London : | Printed and sold by John Marshall, No. 4 | 
Aldermary Church Yard, Bow Lane, and No. 17 | Queen- 
Street, Cheapside. | [Price Three Pence, Bound and Gilt.] 
It is undated, but 1 should put it approximately at about 
1780. The 12mo. edition has quite a modern look and is 
printed on good stout paper, which upon examination I find 
water-marked * Hooker & Son 1803 ' ! It however does not 
contain so much as the earlier edition, having only 45 cuts 
instead of 51, and Marshall had removed to 140 Fleet 
Street. The contents of the earlier 32mo. edition are 
identical with Thomas's, but some of the pieces towards 
the end are somewhat differently arranged. The cuts are 
very similar, with the addition of a frontispiece represent- 
ing a family group at lessons. There are 1)2 pp. followed 
by a list of children's books sold by John Marshall." 

Our sales and exchanges have been, as heretofore, carefully 
conducted. One of the most valuable additions to the libra- 
ry since the last report is a thirteenth century manuscript 
Biblia Sacra, which will be found in one of our exhibition 
cases by the side of similar specimens of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. It was procured by exchange with 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 41 

one of our New York correspondents, after it had passed 
the ordeal of an examination by an expert at the British 
Museum. The work, which is apparently by one person, 
is upon the finest of vellum, was probably executed in 
England, and contains a great number of initial letters with 
a beautiful rubrication of the Book of Psalms. Several 
steps were necessarily taken in the securing of this treas- 
ure, but the means were supplied, as already intimated, 
by our duplicate room, a fact which should be suggestive 
to our members and friends. 

The usual statement of the number and sources ot 
accessions follows: — gifts: three hundred and seventy-one 
books; thirty-live hundred and forty-eight pamphlets; 
eight volumes of bound and one hundred and fifty-eight 
of unbound newspapers ; two framed and seventy-five 
unframed engravings ; fifty-three confederate certificates ; 
seven photographs ; four coins ; one medal ; and one 
lithograph stone; exchanges : thirty-one books; and thirty- 
seven pamphlets ; binder y : one hundred and twenty-three 
books; and four volumes of newspapers; total: five 
hundred and twenty-five books ; thirty-five hundred and 
eighty-five pamphlets ; twelve bound and one hundred and 
sixty-one volumes of unbound newspapers, etc. 

The gifts have been received from two hundred and 
ninety-three sources, viz. : from forty-eight members, one 
hundred and thirty-eight persons not members and one 
hundred and seven societies and institutions. Special 
mention is herein made of a few of our members and 

Judge P. Emory Aldrich's gift includes the English 
Antiquary, a magazine devoted to the study of the past, 
for which he has subscribed that it may be placed upon 
our shelves. Hon. Horace Davis has added to our col- 
lection of early California directories and State documents, 
material which may be as useful to Prof. Josiah Koyce 
in the preparation of a second volume on California as 

42 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

his previous gifts of a like character were in the prepa- 
ration of the first. The valuable additions to the Davis 
Spanish- American alcove are a reminder of the Society's 
early interest in that class of literature. William Lincoln 
said in the Council Report of May 29, 183&, "At the 
earliest time when it shall he possible, there should be 
placed on the shelves Lord Kingsborough's edition of the 
work of Augustine Aglio, the folios of Frederic de Waldeck 
on the Antiquities of Mexico, the ruins of Falenque and 
the Archaeology of Central America, and those other rare 
or recent works which illustrate the history of the southern 
continent." Fourteen years later, in the Librarian's Report 
of October 24, 1853, appears the following: "Another 
most liberal donation made to the library since its removal, 
is that of Lord Kingsborough's celebrated history of 
Mexico in nine folio volumes. This costly publication was 
purchased and presented by the Hon. Isaac Davis who, on a 
suggestion of the desirableness of possessing so important a 
work, volunteered at once to procure it at his own expense. " 
Thirty-seven years later the Isaac Davis fund provided us 
not only with the Waldeck and the Catherwood but with 
other rarities, so that our gratitude is of the present as 
well as of the past. An editorial in the Library Journal 
of September, 1890, says: "In a recent volume on 
the Anthology of South America, the claim was made 
that its literature was far richer and more worthy of 
study than that of the United States." Hon. Andrew 
H. Green's first gift after the acceptance of membership 
was John Bigelow's "Life and Writings of Samuel J. Til- 
den." I hardly need add the well-known fact that Mr. 
(jreen is one of the executors of the estate, so large a 
portion of which Mr. Tilden intended to devote to the 
establishment of a free library or free libraries in the great 
metropolis. To Dr. (Jeorge H. Moore we are indebted 
not only for a copy of Moodey's rare Artillery Flection 
Sermon of lb'74, but also for aid in the sale of a volume 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 43 

of early Massachusetts Laws. Others of our members 
who have special literary interests may serve the Society 
in much the same way. It is proper to add that our dupli- 
cates are carefully classified upon our shelves and that the 
title slips are always subject to call. We have received from 
President Salisbury with other valuable material, framed 
engraved portraits of his grandfather, Stephen Salisbury, 
from the painting by Stuart, and an excellent one of 
himself, These with that of Ex-President Salisbury, all 
engraved by Stuart, have been hung in the oitiee for your 
examination. Vice-President Hoar's semi-annual gift, which 
is always large, includes important western history ; and 
volumes of the Congressional Record to complete our set. 
The gift of Henry W. Taft, Esq., of the Publications of 
the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, to which he is 
a contributor, reminds us that historical societies covering a 
valley, a county or a town, as well as those covering a whole 
State, are fast taking' root, and that our members have been 
influential in their formation. Mr. William B. Weeden has 
presented his " Economic and Social History of New Eng- 
land," of whose historic and antiquarian interest too much 
can hardly be said ; and Mr. Henry Adams, his history of the 
first term of Madison's Administration ; while the Haven 
Fund has supplied Winsor's Narrative and Critical History 
of America. Such works with their abundance of foot-notes 
are of special value to the librarian as well as to the scholars 
whom he serves. Mr. J. Fletcher Williams >us again 
drawn genealogical books from his own library that he 
might strengthen ours. The five volumes of Stevens's 
facsimiles subscribed for by our President, Vice-President 
Hoar and Councillor Davis, are now ready for your inspec- 
tion. Mr. Stevens says in his supplemental prospectus: 
" The first group of five volumes contains the 1775 Petition 
of Congress to the King, and about 560 unpublished docu- 
ments in private archives not examined by the Royal 
Commission of Historical Manuscripts. These State Papers 

44 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

are now for the first time placed at the disposal of historical 
students. They open up two important subjects, — Secret 
Intelligence and the Conciliatory Bills of 1778." We have 
a special interest in another paragraph which says : "The 
next group of live volumes will carry forward the proceed- 
ings of the Commissioners under the Conciliatory Bills 
and will probably finish the Secret Intelligence. They 
will open the important correspondence from 177(1 of the 
American Deputies in Paris, the diplomatic relations with 
the American, French, Dutch and Spanish officials and 
much commercial and political intelligence from merchants 
and private parties concerning America and American 
ali'airs. These are the principal subjects dwelt upon by 
the English agents and correspondents in the Secret Intelli- 
gence." I cannot but believe that the American Antiquarian 
Society will eventually possess the remaining volumes, how- 
ever many there may be, chiefly because they are 4t Facsimiles 
of Manuscripts in European Archives relating to America." 
Messrs. William W. Backus of Norwich, Conn., and 
Charles Gill of Montreal, P. Q., have sent us the results of 
their genealogical studies, though no portion of their work 
was done in our library. From the careful editor Dr. Charles 
J. Hoadly we have the " Colonial Kecords of Connecticut 
1775— 177(> " ; from his Honor Mayor Edward F. Johnson of 
the new city of Woburn, Mass., the " Kecords of Births, 
Deaths and Marriages from 1640 to l(>73"; and from Mr. 
Franklin P. Rice, with the continuation ot his Worcester 
Records, his excellent guide-book, modestly called a 
"Dictionary of Worcester and vicinity." Mr. Benjamin 
W. Kinney has made a second contribution to our portfolios 
of engraved heads, and with if presented the lithograph 
stone from which was produced the lithograph of his father's 
design for a monument to Ethan Allen. Jn thanking Mr. 
Francis H. Lee of Salem for a photograph of the Public 
Library building at Petersham, I take the liberty of express- 
ing a librarian's gratitude for his labor in securing for that 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 45 

hill town so charming a library home. Dr. Arthur 
McDonald of Clark University has deposited a copy of his 
M Recent Criminological Literature" as a reminder of work 
pursued somewhat at length in our library ; and Mr. Henry 
M. Wheeler and Mr. Frank S. Blanchard historical and 
biographical books of recent date, for service rendered. 
Rev. George F. Clark has added to his previous gifts of 
periodicals the Woman's Journal, 1884-1889 ; Rev. Edmund 
S. Middleton a small numismatic collection ; and Mrs. Ellen 
A. Stone numerous books and pamphlets with some twelve 
hundred numbers of newspapers selected from her carefully 
prepared manuscript lists. We have received both from the 
author Mr. James C. Pilling and from Mr. Wilberforce 
Eames, who has rendered him much valuable assistance, the 
"Bibliographic Notes" on Eliot's Indian Bible and his 
other translations in the Indian language. The aid which 
this Society has necessarily given in the preparation of this 
work is cheerfully acknowledged therein. 

At the request of Miss Caroline M. He wins, who pre- 
pared for the September meeting of the American Library 
Association an important report on gifts and bequests, a par- 
tial index to bequests and gifts, of money, land, buildings, 
books, etc., from the formation of this Society was furnished 
by the librarian. An examination of this list is instructive, 
reminding one not only of Lydia Maria Child's saying, that 
" The Past has done much for thee and has given the Future 
an order upon thee for the payment," but also of Renan's 
remark that, " We do not know how grateful we should 
be to those who take the trouble to be rich for us. " From 
a somewhat careful study of the records of Donations, 
1 feel confident that not more than one-eighth of the 
Society's treasures have been received by purchase and pos- 
sibly another eighth by exchange, leaving the remainder as 

In my report of April, 1889, bare mention was made 
of the Thomas Wallcut gift. The following facts regarding 

46 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

it are now submitted, partly because the interesting history 
of its acquisition appears in librarian C. C. Baldwin's Diary, 
but chiefly because no printed acknowledgment has ever 
been made of a collection which may safely be called second 
only to that of our founder. Mr. Baldwin's entries need 
little if any comment. He says: "eJuly 80, 1834. There 
was a meeting of the Council of the Antiquarian Society 
this evening, and I communicated to them my good fortune 
in having prevailed upon the venerable Thomas Wallcut of 
Boston to present our Library with his collection of pam- 
phlets and newspapers. The Council thereupon directed 
me to proceed to Boston, and bring his bequest to Worces- 
ter." In obedience to the foregoing order Mr. Baldwin 
took the mail stage August 1, 1834, to within thirteen miles 
of Boston at which point his diary reports "I saw r for the 
first time a railway car. What an object of wonder ! It 
appears like a thing of life. The cars came out from Boston 
with about a hundred passengers, and performed the jour- 
ney which is thirteen miles, in forty-three minutes. I can- 
not describe the strange sensations produced on seeing the 
train of cars come up. And when I started in them for Bos- 
ton, it seemed like a dream. I blessed my stars that such a 
man as Robert Fulton had lived to confer on his fellow mor- 
tals an improvement so valuable as his application of steam 
engines to driving boats, and that this had suggested the 
application of the same power to moving carriages on land." 
After this interesting digression there follows: "I called 
upon the Rev. Robert F. Wallcut, nephew of our benefactor 
Mr. Thomas Wallcut, and he agreed to show me the col- 
lection of his uncle in the morning." The following day, 
August 2, he writes: "I called upon Mr. Wallcut this 
morning, who lives in Columbia Street, and he went with 
me to India Street, where the pamphlets &c. of his uncle 
were deposited. They were in the fourth story of an oil 
store kept by C. W. Cartwright and Son. The value of 
the rarities I found soon made me forget the heat, and I 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 47 

have never seen sueh happy moments. Everything I 
opened discovered to my eyes some unexpected treasure. 
Great numbers of the productions of our early authors were 
turned up at every turn. I could hardly persuade myself 
that it was not all a dream, and I applied myself with all 
industry to packing lest capricious fortune should snatch 
something from my hands." August 3, he writes: ' k I 
arrived at four aud not finding the store open where my 
pamphlets were deposited, I wandered about the city and 
visited different book-stores. At seveu I had access to 
the garret of my oil store aud I resumed my labors with 
fresh fury. One of the first things that gladdened my eyes 
was the forty-first year of the Diary of the never-to-be-for- 
gotten Cotton Mather. It was perfect and in good condition, 
and the first page contains an account of a young lady's 
having asked him to marry her ! After several fasts and 
plenty of prayers for divine direction in such an embarrass- 
ment he wrote her a letter declining her suit." August 4, 
he says : "I finished packing my things today and helped 
load them. I cannot but think it is the most valuable col- 
lection of the early productions of New England authors 
in the country. As to the number of the pamphlets ; 
there must be ten thousand of them at least." 1 add the 
following from Mr. Haven's Library Report of April 30, 
1856 : " The most considerable donation from any one out 
of the Society is that of forty-seven volumes, that were for- 
merly a part of the library of the late Thomas Walleut. 
For this gift we are indebted to his nephew Mr. Charles J. 
Stratford of Blackstone. In this case, as usually happens 
in the distribution of libraries of long standing, we find 
books which being out of print and not easy to be 
obtained, have acquired from that circumstance a greatly 
enhanced value. Some are standard works, often referred 
to even now ; others are the productions of American 
authors in prose and verse that have become obsolete and 
are generally forgotten but which the Messrs. Duyckinck 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

who have recently published their 'Cyclopaedia of American 
Literature' would fully appreciate." 

It not infrequently happens that while giving library 
material to others, we receive needed light for our own 
guidance. During a critical examination of one of the Cotton 
Mather diaries, Mr. Barrett Wendell made an interesting 
discovery which is best stated in the following extract 
from his letter of July 10, 1890: " hi reading the Diaries 
of Cotton Mather preserved in the library of the Antiqua- 
rian Society, I came across a note of his which I think 
may be of interest to you ; and perhaps deserve a place in 
some of your published Proceedings. The matter it settles 
— the number and names of his children — is of no particu- 
lar importance, but inasmuch as even Sibley in his 
4 Harvard Graduates,' gets it wrong; and Drake in the 
genealogy printed in the Hartford edition of the Magna Ha, 
which bears the date 1855, gets it wrong too, it becomes 
interesting as a curiosity. It confirms the statement on 
pp. 13, 14 of Samuel Mather's life of his father. (Boston, 
1729)." Mr. Wendell writes again September 14, "My 
notes of the diaries of Cotton Mather enable me to send 
you, in addition to the copy of the record on the back of 
his diary for 1713, which I sent some weeks ago, the dates 
I enclose." The names and dates as received appear in 
the following table of Cotton Mather's children. 

=Abigail, horn before 105)2; died, 1092. 
Katharine, born before 1092 ; died, 1710. 
= Mary, born before 1092; died, 1093, 
= Increase, born 1093; died, 109.,. 
Abigail, born 1094 (?); died, 1721. 

(married Daniel Willard.) 
Mehetabel, born 1095 (?) ; died, 1090. 
Hannah, born 1097; survived him. 

Increase, born 1099; died, 1724. 
= Saniiiel, born 1700; died 1700. 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 4i* 

Elisabeth, born 1704 (?); died 172G. 

(married Edward Cooper.) 
Samuel, born 170(J (?) ; survived him. 
(married Hannah Hutchinson.) 
—Nathaniel, born 1707; died, 1707. 
=Jcrasha, born 1711 (?); died, 1713. 

^IMaiSa; }Wrnl713; died, 1713. 

On our diary the double hyphen indicates deceased before 
or during 1713, and the entry "of 15, dead 1>, living o," 
confirms the record as found by Mr. Wendell. At the 
end of the list is the modest statement: " Quos mild 
indignissitno Deus dedit Filii Filuvque"' 

A manuscript addition to our archives which is even 
older than that noted by Mr Wendell, is the deed of the 
" eight miles square" which originally constituted the town 
of- Leicester, now kindly presented to the Society by Miss 
Elizabeth P. Thornton. It bears the library stamp of her 
father, J. Wingatc Thornton, Esq., who was a faithful 
member of this Society from his election April 25, 1855, 
until his death June G, 1878. This " Indian Deed of the 
Township" appears in the appendix to Emory Washburn's 
History of Leicester, with occasional errors and omissions. 
It is probable that Governor Washburn did not see the origi- 
nal deed, but used the recorded copy. Whether the origi- 
nal was imperfectly recorded, or the copy inaccurately made, 
is uncertain, but it has seemed to your librarian important 
that a careful copy — possibly a facsimile — should now be 
made from the original, and printed with our Proceedings. 
I note the fact that while the spelling in the deed has been 
exactly followed in the copy herewith submitted, the old 
forms of j and s have not been used. The deed follows : 

"Know all men by this preasenc that We the Heirs of 
Oaraskaso Saichen of a place Cauled Towtaid sittuating & 
lying near the nue towne of the English cauled Wostcr 
with all others which may under them belong into the saim 
plaice Aforesaid Towtaid theas Hears being two women 
with ther Husbands nuely maried which being by name 

50 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

cauled Philip Tray with his wife Momekhue & John Warn- 
soon & Waiwaynom his wife for divers good causes & con- 
siderations us thar unto moving and more espashaly for & in 
consideration of the sum of fiften pounds curant nionye of 
Nuengland to us in hand payd by Joshoa Lamb Nathan ell 
Paige Androw Gardner Benjamin Gamblin Benjamin 
Tuker John Curtis Richard Draiper & Samwell Ruggis 
with Ralph Broadash of Roxbery in the County of Sufolke 
in Nuengland the Receipt of which we doe hearby Ac- 
knovvledg our selves toe be fully satisfyed & paid haven 
Given Granted, Bargained Sould Alinated Knfefed & Con- 
firmed, & by theas preasence doe fully freely & absolutly 
give grant Bargain sell Alinat enfef & Continue unto the 
said Lamb Paige Gardener Gamblin Tucker Curtis Draiper 
Ruggis with Bradash tinier Ileairs & Assigns a certain 
tracte of Land containing by esteamation eight miels square 
Sittuating lying & being near Woster Afore said Abutting 
Southerly upon the Lands of Joseph Dudley Esqr laitly 
[)urched of the Indians & Westerly the most Southernmost 
Corner upon a lit toll pound cauled Paupokquomcok then 
to a hill cauled Wekapekatounow & from thence to a 
litell hill cauled Mossonachues & so unto a great hill caulled 
Aspomseok <& so then Easterly apon a lien untcll it corns 
Against Woster Hounds & Joains unto ther bownds or 
howso ever otherwais butted and bownded together with all 
and singuler the Rights Commonities liberties priviledgs 
& Apertances whatsover to the saime belonging or however 
otherwies appertaining to have & to hould the said tract or 
parsell of Land Scituating Containing & bounding as Afore- 
saide to the said Lamb Paige Gardener Gamblin Tucker 
Curtis Draiper & Ruggis with Broadash their heirs & 
Assigns in common tenancye to their only proper use 
behoofe & bennetit for ever And the said Philip Tray & 
Momekhow & John Wamscoon & AVaiwainom their wives 
with all others under them as Aforesaid Doe Covenant 
prom is & grant for themselves heirs F-vceketcrs & Ad- 
menestrators to and with the said Joshoway Lamb, 
Nathanell Paige, Androw Gardener, Benjamen Gamblin, 
Benjamen Tucker, John Curtis, Richard Draiper & Samwell 
Ruggis, with Ralph Braidash their hcairs & assigns that 
they will the above Granted o* bargined lands <k everie 
part and parsell theirof with their and every parson and 
parsons whatsover claiming anye Right or title ther unto or 


Report of the Librarian. 


interest llierin from by or under us in wittness whairof the 
said Philip Tray & Moinekhue & John Wamseon with 
Waiwainoin being their wives have hearunto .set their hands 
& seal this twenty seventh Day of Janwary, Anno Dowminy 
One thousand Six hundered Eighty & Six. Signed sea lied 
and delivered in preseqc of lis 

To in Tray O his mark 

John Magu/" 

Nossowano en his mark 

Captin P John Mooqwo his mark 

And row P Pitteme his mark 

Philip Tray his mark 

Moinekhue — Tray her mark 

John Wamseon 

Wawanom X Wamseon her mark 

Mandowamag ^ the d< 

Jonas his O wives mark 
Philip Tray & Moinekhue his wife, Wawanom wife of 
John Wamseon & Wandowamog all personally appearing 
before me underwritten one of his Maj'ties Council I of the 
Territory & Dominion of New England June 1st 1087 did 
acknowledge this Instrument to be their Aet and Deed. 

William Stouohton. 

^ the l 


The history of this ancient document I have thus far been 
unable to follow. Upon the baek is written, probably late 
in the eighteenth Century, " Deed from Indians to Josh : 
Lamb &c. for Land near Worcester" and on the face is 
embossed, as already stated, " E Libris J. Wingate 

Referring to the northeast corner of the tract therein 
described, it will be noticed that the deed says, '* & so unto 
a great hill eaulled Aspomseok" which Judge Washburn 
remarks " is supposed to be the hill now called Ilasnebum- 
skit, in Paxton." The recent purchase of the crown of f his 
beautiful hill by Ex-President Hoar, is cause for heartfelt 
congratulation not only to us who have long been its lovers 
but to his associates in this Society and to the people at large 
to all of whom it is to be made easily accessible. In this con- 
nection I take the liberty of reading the following descriptive 

52 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

letter by Senator Hoar addressed to the librarian, May 19, 
1890: — 

44 1 am very much obliged to you for your enclosures as to 
the etymology of Asnebumskit or Hasnebumskit which I 
think give us a pretty good clue to the meaning of the word. 
1 believe all Indian names, certainly all in our part of the 
country, have a significance which is descriptive of the 
place to which they are applied. The to}) of Asnebumskit 
is, as you know, the highest land in Massachusetts between 
the Connecticut liiver and the sea, except Waehusett and 
Wautatuck, and is the highest point in a gentle range of hills 
sloping oil" gradually towards the north ; seeming when you 
have reached the summit from the south and look north 
like an elevated table-land or plain. The rock comes almost 
to the surface, being covered by only a thin layer of soil 
supporting a little grass and moss at the very highest 
point. About a hundred feet westward of the highest 
point, where the ilagstalf is, and a very little lower indeed 
than the base of the flagstaff is a pretty large rock standing 
up from the surface perhaps five feet and some six or 
seven feet square, quite enough to afford a good shade; for a 
person who sits down by it. Your correspondent [Dr. 
Albert S. Gatschet] says the Hasne means stone or rock. 
1 believe in one of the Indian vocabularies I have seen that 
Hassuni or Assuni is said to mean stony place. Your cor- 
respondent says that ompsk means standing or upright rock. 
I therefore think that Asnebumskit means a rock standing- 
upright in a rocky place, which is a precise description of 
the locality." 

And here let me briefly refer to an " outline of a scheme 
for facilitating the preservation and dedication to public 
enjoyment of such scenes and sites in Massachusetts as 
possess either uncommon beauty or historical interest," sub- 
mitted May 10, 1890, by a Committee of the Appalachian 
Mountain Club. Such a movement may well find favor 
among our members. The circular truly says: "There is 
no need of argument to prove that opportunities for behold- 
ing the beauty of nature are of great importance to the 
health and happiness of crowded populations. As respects 
lar«»e masses of the population of Massachusetts, the oppor- 

Rey* f >f the Librarian 

tanities are rapidly vanishing. Many remarkable natural 
scenes near Boston bare been despoiled of their beauty 
during the last few years. Similar spots near other cities 
of the Commonirealth bare like wise suffered* Throughout 
:iich future generations of towns-people 
would certainly prize for their refreshing power are today 
in danger of destruction. Unless some steps towards their 
effect ua. can lie taken quickly, the beauty of 

will hare disappeared, the opportunity lor 
generous action will hare passed. Scattered throughout 
the State are other places made interesting and raJoabJe 
historical or literary associations ; and many of these are 
also m danger*. * The conference called tor treular 

from which I hare quoted, was held in Boston, May - 

■■'), at w: was ex* t comn. 

promote the preserration of beautiful and historical sites in 
Massachusetts," of which committee three notable ramc* are 
those of memo- - m. Fan 

Henry M. I md J 

I need not remind you of their peculiar 
nes- me mission to tie undertaken. A circular just 

issued by this cmnsnittmi Haiti very succinctly two funda- 
mental facts, viz. : iterest of the Common- 
wealth to-}.: tor the enjoyment of her people and 
their guests, all the finest scenes of natural beauty and all 
places Maries] interest. Pi vnersfaip of 
such scenes and places now preraife, so that not only is the 
public completely tarred out from many especially refir^ 

■ iind interesting spots but these valuable places are often 
robbed of their beauty or interest for some small pri- 

The necessity for national or State protection— po^ 
purchase — of the few remaining ruins -ight y« 

war and the wars which preceded h, should be strut . 
emphasized. I was impressed with the value and import- 

54 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ance of such memorials, during a recent drive through 
portions of Vermont and New York which contain notable 
examples. The noble monuments at Bennington and Sara- 
toga, are permanent investments of a high order, but they 
should not blind our eyes to the fact that even more im- 
pressive lessons can he learned at Crown Point and Ticon- 
deroga where no modern monuments exist. These were 
purchased with our wealth, while those were won by the 
blood and treasure of the revolutionary and pre-revolution- 
ary fathers. A greater number of both classes of mon- 
umental reminders may well be cared for by our liberty- 
loving people. As a national society we may do something 
in the way of suggested endeavor ; the American Historical 
Association can add its strong and extended influence; the 
venerable Society of the Cincinnati tan do even more ; and 
the young and vigorous Society of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion perhaps the most of all. That the last two named 
have National and State associations would seem to help 
rather than to hinder such an effort, for both National and 
State pride may well be enlisted in such an effort as that 
to which your attention is called. Mr. W. Morton Kullerton 
in his article on "English and Americans," in The Fort- 
nightly Review tor May, 1890, says: ''Fort Ticonderoga 
still stands the most imposing military ruin in America." 
This may be true, but if true how long will it remain so? It 
is still the private property of a worthy New York family 
whose sign-board requests visitors not to deface or mutilate. 
At Crown Point, twenty miles north, is another and in 
some respects a more impressive ruin around which gathers 
not a little of American history. This is better protected, 
in part because not so easy of access, but this is also private 
property. 1 am convinced by personal observation that 
there remain children of the Revolutionary patriots whose 
anecdotes and incidents, related by them as received from 
their fathers, should not be allowed to perish. Mr. Rufus A. 
G rider of Canajoharie, N. Y., has been assisted in his 

1890.] Report of Oiq Librarian. 55 

unique effort to preserve representations by colored draw- 
ings of what remain of the powder horns used in the early 
American wars. While at first sight this appears to he 
a peculiarly useless work a glance at some of the contem- 
porary historical, biographical and geographical records 
on them call forth a more favorable judgment. A sam- 
ple inscription taken from one of our collection is here- 
with given : 

"AXBX July 2d 1758. 
"Hezekiah Ford his horn, July 8, 1758, Ticonderogue 
fight began at ten A. M. and ended at live aclock & their 
was killed & wounded (obscure) 2884." Bancroft gives the 
English loss as 19G7. 

I desire to call your attention to the manner in which our 
annual meeting w 7 as conducted seventy-five years ago. 
The handbill distributed on that occasion in King's Chapel, 
Boston, follows : — 





/. " Wepraise thee, O God". ...By a select choir : Organ by Dr. Jackson. 
//. PRAYER. 

///. HYMN. " Before Jehovah's awful throne ." (Denmark.) 

V. HYMN. "O Thou, the first, the greatest friend." (Colchester new.) 


VII. HYMN. " To thee! great Sovereign of the shies." (Old Hundred. ) 


liKKOHK Jehovah's awful throne, 

Ye nations bow, with sacred joy; 
Know that the Lord is God alone, 

He can create, and he destroy. 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 55 

unique effort to preserve representations by colored draw- 
ings of what remain of the powder horns used in the early 
American wars. While at first sight this appears to he 
a peculiarly useless work a glance at some of the contem- 
porary historical, biographical and geographical records 
on them call forth a more favorable judgment. A sam- 
ple inscription taken from one of our collection is here- 
with given : 

"AXBX July 2d 1758. 
"Hezekiah Ford his horn, July 8, 1758, Ticonderogue 
fight began at ten A. M. and ended at five aclock & their 
was killed & wounded (obscure) 2884." Bancroft gives the 
English loss as 1967. 

I desire to call your attention to the manner in which our 
annual meeting was conducted seventy-five years ago. 
The handbill distributed on that occasion in King's Chapel, 
Boston, follows : — 





/. " We praise thee, O GW'....By a select choir : Organ by Dr. Jackson. 

//. PRAYER. 

III. HYMN. "Before Jehovah 's awful throm." (Denmark.) 


V. H YMN. « ' O Thou , the first, the greatest friend. " (Colchester new. ) 


VII. HYMN. " To thee! great Sovereign of the skies." (Old Hundred.) 


BekOUK Jehovah's awful throne, 

Ye nations bow, with sacred joy ; 
Know that the Lord is (Jod alone, 

He can create, and he destroy. 

V American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Ili.s sovereign power, without our aid, 

Made us of clay, and formM us men ; 
And when like wandering sheep we stray'd, 

lie brought us to his fold again. 

We'll crowd thy gates with thankful songs, 

High as the heaven our voices raise; 
And earth with her ten thousand tongues, 

•Shall till thy courts with sounding praise. 

Wide as the world is thy eonnnand; 

Vast as eternity thy love; 
Finn as a rock thy truth .shall si and, 

When rolling years shall cease to move. 

O Thou the first, the greatest friend, 

Of all the human race! 
Whose strong right hand has ever been 

Their stay and dwelling place ! 

Before the mountains heav'd their heads 

Beneath thy forming hand; 
Before this pond'rous globe itself 

Arose at thy command; 

That pow'r which rais'd, and still uphold.' 

This universal frame, 
From countless, uubeginuing time;, 

Was ever still the same. 

Those mighty periods of years, 

Which seem to us so vast, 
Appear no more before thy night 

Than yesterday that's past. 

To Thee! Great Sov'reigu of the skio, 
Tins day our grateful notes resound; 

From ev'ry heart shall incense rise, 
And praise throughout our land be found. 

New Empires never rise by chance,— 

No veering gales dominion blow, 
A Sov'reign power doth states advance, 

And lay oppressive kingdoms low. 

Led by thut power, th' advent'rous band 
The trackless " waste of waves " explor'd ; - 

That power upheld the warrior's hand 
Which drew for right the conq'r'ing sword. 

Then high the pealing organ swell,— 
From every tongue let praises rise;— 

Loud let the choral anthems tell 
TiIY POW'it, Great Sovereign of the skies 1 

1890.] Report of the Librarian. 57 

The following paragraphs will show the spirit which ani- 
mated the orator on that occasion, as well as remind us of 
the good intentions of the founders of the Society : 

"As the descendants of the Pilgrims we meet with pecul- 
iar propriety in this house dedicated to the, worship of God. 
The solemn prayers in which we have joined and the im- 
pressive lessons read from the Ihble, are calculated to 
establish on our minds a sense of our religious duties, which 
will not I trust be easily obliterated. * * * The pres- 
ent state of the Institution may satisfy its members that it is 
permanently established, that it is destined to be useful, and 
have the countenance of the genuine lovers of history and 
literature. * * * j wish ft to be distinctly under- 
stood that the American Antiquarian Society is founded on 
the most liberal principles, is of no sect or party, has no 
local views. It embraces the continent. It solicits and 
would gratefully receive communications from every part 
of the world, which have a tendency to elucidate the events 
of past ages or excite a spirit of research for information 
which would be conducive to the happiness of the present 
or subsequent age. It is to be wished that every member 
of this Society would endeavour by the most active exer- 
tions to add something to the common stock of antiquarian 

Time has not weakened the force or the truth of these 

In closing I cannot forbear a word of affectionate greeting 
to our distinguished senior Vice-President — first also on our 
list of associates — the Honorable George Bancroft, D.C.L., 1 
whose ninetieth birthday occurred on the third instant. 

Respectfully submitted. 



i Died January 17, 1891. 

58 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ffitbers anli ffiift* 


Adams, IIenky, Esq., Washington, 1). C.— Ilia "History of the United States 
of America during the First Administration of James Madison." 

Adams, HERBERT B., Ph.D., Baltimore, Md.— One pamphlet. 

ALDiacu, Hon. I*. Emoky, Worcester.— "Dedication of the Woods Memorial 
Library Building at Barre, Mass., J)ecemher 30, 1SS7," containing the dedi- 
catory address of Judge Aldrieh; eight hooks; forty-three pamphlets; three 
tiles of newspapers; and The English "Antiquary." from April, lsoo. 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.— Two periodicals, in continuation; 
and ten pamphlets. 

Barton, Wm. Sumner, Esq., Worcester.— Twenty-four pamphlets. 

Beddoe, John, M.I),, Bristol, Eng.— His Address at the Anniversary Meet- 
ing of the Anthropological institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

BROCK, Mr. ROBERT A., Kichmond, Va.— One newspaper. 

Chandler, Geoeok, M.I)., Worcester.— Ten selected pamphlets. 

Chase, A., Est/., Worcester.— Four hooks; sixty-three pamphlets; 
two lithographs; fifty-three Confederate States of America Certificates ; and 
miscellaneous newspapers. 

Clarke, Mr. Rorert, Cincinnati, Ohio. — V;m Buren's "Abraham Lincoln's 
Pen and Voice"; Thruslon's "Antiquities of Tennessee and Adjacent 
States"; Cutler's "Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler"; and Butterlield's 
"History of the Girtys." 

Coltom, Mr. REUBEN, Worcester. — Fifteen selected pamphlets. 

Davis, Mr. Andrew McF., Cambridge. — His "Indian College at Cambridge." 

Davis, Hon. Edward L. , Worcester . — Three hooks; and fifty-four pamphlets. 

Davis, Hon. HORACE, San Francisco, Cal.— Eighteen California Directories; 
eight pamphlets; and one war handbill. 

DEVENS, General CHARLES, Boston.— His "Address upon the Celebration of 
the 25th Anniversary of the Founding of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States." 

Dexter, Prof. Kranklin B., New Haven, Conn.— President Dwight's Trib- 
ute to Ex-President Woolsey; and the "Ohituary Record" r* Yale. 

Edes, Mr. Henry IL, Boston.— Two hooks; sixty-one pamphlets; and mis- 
cellaneous newspapers. 

Gilman, Daniel C, LL.D., Baltimore, Md.— Report of the Trustees of the 
John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen, lS'JO. 

1890.] Givers and Gifts. 59 

Gkkkn, Hon. Andrew II., Now York,— Bige low's "Ljfc and Writings of 
Samuel J. Tilden," iu two volumes. 

Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston.— Three of his own publications; six books; 

two hundred and forty-three pamphlets; and one bro idside. 
Green, Mr. Samuel S., Librarian, Worcester,— Ilia report as librarian, 1885). 

Greene, J. Evarts, Esq., Worcester.— Twenty-one selected pamphlets; and 
two views. 

Hale, Bev. Edward E., D.I)., Boston.— Fifteen year Books of the Unita- 
rian Congregational Churches. 

Hall, Bev. Edward IE, Cambridge.— His u Indignity to our Citizen Soldier." 

Harden, William, Esq., Savannah, Ga.— One pamphlet. 

Hitchcock, Prof. Edward, Amherst.— Obituary Record of Graduates of 
Amherst College, for the year 1800. 

Hoar, Hon. GEORGE F., Worcester.— His speech in the United States Senate, 
August 20, 1800: sixty-four books; six hundred and sixty-eight pamphlets; 
two photographs; and one medal. 

Hunnewell, Mr. James E., Churlcstowii.— His ''Illustrated Americana, 

Huntington, Bev. William B., D.D., New York, N. Y,— Four selected 

Jones, Hon. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, Ga.— His address before the Confed- 
erate Survivors' Association, April 20, 1800. 

Jones, Hon. Horatio G., Philadelphia, Pa 1 .— His "History of the Boxbor- 
ough Baptist Church of Philadelphia"; Levick's "Early History of Merion, 
and an old Welsh Pedigree." 

Mason, Edward G., Esq., Editor, Chicago, 111.— "Early Chicago and Illinois." 

Moore, George If., LL.l)., New York.— Moodey's Artillery Election Ser- 
mon, June 1, 1071. 

Nelson, Hon. Thomas L., Worcester.— "Proceedings of the Worcester 
County Bar concerning Harry Levcrett Nelson, who died August 10, ISSO"; 
and twenty-four selected pamphlets. 

Paine, Ilev. George S., Worcester .— The "Spirit of Missions," in continua- 
tion; and three pamphlets. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester. — One hundred ami seventy-eight pam- 
phlets; and three liles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Peet, STEPHEN 1)., Ph.D., Mendon, HI.— His "American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal," as issued. 

Perry, Bight Bev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Iowa.— His Episcopal 
Address, 1890; and the "Iowa Churchman," in continuation. 

Porter, Kev. Edward G., Lexington.— Two historical broadsides. 

BlCE, Hou. WILLIAM W., Worcester.— Thirteen volumes of United States 
Public Documents. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Esq., Worcester.— Framed portraits of President 
Stephen Salisbury and of Stephen Salisbury, his grandfather; one hundred 
and three pamphlets; and live liles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, Ohio.— Five State documents of Ohio; and 
sixteen pamphlets. 

60 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Tapt, Henry W., Esq., Pittsfield.— "Publications of the Pocuintuck Valley 
Memorial Association." Volume I., containing an address by Mr. Taft. 

Washburn, J Ion. John 1)., Worcester.— The "Weekly Underwriter," in eon- 
tin nation. 

Weeden, Mr. William IL, Providence, B. I.— His "Economic and Social 
History of New England, 16*20-1189," in two volumes. 

Williams, Mr. J. Fletcher, St. Paul, Minn.— The "Genealogies Morgan 
and Glanmorgan." 

Winsor, Justin, LL.D., Librarian, Cambridge.— The Quinquennial Catalogue 

of the Officers and Graduates of Harvard University, KJ3G-1890. 
WiNTiiuor, lion. Hubert C., Boston.— One pamphlet. 

from persons not members. 

Backus, Mr. William W., Norwich, Conn.— His "Genealogical Memoir of 
the Backus Family." 

Baker, Mr. George H., Librarian, New York, N. Y.— Catalogue of books 
etc., of the Huguenot Society of America deposited in the Library of 
Columbia College. 

Bangs, Mr. Edward, Editor^ Boston.— "Journal of Lieut. Isaac Bangs, April 
1, to July 29, 1770." 

Barton, Mr. FRANCIS A., San Francisco, Cal.— Numbers of California news- 

Benjamin, Mr Walter B., New York.— Numbers of his "Collector." 

Blacker, Mr. Beaver IL, Editor, London, Eng.- -"Gloucestershire Notes 
and Queries," for July, 1890; 

Blanchard, Frank S. and Company:, Messrs., Worcester.— Ellery's "Me- 
moirs of Gen. Joseph G. Swift and Genealogy of the family of Thomas 
Swift"; four pamphlets; and their "Practical Mechanic" as issued. 

Boutwell, Mr. Francis M., Groton.— His "People and their Homes in 
Groton, Mass., in Olden Time." 

Bryant, II. Winslow, Esq., Portland, Me.— One newspaper. 

Bullard, Bev. Henry, D.D., St. Joseph, Mo.— Si.v selected pamphlets. 

Bullard, Miss Louisa 1)., Cambridgeport.— "Sketch of the Life of William 
Keed Bullard, M.D." 

BURGESS, Bev. Francis G., Worcester.— "Life and Letters of Samuel Wells 
Williams, LL.D."; one book; five pamphlets; and the "Spirit of Missions," 
in continuation. 

Burleigh, Mr. Charles IL, Worcester— Eight pamphlets; and twenty-six 

Burrage, Mr. William C, Boston.— His paper on the Life of Governor 

Carpenter, Bev. Charles C, Andover.— Ha/en's "N. -ology of Andover 
Theological Seminary, 1889-1390." 

Chalmers, Mr. Patrick, Wimbledon, Eug.— Circulars relating to the Ad- 
hesive Postage Stamp. 


Givers and Gifts. 


Chapin, Mr. Walter IL, Secretary, Springfield.— "Second Musical Festival 
of the Hampden County Musical Association." 

Ciiaravay, M. Eugene, Paris, France. — Two Pamphlets. 

Cheever, gey, Henry T., Worcester.— His ''Correspondencies of Faith and 
Views of Madame Guyon." 

Cheney, MiVGustavls A., "Boston.— One newspaper. 

Chickering, Prof. Joseph lv., Amherst.— Fifty pamphlets; with various 
newspapers and circulars. 

Clark, Rev. George F., lluhhardston.— A Greek Testament; and six vol- 
umes of the Woman's Journal, 1881-89. 

Cleaves, Mr. Converse, Germantown, Pa.— "Some remarkable passages in 
the life of Dr. George de Bonneville." 

COOK, Mr. Henky II., Barre.— His "Gazette," as issued. 

Currier, J. M., M.D., Rutland, Vt.— Proceedings of the Rutland Historical 
Society for 188.5. 

Dalry, Mr. Henry, Montreal, P. Q.— His "Index of Current Events," lor 
June, 1890. 

Darling, General Charles W., Utica, N. Y.— Three historical pamphlets. 

Davidson, Mr. Henry E., Boston.— One pamphlet. 

Dodd, Mkad and Company, Messrs., New York.— Their "New Publications," 
as issued. 

Dodge, Miss Florence M., Editor, Worcester.— "Class Book of the twenty- 
sixth Class of the State Normal School at Worcester." 

Dodgk, Mr, JAMBS H., Auditor, Boston.- His Annual Report, 1890. 

Doe, Charles H. and Company, Messrs., Worcester.— Their Daily and 
Weekly (iazette, as issued. 

Duren, Mr. Elnathan F., Secretary, Bangor, Me.— Mmutes of the Maine 
Congregational Conference for 1890. 

Dwight, Timothy, LL.D., New Haven, Conn.— His report as President of 
Yale University, 188!). 

Eames, Mr. Wilrekforce, New York.— " Bibliographic Notes on Eliot's In- 
dian Bible," etc. 

Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— Thirty-one pamphlets; and three peri- 
odicals, in continuation. 

Eaton, Mr. Daniel C, London, Eng. -Rules, Report, and List of Members 
of the Ilarleian Society, 1800. 

Eliot, Mr. Charles, Secretary, Boston.— Circulars relating to the "Preser- 
vation of Beautiful ami Historical Places in Massachusetts." 

Estarrook, JAMES JO., Esq., Worcester.— Year-Book of the Worcester Post- 

FEARING, Mr. Andrew C, Secretary, Boston.— Proceedings of the Bunker 
Hill Monument Association, 1889, 1800. 

Ferris Brothers, Messrs., Philadelphia, Pa.— Numbers of their '-American 

Fiske, Mr. Edward It., Worcester.— His "Library Record," as issucu. 

62 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Fitts, Rev. James II., Exeter, N. II.— His Historical Address at the Re- 
dedication of the Brick Meeting-house, West Boylston, Mass. 

Foote, Mrs. Henry W., Boston.— "Heiiry Wilder Foote: Memorial Ser- 
vices in King's Chapel, June 9, lBSU-December 15, 1880." 

Fuller, Mr. J. Morkison, Boston.— Four numbers of his "Today." 

Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York.— Their "Voice," as issued. 

Gaulon, M., Paris, France.— Three pamphlets. 

Gill, Mr. Charles, Montreal, 1\ Q.— His "Notes Hisforiques sur I'origine de 
la Famille Gill." 

GODDARD, Mr. Lucius I'., Worcester.— Twenty-eight pamphlets; and files 

of three newspapers. 
Green, Mr. Martin, Worcester.— One newspaper of early date. 
Grfoson, Rev. John, YVilkinsonville.— One silk badge. 
Grider, Mr. Ituius A., Canajoharic, N. Y.— One broadside. 
Hall, Mr. Franklin, Bristol, Fng.— "The New World Book List." 
HaWES, Miss Zilla, Holden.— A copper coin of 1S1G. 

Ha/kn, licv. Henry A., Boston.— The Congregational Year-Book for JSOO. 
Hkdgk, Mr. Frederick II., Jr., Librarian, Lawrence.— Eighteenth An- 
nual Report of the Lawrence Free Public Library. 
Hkgkler, Kdwakd C. Lsq., Chicago, III.— His "Protest against the Supreme 

Court of Illinois in the case of Hegeler vs. the First National Bank of Pern." 
IIeinkmann. Mr. William, London, Lug.— Numbers of his "Book Finder." 
ilOAULV, Charles J., LL.D., Editor. Hartford., Conn.— "Colonial Records 

of Connecticut, 1770-1776." 
IIOKTON, Messrs. Nathaniel and Son, Salem.— Their "Gazette," as issued. 
IIosmkr, Hon. George S., Detroit, Mich.— Judge Brown's "Character and 

Services of James Valentine Campbell." 
Houghton, Mifflin and COMPANY, Messrs., Boston.— Their "Literary 

Bulletin," as issued. 
How land, Mr. HENRY J., Worcester.— Two pamphlets. 
Ingkusoll, Mr. Edward, Philadelphia, Pa.— "Recollections historical, 

political, biographical and social of Charles J. Inger.-oll," Vol. I. 
Johnson, Hon. Ldward P., Compiler, Woburn.— "Woburn Records of 

Births, Deaths and Marriages from 1810 to 1*7.V Part 1. 
Johnson, Miss Ida W., Worcester.— "Littell's Living Age," Nov. 7. 1885- 

October 30, LSSG. 
Jonks, Rev. Henry L., Wilkes Barre, Pa.— His Memorial-Day Address, 

1N90; and the "Parish Guest." as issued. 
KELLOGG, J. IP, M.D., Battle Creek, Mich. -His "Good Health," as issued. 
KELLOGG and Stkatton, Messrs., Fitehburg.—Tlipir "Sentinel," as issued. 
KiMl'TOX, Mr. Henry, London. Eng.— His "Book-Finder," as issued. 
King, Gen. Horatio C, Secretary, New York.— "Twenty-first Annual Be- 

union of the Society of the Army of the Potomac, Portland, Me., 1890." 
Kinney, Mr. Bfn.jamin W., Worcester.— Four portraits; and one lithograph 


1890.] Givers and Gifts. (53 

Lancaster, Mr. George Y., Worcester.— Five bound and nine unbound 
volumes of newspapers ; .seventeen pamphlets; one map; and one engraving. 

Lawton; CHRISTOPHER P., D.D.S., Worcester.— Humphrey's Life of Gen- 
eral Israel Putnam. 

Lee, Mr. Francis 1L, Salem, Mass. —Photograph of the Public Library 
Building at Petersham, Mass. 

Lewis, Mr. T. IL, St. Paul, Minn. — Five of his own publications. 

Lindsley, Mr. J. Berrien, Secretary, Nashville, Tenn. — The State Board 
of Health Bulletin, Sept. 20, 1890. 

Logan, Mr. David, Leicester.— Forbes and Greene's "Iiieh Men of Massa- 

Longmans, Green and Company, Messrs., New York.— Their "Notes on 

May, Rev. Samuel, Leicester.— Ninety-three pamphlets; one broadside; and 

miscellaneous newspapers. 
McDonald. Arthur, Ph.D., Worcester.— His "Recent Criminological 


Melciier, Hon. Holman S.. Portland, Me.— His Speech at the Reception of 
the Society of the Army of the Potomac, July 3, IS'JO; and three pamphlets. 

Metcalf, Mr. Caleb B., Worcester.— Thirty-four numbers of magazines; 
fifty-one pamphlets; and the "Christian Union," in continuation. 

Middleton, liev. Edward S., Worcester.— His Poem on the Hudson River; 
three silver and copper coins of early date; and forty engraved heads. 

Moody, Miss M. Elizabeth, Worcester.— Four selected pamphlets. 

MONTGOMERY, Mr. James M., Secretary, New York. — "Constitution, By- 
Laws and Membership of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution." 

Neill, Mr. Fdward D., St. Paul, Minn.— His "Macalester College Contribu- 

NoiiLE, John, Esq., Boston.— His ''Catalogue of Records and Files in the 
Ollice of the Clerk of the Supreme Judicial Court of Suffolk County, Mass." 

Pasko, Mr. W. W., Editor, New York.— His "Old New York," as issued. 

Peauody, Charles A., M.D., Worcester.- -Nineteenth Annual Report of the 
Trustees of the City Hospital of Worcester. 

Pilling, Mr. Jamics C, Washington, D. C— His "Bibliographic Notes on 
Eliot's Indian Bible and his other translations in the Indian Language." 

Pollard, WILLIAM and Company, Messrs., Exeter, Eng. -Numbers of 
their "Notes and Gleanings.'' 

Poole, Mr. Reubkn B., Librarian, New York.— His annual report of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, 1S90. 

Raithhy, Lawrence and Company, Messrs., Leicester, Eng.— Their "Brit- 
ish Bookmaker," as issued. 

Reinwald, M. C, Paris, France.— His Magazine, as issued. 

Rice, Mr. Franklin P., Worcester.- Ilis "Dictionary of Worcester and 
Vicinity"; and his "Worcester District in Congress, 17S1) to 187.')." second 

64 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Rich, Mr. MARSHALL N., Editor, Portland, Me.— The "Board of Trade 

Journal," as issued. 
RiDEK, Mr. Sidnev S.| Providence, R. 1.— Numbers of his "Book Notes." 
Kiordan, Mr. John J., Editor, Worcester.— "St. Anne's Advocate," Vol. VI. 
Robinson, Miss Mary, Worcester.— Four periodicals, in continuation. 
ROE, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— His "Sketch of the Life and Services of 

Austin Carry Field"; "Harper's Bazar," in continuation; and a bound tile 

of the "Worcester Methodist," containing articles by Mr. Roe. 
ROGERS, Charles I), and COMPANY, Messrs., Minneapolis, Minn.— Numbers 

of tjieir "Literary Light." 

ROY, Mr. J. ARTHUR, Editor, Worcester.— "Le Worcester Cauadien," four 

Rumery, Mrs. L. IL, Hartford, Conn.— Fox's "Book of Martyrs." 
Russell, Mr. E. Harlow, Principal, Worcester.— Catalogue of the Massa- 
chusetts State Normal School at Worcester, 1890. 
ROSS ELL, Mr. GURDON W., Hartford, Conn.— His "Up Neck in 1825." 
Sears, Philip II. , Esq., Boston.— "Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of 
the Founding of Old Yarmouth, Mass.," containing Mr. Scare's oration. 

Shaw, Mr. Joseph A., Worcester.— The Highland Military Academy Regis- 
ter, 1890. 

Skillin, Mrs. Samuel, North Yarmouth, Me.- Robinson's "History of Bap- 
tism." -London, 4to, 1790. 

Smiley, Mr. C. W., Washington, I). C— His "Microscopical Journal," as 

Smith, Edward P., Ph.D., Worcester.— Forty-four books; three hundred 
and one pamphlets; and ten volumes of Harper's Weekly, 1878-1887. 

Soldan, Mr. F. J., Librarian, Peoria, 111.— Rules and By-laws of the Peoria 

Public Library. 
Sou lb, Nicholas E., M.D., Worcester.— Two books; and four pamphlets. 
Spraoue, Henry IL, Esq., Boston.— His "City Government in Boston." 

STAPLES, Rev. CARLTON A., Lexington.— His "Two Old Time Ministers of 
Lexingt"n"; and his "In Memoriam, Rev. Adin Ballon." 

Staples, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— The "Dedham Standard," in continua- 
tion ; and a poem by Mr. Staples. 
Stearns, Miss Carrie A., Worcester.— One newspaper. 

Stkinick, Hon. Lewis IL, Librarian, Baltimore, Md.— Finding List of 
Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1890. 

Stonk, Mrs. Ellen A., East Lexington.— Nine books; twenty-four pam- 
phlets; and twelve hundred numbers of early newspapers. 

Tenney, Mrs. E. P., and Mr. II. A., New York. — Forty-four books; one hun- 
dred and forty-four pamphlets; six sheets of music; and two photographs. 

Thorn ton, Miss ELIZABETH P., Boston.— Original Indian deed of the town- 
ship of Leicester, Mass. 

Tilley, Mr. R. IL, Editor, Newport, R. I.— Numbers of his "New England 
Notes and Queries." 


Givers and Gifts. 


Trumble, Mr. Alfred, New York.— His "Collector," as issued. 
Turnkr, Mr. John II., Aver.— His "Groton Landmark," as issued. 
Vkrduzo, Sen. Ignacio Ojeda, Morelia.— His "Gazeta Oficial," as issued. 
Vinal, Rev. ClIARLES C, Kennebuuk, Me.— One newspaper. 
Vinton, Rev. ALEXANDER II., D.D., Worcester.— "The Parish," as issued. 

Walker, Hon. .Joseph II., Worcester.— Two of his congressional speeches ; 
and the oflicial Congressional Directory. 

Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company.— "Electrical Memo- 
randa for 1S90." 
Waterhousk, Prof. S., St. Louis, Mo.— Two of his recent brochures. 
Watson, Mr. Stephen M., Portland, Me.— Three pamphlets. 

Webb, Dr. William S., New York.— Publications of the National Society of 
the Sons of the American Revolution. 

Wheeler, Mr. Henry M., Worcester.— Hobart's History of the Town 
of Abington, 18(16. 

Whitmore, William H., Esq., Boston.— " The Original Mother Goose's 

. Melody, as first issued by John Newbery, of London, about A. I). 1700. 
Reproduced in facsimile from the edition as reprinted by Isaiah Thomas, of 
Worcester, Mass., about A. D. 1785. With introductory notes by William 
H. Whitmore." 

Wilson, Mr., Louis N., Clerk, Worcester.— ''Register and Second official 
Announcement of Clark University." 

Wolcott, Rev. P. C, Secretary, Davenport, la.— Journal of the Conven- 
tion of the Diocese of Iowa, 18'JO. 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their publications, 

as issued. 
Albany Publishing Company.— "Regimental Losses in the American Civil 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences.— Their publications, as 

American Baptist Missionary Union.— Their magazine, as issued. 
American Geographical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Historical Association.— Goode's "Origin of the National 

Scientific and Educational Institutions of the United States." 
American Library Association.— One pamphlet. 
American Oriental Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Philosophical Society.— Their Proceedings, us issued. 
American Seamen's Eriend Society.— Their "Sailor's Magazine," as 

American Statistical Association.— Their publications, as issued. 
Boston Board of Health.— Their reports, as issued. 
Boston City Hospital, Trustees of.— Twenty-sixth Annual Report. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Boston Public Library.— Report of the Trustees, 1890; and the "Bulletin," 
as issued. 

Bostonian Society.— Their Proceedings, January 11, 1800. 
Brooklyn Library.— The Thirty-second Annual Report. 
Buffalo Historical Society.— Their Twenty-eighth Annual Report, 
Buffalo Library.— The Fifty-fourth Annual Report. 

Cambridge (Eng.) Antiquarian Society.— The "Diary of Samuel Newton 
(1022-1717)"; and List of Members, 1800. 

Canada, Dominion of.— Band's "Dictionary of the Language of the Miemac 

Canadian Institute.— The Proceedings, as issued. 
Chicago Public Library.— The Eighteenth Annual Beport. 
City Library Association of Springfield.— The Annual Beport, 1800. 
Civil Service Reform Association of Boston and Cambridge.— Their 
"Record," as issued. 

Columbia College.— Their publications, as issued. 

Connecticut Historical Society.— Two pamphlets. 

Current Literature Publishing Company.— Their "Current Literature" 
for July, 1890. 

Dedham Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Essex Institute.— Their publications, as issued. 

Franklin Institute.— One pamphlet. 

Geological and Historical Survey of Canada.— Their publications, as 

Georgia School of Technology.— Two Annual Catalogues. 

Harvard University.- University publications, as issued. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania.— Their Magazine of History and 
Biography, as issued; and "The Charlemagne Tower Collection of Colonial 

International Tract and Missionary Society.— Their "Signs of the 
Times," as issued. 

Iowa Historical Society.— Their "Historical Record," as issued. 

JonNS Hopkins University.— Their publications, as issued. 

Kansas City Academy of Sciences.— Numbers of their "Naturalist." 

Kansas State Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Los Angeles Public Library.— Report for the year 1889. 

Maine Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Maryland Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of.— Two State documents. 

Massachusetts General Hospital, Trustees of the.— The Seventy- 
sixth Annual Beport. 

Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.— Their 
Proceedings, as issued. 

Massachusetts Historical Society.— Their Proceedings, 1889-1890. 


Givers and Gifts. 


Massachusetts Medical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Massachusetts State Board of Health.— Their publications, as issued. 
Messenger, Editor of the.— Sis paper, as issued. 
Mexico, Republic OF.— "Estadistiea General de la Republica Mexieana." 
Minneapolis Public Library.— Seven of their publications. 
Minnesota Historical Society.— Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 
1861-65. , 

Moskley's Sons, David B., Hartford, Conn.— Their "Religious Herald," 

as issued. 
Museo Miciioacano, Morelia, Yucatan.— The "Anales," as issued. 
National Central Library of Florence.— The publications, as issued. 
National Central Library of Home.— The publications, as issued. 
National Executive Silver Committee.— Two pamphlets. 

National League for the Protection of American Institutions.— 
One pamphlet. 

New BEDFORD Free Public Library.— The Thirty-eighth Annual Report. 

Newbern Library.— Proceedings of the Trustees for the year ending Janu- 
ary 5, 1890. 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society.— Their publications, as 

New London County Historical Society.— Their "Records and Papers," 
Volume I., Part I. 

New York Evening Post Printing Company.— Their "Nation," as issued. 

New York Mercantile Library Association.— Their Sixty-ninth An- 
nual Report. 

New York State Library.— The Seventy-second Annual Report. 

Open Court Publishing Company.— Their periodicals, as issued. 

Peabody Institute, lialtimore.— The Twenty-third Annual Report. 

Peabody Reporter Company.— Their paper, as issued. 

Pocumtuck Valley Association.— "History and Proceedings of the Asso- 
ciation, 1870-187.)." 

Rhode Island Historical Society.— Carpenter's "Washington, the 
Founder of the Nation." 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.— Their publications, as 

Royal Society of Canada.— Their publications, as issued. 

Russian-American National Leagui:.— Their "Free Russia," as iasucd. 

Salem Press Publishing and Printing Company.— Their Historical 
Genealogical Record, Vol. L, No. 1. 

Scott Stamp and Coin Company, New York.— One pamphlet. 

Smithsonian Institution.— Its publications, as issued. 

Societe dks Etudes Historic* uks.— Tin «ir "Revue," as issued. 

Societe Royale de Geographie d'An vers.— Their publications, as 

68 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Socikte de Geographies de France.— Their publications, as issued. 
Society of Antiquaries or London.— Their publications, as issued. 
Spy PUBLISHING COMPANY, Worcester.— Their l);ii]y and Weekly Spy, as 

Travelers' Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 
United States Bureau oe Education.— Their publications, as issued. 
United States Cavalry Association.— Numbers of their "Journal." 
United States Department of the Interior.— Seventy-four books; and 

twenty-seven pamphlets. 

United States Department of State.— Consular Reports, as issued. 
United States Geological Survey.— Five books; and four pamphlets. 
United States Treasury Department.— Three department documents. 
United States War Department.— Official Records of the War of the 

Rebellion, as issued. 
University of California.— The Register for 1889-90. 

Vermont State Library.— The Vermont Insurance Commissioner's Report, 

W P I, Editors of the, Their Magazine, as is'sued. 

Wandsworth Public Library.— Their Catalogue of Local Views, etc. 

Watchman PUBLISHING Company.— Their paper, as issued. 

Wen HAM, Town of.— Two town documents. 

Western Reserve Historical Society.— An Account of the Society. 

Worcester Board of Health.— Their reports, as issued. 

Worcester County Law Library Association.— Boston Daily Adver- 
tiser, 1S68-90. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Twenty-four tiles of news- 
papers, in continuation. 

Worcester County Musical association.— Their Festival Rook of 1S90. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Thirteen books; seventy-eight vol- 
umes U. S. Senate and House Bills; ninety-six. pamphlets; and seventy-eight 
tiles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Worcester National Rank.— The New York Evening Tost, in continua- 

Worcester Society of Antiquity.— Their Proceedings tor the yew 1888; 
and "Worcester Town Records, 1789-1791." 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.— Their publications; as 

Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester.— Their "Young 
Men's Work," as issued. 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 




In the Report of the Council of this Society, at the meeting 
held April 28, 1852, is a brief notice of Dr. John Park, 
member of the Society from 1831 to his death in 1852, and 
member of the Council from 1832 to 1843. The singular 
beauty and dignity of Dr. Park's character, together with 
his noteworthy services in the cause of early female educa- 
tion, have been thought by some who remember him, to 
demand a fuller notice of his life, before the last of his 
many pupils, or of his immediate family, should have 
passed from the stage. It is from the reminiscences of 
these friends, and from a diary of Dr. Park's, kept punctili- 
ously for many years, written with a clearness and ele- 
gance which put most of our modern penmanship to the 
blush, that the present paper is drawn. 

John Park, son of Andrew and Mary (Cochran) Park, 
was born, January 7, 1775, in the little town of Windham, 
l N. H. He came of Scotch-Irish ancestry, who settled in 
Londonderry, N. II., bringing with them vivid recollections 
of the great siege of Londonderry in 1689, which were often 
recounted to eager listeners in the farmhouses of New 
Hampshire. When Macaulay's History appeared, with its 
detailed and stirring accounts of this historic siege, the suf- 
ferings of the brave inhabitants, the attempts to relieve 
them, the breaking of the mighty boom which had been 
stretched across the river, and the arrival of vessels with 
food for the half-starved citizens, his narrative seemed but 
a repetition of the traditions so often heard from aged lips 
by the little children of the Windham homestead. 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

John Park, the oldest of seven children, was so small 
and feeble, in his childhood that he was considered of little 
use on the farm, and was, consequently, allowed to follow 
his bent and prepare for college. He had already taught 
himself to write with a whittled stick upon birch-bark ; and 
fortunately for him the clergyman of his native town, Rev. 
Simon Williams, living two miles away, was an enthusiastic 
classical scholar, and delighted to find in those secluded 
places so apt a scholar. Under his instruction young 
Park prepared for Dartmouth College, and at fourteen was 
admitted to the Junior class. On entering, his father went 
with him to Hanover on horseback, the son, resplendent in a 
crimson waistcoat made from his father's wedding-coat, rid- 
ing the colt at his side. The only incidents of his college 
career which have come down to posterity were his exile to 
a pest-house on a neighboring mountain, to recover from 
small-pox, and his appearing on the college stage in 
Addison's play of Cato, in which he took the part of Marcia 
so successfully that one of his rustic hearers fell in love 
with the charming maiden on the spot. 

He graduated at sixteen, in the class of 1791, and betook 
himself at once to teaching, being employed in this capacity, 
first in Charlestown, Mass., then in Middleton, and finally 
in Framingham, where he acted as preceptor of the Acad- 
emy in 1793 and 1794. At this time he was desirous of 
entering the Ministry, but finding that he could not consci- 
entiously teach the Calvinistic doctrines in which he had 
been reared, he began the study of medicine. In the mean- 
time, however, having become engaged to the daughter of 
a neighboring clergyman, the Rev. Moses Adams of Acton, 
and being eager for an early settlement, he was persuaded 
to ensrao-e in a business venture in Norfolk, Va., which 
promised speedier success than his chosen profession. But 
his new occupation proved absolutely distasteful to him, 
and he turned to his books and studies again, finding a 
friend in a kind physician who encouraged him to persevere 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park 


in his chosen pursuit and gave him counsel and aid. He 
sought relief, too, in the companionship of a circle of 
French officers then in Norfolk, three large ships having 
been sent by the Republic to obtain provisions in Virginia, 
and being then blockaded by the English in the harbor. 
Having already begun the study of French while in Charles- 
town with a royalist emigrant, M. Nanerede, then tutor at 
Harvard College, Mr. Park availed himself eagerly of this 
fresh opportunity to improve himself in conversation, and 
seems to have taken great delight in singing republican 
songs with the gay and spirited Frenchmen. After a few 
months in Norfolk, he seized an opportunity to visit the 
West Indies, then the scene of active warfare, took passage 
with a Quaker captain, John Earle, of Newport, K. I., and 
landed in Dominique, in April, 1795, just as those little 
islands were in a fever of excitement over the action of the 
French Republic, granting to people of color the rights of 
French citizens. "I met here," says Mr. Park in his diary, 
"emigrants who had lied from an insurrection of the blacks 
in Guadaloupe, poor wretches who had been reduced in one 
night from the affluence of rich planters and merchants to 
absolute penury. As in these revolutionary times they had 
no direct communication with France, they beset me for 
news from the mother country. 1 could sustain a tolerably 
ready conversation with them in French ; but once and 
again was checked by these proud royalists, when 1 inad- 
vertently addressed them with a ' Qui cilot/en,' the term 1 
had been accustomed to use among my republican friends 
at Norfolk. They shrugged their shoulders, and retorted, 
4 Monsieur, je ne suis pas citoyen, as indignantly as if 1 
had said, you rascal." 

Leaving Dominique in search of larger opportunities of 
practice, he spent a year in the French island of Martinique, 
where he obtained permission to attend the general hospital 
in St. Pierre. Here the successful treatment of a severe 
case of yellow fever brought his professional services into 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

instant demand, while he had occasion at the hospital, as he 
declares, "to see more surgical cases in one week than 
would be possible in Massachusetts in a whole year." 
During an attack by the English fleet upon the neighboring 
island of Santa Lucia, the wounded were brought in schoon- 
ers to the hospital of St. Pierre. The memory of these 
charming days in Martinique haunted his dreams even in 
his old age, so greatly did the climate and scenery fasci- 
nate him, while the society of a few French and English 
families made the time pass most agreeably. Duelling was 
frequent there, and as his journal shows, was resorted 
to on the most trivial and often quizzical occasions. Slav- 
ery was of course a familiar sight everywhere, and at 
one of his boarding-places he was daily distressed by the 
cries of poor wretches, owned by a woman in a neighboring 
house, who were suffering under the lash. Once as he was 
watching a negro woman passing under his balcony with a 
board fastened around her neck as punishment for some 
offence, his indignation was aroused at seeing a white boy 
throw a handful of pepper into her face, and laugh at her 
screams of helpless agony. These cases, however, he con- 
sidered exceptional, and speaks often in his diary of the 
jolly lives led by the West India negroes, whom he thought 
better off', for the most part, than in their own country. 
The moral aspects of slavery had not then, of course, at- 
tracted serious attention. 

The most interesting incident given in his diary in con- 
nection with Martinique, is the following: "The British 
government, I believe, never rewarded the treachery of 
Benedict Arnold by any honorable appointment; but he 
was in Martinique at this time, employed by contract as 
purveyor to the English troops stationed in this island. 
Here, as in America, he was selfish, avaricious, and in his 
commercial dealings required looking after. I never heard 
his name mentioned with respect. Whatever he might have 
been in early life, he was now soured in temper, and gen- 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


erally quarrelled with every person with whom he had any 
business transactions. He had purchased a quantity of flour 
from a Capt. Art of Philadelphia. As this gentleman was 
standing hy Pdakeley's store, and I by his side, the General 
rode up. He performs his movements on horseback, hav- 
ing lost a leg in the battle near Ticonderoga. A disagree- 
ment soon followed, as usual in his bargains; loud words 
followed, when a group of English, French and Americans 
gathered to listen. At length the General shook his gold- 
headed cane at Capt. Art, and with an oath called him a 
rascal. Art quietly replied, 'General, you may call me by 
any name you please, except traitor.' Arnold instantly 
wheeled his horse and rode oft', while the bystanders, Eng- 
lish as well as Americans, burst into a loud laugh." 

But Martinique, in spite of its attractions, proved too 
healthy a place to detain the young physician long ; and on 
Aug. 21, 1796, he set off with a friend who was starting 
on a pleasure-trip among the West India islands, to seek a 
more favorable settlement. After touching at the Danish 
colonies of Santa Cruz, and St. Thomas, he finally estab- 
lished himself, Nov. 18, 1796, at Port au Prince in San 
Domingo. Here his excellent letters of introduction se- 
cured him a cordial reception from the English officers of 
the place, who surprised him, so soon after a long and bit- 
ter war, not only by their hospitality, but also by their 
interest in his country, and by their high praise of 
Washington. At this place he received the appointment 
of assistant surgeon at the hospitals, and in May, 1797, 
was put in charge of a ward by himself. His superior offi- 
cer, though very formal, "not only giving his prescriptions 
in Latin, but generally making his remarks on the state of 
the patients in the same language," showed the most grati- 
fying confidence in his young assistant ; but as an order 
had just been issued " that no officer belonging to the med- 
ical staff should have anything to do with private practice," 
Mr. Park resigned his position, to devote himself to the 

74 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

much more lucrative service which ottered itself in the 
harbor. Here he was kept busy for many months by the 
yellow-fever cases which broke out in the English trans- 
ports, many of which arrived in the harbor in filthy condi- 
tion and without surgeons. In 1798, as the fever declined, 
small-pox broke out violently in Port au Prince, its spread 
and fatality being chiefly due, as he thought, to unskilful 
treatment. The common people were prejudiced against 
vaccination, but the patients whom he inoculated showed 
mild symptoms, and all recovered. 

The year 1798 was a very eventful one in San Domingo, 
and Mr. Park remained there just long enough to witness 
some of its most exciting scenes. The negro leader, 
Toussaint Louverture, little known as yet to fame, had 
lately been appointed by the French Directory commander- 
in-chief of the army of San Domingo, and was at that time 
engaged in maintaining his position against the British 
forces who held the harbor and adjoining country of Port 
au Prince. "Our belligerent forces here," wrote Mr. Park 
to a friend, "are in a somewhat extraordinary position; 
we are hemmed in by the brigands (thus the negroes are 
called who surround us) ; I can every day see their tri-col- 
ored flajj'S on two forts. The English are not desirous to 
extend their jurisdiction beyond what they now possess 
and can defend." "Port au Prince," he wrote, March 1, 
1798, "is situated on a tract of rather ilat ground rising 
gently, however, from the water. East of the town the 
land rises abruptly into mountains ; on top of one of these 
ridges, about eight miles distant, the English have a post 
called Fourmier, and not far from it the brigands have 
another. There are frequent skirmishes of late between 
the English convoys going up to supply their post with 
provisions, and the negroes who conceal themselves in the 
woods and ravines along the road ; as the whole route up 
the steep is in full view from Port au Prince, I have fre- 
quently seen the smoke and heard the report of the mus- 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


kets ; have seen the red-coats hastening up and down, and 
the glitter of their bright gun-barrels. General Simcoe 
arrives today, succeeding Gen. Forbes, owing to whose 
supineness the French have lately appeared more active 
than ever." On the 12th of August still another change of 
commanders was made, General Maitland succeeding Gen. 
Simcoe, and showing himself apparently still move energetic 
and active. " He is incessantly on horsback," says Dr. 
Park's diary, '' reconnoitering the positions about Port au 
Prince. The people are delighted with his spirited admin- 
istration, the merchants in particular. English, French 
and Americans consider it a pledge of security, and of a 
permanent occupation of the place, at least until peace." 
These expectations, however, were at once strangely dis- 
pelled. From this point Dr. Park's diary becomes ex- 
tremely interesting; but the limits of my paper forbid my 
giving more than the briefest extracts : — 

April 21st. This evening a few of us were walking out 
of town, when our attention was arrested by a bright tire 
on the top of the mountain to the east. We agreed it must 
be the block house on that eminence, occupied as an out- 
post by the English. While we were wondering how it 
happened and apprehending some accident, a tremendous 
explosion announced the destruction of the building. On 
entering the city we found many had witnessed the catas- 
trophe, but no one knew any particulars. April 22nd. 
Astounding news ! the block house was blown up by order, 
and the garrison has come down. The whole place is in 
commotion. To the utter amazement and confusion of the 
town, a patrol with a drum is parading the streets, and at 
every corner a proclamation is read in French and English 
that in precisely fifteen da}'s Port au Prince will be evacu- 
ated by the English. An earthquake could not produce 
greater excitement ; consternation in every face. One week 
ago all was contidence, all felt sure of the protection of gov- 
ernment. Now, in a moment, as it were, all is dismay. 
23d and 24th. Proclamations issued repeatedly, enjoining 
good order ; promising every possible assistance without 
distinction of nation to all who should wish to leave the 


American Antiquarian Society. 


place. April 25th. A flag of truce was despatched to the 
black general, Toussaint, at Genaives, offering to surrender 
the place to him (he has a rival at the south, a mulatto 
chief, Kigaud,) on condition of a cessation of hostilities 
until all who chose could emigrate, and requiring an official 
solemn promise of protection to the lives and property of 
those who, from any motive, might think proper to stay. 
April 26th. Bustle, hustle 1 hurrying to and fro in every 
direction. Many of the French, white, yellow, and some 
of the blacks, are selecting what they will take with them, 
and hastening to the wharves. The sable republican but a 
few miles distant has returned his answer. Toussaint ac- 
cedes to General Maitland's propositions on condition that 
all the forts in and about Port an Prince are left in their 
present order. 

April 27th. Another proclamation. The commander-in- 
chief, who has hitherto been cautious of pledging himself 
for the conduct of Toussaint, now publishes the assurances 
he has received, and his own firm belief that Toussaint will 
honorably fulfil his engagements. This alters the face of 
things. Many who a few days ago were desiring to leave the 
town and abandon everything, anticipating nothing but plun- 
der and murder, arc now deciding to stay and risk the event 
of a change of government. 28lh. Embarcation, however, 
goes on briskly. Every vessel in port has been put in requi- 
sition by the Government, and vessels are hourly arriving 
for the purpose of transporting inhabitants and their effects. 
April 2,9th. Proclamations are continually sounding 
through the streets, giving instructions. Cavalry patrol 
the town; noted aristocrats are anxious to get off; mer- 
chants are downcast on account of the sacrifices they must 
make; everybody in motion. I fall in with the Marquis 
de Iwouvcrie, who fled from France in the early horrors 
of the Revolution. T have been acquainted with him ever 
since my arrival. He was with La Fayette in our War of 
Independence, and has interested me with accounts of his 
campaigns. He wears his cross and rapier in the style of 
the "ancienne noblesse" but is very poor; he once bor- 
rowed a few dollars of me and has never been able to return 
them, but he is welcome to them, as he helped to fight our 
battles. The great mystery is, what has been the cause of 
this unexpected and seemingly inconsistent change of policy. 
Gen. Maitland appeared to be taking every measure with 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


great zeal for maintaining possession. Why all at once 
abandon ? The most plausible conjecture is that the British 
government have found the expense of maintaining Port au 
Prince, with a large circle of defences, too disproportioned 
to any advantages derived from holding it; that in order 
to conceal their purposes from France, they had given 
Maitland sealed orders, as is sometimes the case, not to be 
opened till a certain day ; that this date occurred about the 
20th, when he found his directions were to negotiate with 
Toussaint and evacuate. April 30th. Notwithstanding 
the tumult of the day, regulated, however, by a wonderful 
degree of system, the nights are perfectly quiet; stillness 
reigns, only broken by the changing of the guard, and oc- 
casional passing of the mounted patrol. 

May 3rd. Things are verging to a close. A French 
Commissary has arrived. At the first panic, it seemed as 
if the whole population wished to iiy. The reliance ex- 
pressed by the Commander-in-chief on the fidelity of 
Toussaint, confirmed by the French Commissary, has so 
tranquillized the popular feeling that it is now supposed 
half at least will remain ; among others two wealthy Amer- 
ican houses. 

To-day 1 receive my passport. 

May 7th. One proclamation more. This enjoins upon 
those who remain to shut every door, and not open one at 
their peril till after sunrise to-morrow morning. I take 
leave of the many friends from whom I am probably 
separating forever. The happy moment for my depart- 
ure has arrived, and I go on board the Merlin. May 8th. 
At two o'clock this morning Port Royal and all the mili- 
tary outposts were abandoned by the British troops, ex- 
cept a company scut to Fort Bisseton. The sun is up, 
the day is pleasant, but all the tleet remains quietly at an- 
chor. A gentle breeze has touched Port Royal, and as the 
Mag unfolds, we behold the blue, white and red, the Repub- 
lican colors, seeming to exult in their new, proud elevation. 
Then we hear drums, and distinctly see the Republican 
troops, pouring down the streets, black as a thunder cloud ; 
we observe them placing guards in different parts of the 
town. Some American boats went to the wharf this fore- 
noon for water, and a few gentlemen who had remained 
reported that everything was conducted with the strictest 
order. We are under command of the guns of Port Royal, 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

but Toussaint keeps his word like "aprenx chevalier." May 
9th. Soon after sunrise the signal gun is tired, the sails 
are spread, and with a moderate land breeze, the whole 
tleet, consisting of 136 sail, moves to the westward, not a 
mast as huge as a broomstick left in the harbor. 

On May 10, these tragic scenes end with a little comedy, 
which the diarist evidently enjoys recording in full. "May 
10. Creeping along. The fastest sailers have to wait for 
the dullest; notwithstanding which precaution, one poor 
clump of a Dutch-built brig lagged so far astern that a row- 
boat of negroes slipped out from St. Mark's and took pos- 
session. The- structure of Dutch vessels is peculiar, the 
stem and stein rounded much alike, so that these ignorant 
fellows seemed not to know the one from the other. With 
a spy-glass 1 clearly saw them towing her into harbor stern 

On June 19, 1798, after an absence of three years and 
eight months, the traveller arrived at Newburyport, and 
hastened to rejoin his parents, and enter fairly upon the 
profession for which his varied experiences had so emi- 
nently fitted him. Jan. 4, 1799, he presented himself for 
examination before the Censors of the Massachusetts Medi- 
cal Society, in Concert Hall, Boston, and soon received 
from them his medical diploma. lie established himself at 
once in the little town of Amesbuiy, Mass., and was mar- 
ried, June 25, 1799. to Miss Louisa Adams, daughter of 
the Rev. Moses Adams, of Acton, Mass. In October of the 
same year, he was offered a commission as surgeon on the 
U. S. Ship Warren, Capt. Newman, which was about to 
sail for the West Indies, to protect the American commerce 
from the depredations of French privateers. As he felt 
himself especially familiar with the duties of such an office, 
and as the physician's fees which he found customary in 
Amesbury (a shilling a mile) proved too small for the sup- 
port of his family, Dr. Park (as he was now entitled to be 
styled) accepted the commission; and on Dec. 25, 1799, 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


just after the news of Washington's death reached New 
England, he sailed again for the West Indies. The Amer- 
ican navy appears to have been in a very primitive condi- 
tion at this time. The officers of the Warren proved ill- 
bred and quarrelsome, the captain himself was vulgar and 
profane, given to immoderate drinking, and far more inter- 
ested in prize-money and private speculations than in the 
discharge of his special duties, and the fleet of American 
merchantmen who entrusted themselves to his protection 
seemed to the surgeon, accustomed to the more skilful 
handling of British convoys, to be little safer than they 
would have been by themselves. The only privateers which 
they actually encountered were from the English island of 
New Providence, vessels which, though nominally at peace 
with the United States, took it upon themselves to plunder 
American traders at will. One of them was caught in the 
act of boarding an American schooner ; whereupon the cap- 
tain was told that if he touched an American vessel again, 

CD * 

he would be blown to pieces. The privateer responded by 
saying "we shall board every one we come across," and 
then, as if to show the utmost possible contempt for the 
Yankee officer, he sailed along after the Warren for a con- 
siderable distance, the drum and fife furiously playing 
Yankee Doodle Dandy. Tiring of this sort of work, and 
leaving American commerce to take care of itself, the 
Captain suddenly started off for the Gulf of Mexico, nomi- 
nally under orders, but really on a speculation of his own. 
They reached Vera Cruz only to turn almost immediately 
back again ; the vessel was visited by yellow fever in its 
most aggravated form : and the surgeon was obliged to 
fight night and day, not only against the disease itself, but 
against the "pernicious laxity of discipline and want of 
cleanliness in the whole economy of the ship." Out of one 
hundred and fifty ollicers and men, there were one hun- 
dred cases in six weeks, of which thirty-nine proved fatal. 
"It was no uncommon thing," says Dr. Park, "to see men 

80 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

one hour doing duty on the yards, and the next hour rag- 
ing in delirium, or in violent convulsions, or in an insensi- 
ble stupor." The captain himself finally fell a victim to the 
disease, and the vessel returned to Boston, September, 1800, 
under the command of the first-lieutenant. It is character- 
istic of Dr. Park, that though profoundly distressed by the 
sufferings which he witnessed during this unfortunate voy- 
age, and though the companionship of the ill-mannered 
officers was utterly distasteful to him, he yet made no com- 
plaint whatever, but found delightful occupation in water- 
color sketching, in the study of navigation, in making him- 
self practically familiar with the structure and working of 
the ship, and in the daily comradeship of his favorite Horace, 
of Helvetius and Zimmerman, and of Addison, Dr. Johnson, 
and Pope, whom he pronounced **'a very companionable 
set of gentlemen." 

Jn a second trip of the Warren (begun Nov. 27, 1800), 
under a very different commander, Captain, afterwards 
Commodore, James Barron, ; 'an experienced seaman, strict 
disciplinarian and very gentlemanly officer," Dr. Park 
visited once more the island of Martinique, and other 
scenes of his earlier West India experiences, and was 
absent until peace was arranged with France, arriving in 
Boston again June 30, 1801. The voyage was uneventful, 
his time being chiefly spent in reading, in visiting the vari- 
ous islands, and in playing duets with the captain, Captain 
Barron, on the violin, the surgeon on the flute. Captain 
Barron was dangerously ill on the voyage, and was obliged 
to resign, being succeeded by Captain Talbot, son of Com- 
modore Talbot of the Constitution. 

On resigning his commission as surgeon, Dr. Park would 
seem to have had a successful career open before him, as 
few young physicians of twenty-six have gained a more 
useful or varied experience. Yet he was by no means at 
ease in his calling. While carrying Capt. Barron through 
his serious illness in the West Indies, Dr. Park wrote in 


lientlniscenceti of Dr. John Park. 


his journal, under date of Feb. 27: " Pondering on the 
miserable anxiety I have always felt when in charge of a 
patient dangerously ill, and on what I am now suffering, it 
seems to me that if I cannot conquer this useless sympathy 
(and I see no prospect of that) it will be most for my com- 
fort, as soon as I can quit the navy, to relinquish the pro- 
fession, and try .some other method of supporting myself 
and family. Many persons can discharge the medical duties 
without excited feelings ; 1 cannot." Acting on this im- 
pulse, and being also deeply interested in the political dis- 
cussions of the hour, and profoundly disturbed by the 
triumphs of the Jeifersonian part}', he was persuaded to 
establish a semi-weekly paper in Newburyport, to which he 
gave the name of the New England Repertory. The tirst 
number was issued July 6, 1808. In his Prospectus, the 
editor announces that his paper is to be devoted to ' k im- 
portant subjects of Literature, Politics and Morality." As 
to Politics he sa}'s : "The editor will be governed by such 
feelings and opinions as are to be supposed natural to a 
native American who never knew any government as his 
own but that of the Federal Constitution." The paper was 
published on Wednesdays and Saturdays, at "$3.50 per an- 
num, exclusive of postage — lirst half-year payable in ad- 
vance." The paper had from the first the support of many 
of the leading Federalists of eastern Massachusetts, and 
very soon Dr. Park found it for his interest to remove his 
business to Boston. The 58th number was published in 
Boston, Feb. o, 1804. It was issued from 71 State street, 
on Tuesdays and Fridays, at $4 per annum, six months pay- 
able in advance. The ollice was in the east end of the Old 
State House, with a balcony looking down State street. In 
looking through the columns of The Repertory one linds 
himself in the densest Federalist atmosphere of that tumult- 
uous epoch. He reads of "the tyrannical policy of Lord 
Jeiferson." He is informed, with some display of italics, that 
"Mr. Jeiferson went to Washington to attend Congress, 


American Antiquarian Society. 


on Sunday, left Washington for Monticello on Sunday, re- 
turned from Monticello to Washington on Sunday." He 
tinds a table showing how "John Adams was chosen Presi- 
dent at the previous election over Jeilerson by the Freemen 
of the United States," — Jeilerson owing his election to 
slave representation. He reads that "universal suffrage 
has doomed every country to destruction which has ever 
adopted it." He comes upon a little squib, just before 
Commencement Day, in which a certain llonestus is advised 
"not to attend Commencement, unless his nerves are better 
strung than usual, as the name of Washington might be 
mentioned, and it would be diilicult to «;et out through the 
crowd." He will tind, also, long and elaborate political es- 
says by Fisher Ames, and other of the well-known writers of 
the day ; will find many articles on moral and literary 
themes, and many poems of the sentimental character of 
the times, printed with iavish use of capitals. 

But this political episode of Dr. Park's career was brief. 
While engaged in the work, he threw his whole heart into 
it, as before into his medical practice; ; but with very much 
the same result. The eagerness of his early zeal soon gave 
way to disgust at the heat and rancor of political contro- 
versy, and he was easily induced at last to listen to propos- 
als of quite another kind. In 1811, after seven years of 
prosperous existence as a semi-weekly, the Repertory was 
sold to W. W. Clapp, and became in 1813, as the Boston 
Daily Advertiser, the first daily paper ever published in 
Boston. In 1814, Nathan Hale purchased the whole estab- 
lishment and became both editor and publisher. 

The new Held into which Dr. Park entered when 36 years 
of age, and which became from that time his life-pursuit, 
was that of education. It is quite proper to call it his life- 
pursuit. When a boy, his eagerness for information and 
study had surprised the learned pastor who had drifted into 
the pastoral regions of New Hampshire ; during his advent- 
urous voyages he had found constant consolation in his 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park 


English and Latin classics; while editor, the literary col- 
umns of his paper had been quite as near to his heart as the 
political ; and now that an opportunity offered itself for 
becoming a teacher, he soon recognized this as his real 

The high position which Boston has always held in all 
matters of culture is well known. Eighty years ago, how- 
ever, the education of girls had received very little serious 
attention in Boston or elsewhere. Young Ladies' Schools 
already existed; the first "Female Academy" known to 
fame was established in Medford in 1789, and was soon 
followed by others of the same kind ; but the teaching of 
accomplishments was the sole purpose, and had not gener- 
ally, if at all, given way to carefully-appointed courses of 
study. Dr. Park's school seems to have been among 1 lie 
first efforts, if not the very first, in this direction. Accord- 
ing to his own words, written in 1837 : 4k Several gentlemen 
of Boston thought the time had come when it was but just 
to offer to young ladies the means of pursuing more diver- 
sified and elevated studies than had hitherto been embraced 
in their literary education." Upon this scheme he entered 
with enthusiasm. Beginning with a few scholars whose par- 
ents had suggested the experiment, his school, known at 
first as the "Boston Lyceum for Young Ladies," was soon 
filled to overflowing, and so continued throughout the 
twenty years of its existence. Nearly all the names by 
which the commercial or literary Boston of those days was 
known to the world were represented sooner or later in this 
little school-room. Tin; school was kept in his own house, 
during the -first year on Bowdoin street, afterwards on 
Mount Vernon street. 

Dr. Park's changes of residence, though not connected 
directly with his school affairs, are interesting as indicating 
the flow of population in Boston at that time. Living first 
on Williams Court (off Washington street), he moved after- 
wards to the then attractive region of Fort Hill, from which 

84 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

he was driven by northeast winds to the rustic seclusion of 
Chambers street, and the almost equally retired fields of 
Bowdoin and Mount Vernon (then Olive) 1 streets. When 
on Bowdoin street, the children watched the sailors from 
the Navy Yard as they pulled down the brick monument 
surmounted by an eagle which crowned the top of Beacon 
Hill ; from the windows of Mount Vernon street they looked 
across a cow-pasture and over the ruins of "Cotton's Folly," 
to see the cows wandering on the Common, and to tell the 
way of the wind by the Hollis-street vane. On one occasion, 
as their curious eyes were ranging the horizon with a tele- 
scope, they were horrified by seeing a ghastly row of 
pirates, in white caps and heads on one side, hanging from 
a gallows on Boston Neck. 

To return to tin; school. It is interesting to sec how vivid 
was the impression, both of his instruction and of his per- 
sonality, upon the minds of his pupils, and how affection- 
ate was the remembrance which they retained of him, in 
their later years. Out of many tributes of this kind, I quote 
the following passage from a letter written hy one of his 
scholars to another at the time of his death. After speak- 
ing of "the days we passed together under the benignant 
influence of this most paternal of teachers, for he was truly 
a school-father,'' the writer says : " Few persons have estab- 
lished such a wide circle of the purest and most interesting 

i Olive street wus laid out from Belknap street to Charles street about the 
year IS03, receiving a name to correspond with Chestnut, Walnut, Spruce and 
Cedar streets, in the same neighborhood. The Boston Directory of lSb'i gives 
the name of Dr. Park, with the addition ** Ladies^ Academy, § Olive street." 
In the Directories of ISIS and 1S2;J, his residence is given us at "."> Mt. Vernon," 
ami in the list of streets we find : " Ml. Vernon : buildings on the north side of 
Olive street." About the year I SOU, Sumner street was laid out from the corner 
of Park and Beacon streets, "round the New State House S. W. by Beacon 
Hill." Sumner street and Olive street met, end to end, at Belknap street. In 
1S25, according to Drake, the name of Olive street was changed to Sumner 
street. In 1830, Dr. Park's residence is given as on Sumner street, but the 
row of buildings in which he lived was still called ".Mount Vernon"; and 
in 1833, after he had removed to Worcester, the entire street received its 
present name of Mount Vernon street. 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park 


relations as Dr. Park. He was eminently fitted for the 
oilice of pioneer in the improved, enlarged and refined sys- 
tem of education he conducted so long among us. But it 
was our intercourse with him, more than the hooks, which 
formed all whose minds were not hy nature unsusceptible 
to his general influence. With his taste for learning we 
had perhaps little sympathy in the earlier school-days. He 
was a great reservoir of all the grammars and histories of 
the world ; and being the one having authority to exact 
stated efforts from girls whose propensity to 'giggle and 
make giggle' was equal to Cowper's, we were sometimes 
placed in an antagonistic position. But, when he indulged 
us in listening to the story of La Roche, he placed himself 
on our platform, and we enjoyed and wept together. This 
it was which sanctified arithmetic and the Latin Grammar." 
In the "Sequel to the Three Experiments of Living," pub- 
lished in 1837, the author, Mrs. George Lee, two of whose 
daughters were in Dr. Park's school, writes: "About 
twenty years ago, the lirst seminary in Boston was opened 
for instructing younir ladies in the higher branches of edu- 
cation. It was an experiment, and succeeded, because it 
was founded on the wants of the time. A taste for litera- 
ture was cultivated, and a knowledge of languages taught. 
This seminary prepared the way for others ; and though the 
founder of it has retired from his arduous labors to enjoy, in 
the bosom of his family, the honorable .competency he has 
Won, many a blessing goes with him." 

Dr. Park's characteristics as a teacher, as described by 
his pupils, were thoroughness, and a very contagious 
enthusiasm. Deeply interested himself in the French, 
Italian and English literatures, he imparted the same pas- 
sion to his scholars; while with abundance of maps, charts 
and instruments, he gave great reality and vividness to 
studies which had before that time been taught almost en- 
tirely by rote. Not encouraging ntemoriter recitations, nor 
believing much in verbal memory, he yet insisted upon the 

86 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

greatest exactness. The course of study seems to have 
covered the Latin, French and Italian languages, ancient 
and modern history, arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, 
several branches of natural history, experimentally taught, 
and geography taught almost exclusively by maps and by 
imaginary voyages around the world. More important than 
all these, however, to his own mind, were the weekly 
themes in English composition, which were also exercises 
in handwriting, and with which was connected incidentally 
the study of 1 Hair's Rhetoric and Alison on Taste. There 
were also parsing exercises with the whole school once a 
week. The only printed document which still bears wit- 
ness to Dr. Park's system of instruction, is a pamphlet en- 
titled "Outlines of Ancient History and Chronology," cov- 
ering the main historic and mythulogic events of classic 
times in compact and useful form for constant consultation. 
In teaching Latin, into which he introduced the continental 
pronunciation of the letter a, he paid little attention at first 
to Prosody ; but after meeting a certain Dr. Fisher, who 
brought from England advanced ideas of classical instruc- 
tion, Dr. Park insisted upon the careful scanning of Virgil 
and Horace, placing his young girls, for the time, quite 
ahead of their brothers in Harvard College in this impor- 
tant detail. 

The books studied in Latin were Caesar, Viri Rom<v, 
Virgil, Sallust, Horace, Cicero's Ojiciis, Senectute and 
Amicitia, with some of the Catiline orations; in French, 
Fcnelon's Tclemaqae, and Florian's Tales (until these were 
i'ound quite too stupid), Voltaire, Pacine and one comedy 
of Molicre (Tartujf'e) ; in Italian, Notti fiomaui, Metas- 
tasio, and afterwards Allien, with a little of Tasso. . Dante 
was never reached. German language or literature had no 
place in Dr. Park's curriculum, as he shared in the preju- 
dice of the day against the German writers, whom he con- 
sidered far inferior to the Italian. His daughters, though 
otherwise encouraged in the widest literary pursuit, were 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


never allowed to study German. At first he bad two 
scholars in (J reek ; hut as this crowded the other studies too 
much, his ideas of thoroughness would not allow him to pro- 
ceed with it. He gave all instruction himself, except that 
towards the close of his twenty years, a few classes recited 
to his older daughter. The school had a costly equipment 
not only of foreign books, but also of instruments, such as 
electrical machines, orreries, galvanic batteries, air-pumps, 
telescopes and microscopes, procured at great trouble from 
England, France and Germany. The hours of the school 
were from 1) o'clock to 1. According to a pleasant anecdote 
which has survived, throwing some light upon the spirit 
which prevailed in the school, Dr. Channing once remon- 
strated with Dr. Park for his use of medals, as fostering 
jealousies and ill-feeling. k 'Yes," said Dr. Park, "I do 
use medals, and 1 find, also, that my finest scholars are most 
intimate with each other." During this same period, though 
music was never taught in the school, Dr. Park gave much 
time to the llute and guitar, accompanying himself upon the 
latter in French and Italian songs, which he sang with great 
feeling, and with an extremely sweet though not powerful 
voice. Those who remember him in Boston society, re- 
call his singing of "Does the Harp of Kosa slumber?" 
' k The Death of Sir Kalph Abercrombie," and other fa- 
miliar after-dinner melodies. He was fond of society, 
whether in New England of the; West Indies; fond, too, 
of dancing, and even of waltzing, which he had learned 
in the Indies, but which he refused to practise except with 
his daughters. His home was always a delightful one, not 
only for its charming hospitalities, but for the variety of 
strangers to be encountered there. The French and Italian 
consuls (De Valnais and Manzoni) were in the habit of 
bringing their fellow-countrymen, refugees often from for- 
eign tyranny, to this pleasant and cultivated abode. Such 
German exiles as Lieher and Follen are also remembered 
as intimate guests. 

88 American Antiquarian Society . [Oct. 

In 1831, after exactly twenty years of teaching, his un- 
interrupted labors, first as editor, then as teacher, began to 
tell upon his constitution, producing frequent vertigo and 
other alarming symptoms, and warning him that his active 
days were oyer. II is doctor advised an entire change, not 
only of occupation but also of scene, and urged him to seek 
some country home where he might have a garden and out- 
of-door life to interest him. The result was that, after visit- 
ing various country towns, he finally found himself attracted 
by the natural beauties and intelligent society of Worcester, 
and retired there with his family, April 1, 1831, spending 
in Worcester the remainder of his days. He lived at first 
in a house situated on the rising ground corresponding with 
that on which the building of the Antiquarian Society 
stands, which formerly gave picturesqueness to the south 
end of Main street, but which the necessities of trade;, 
always scornful of beauty, have long ago obliterated. In 
1842, when his family had become reduced to himself and- 
his wife, he sold his estate and took board at the Worcester 
House, at the foot of Elm street. In 1814, he had been 
married for the second time (to Mrs. Agnes Major, an 
English lady), and on moving to AVorcester, his family 
consisted of Dr. and Mrs. Park and two daughters. On his 
G2d birthday, January 7, 1837, Dr. Park resumed the 
daily journal, which had been suspended through the entire 
period of his Boston life ; and from this time until his last 
sickness his occupations, his reading and his thoughts are 
portrayed in their minutest detail. It is an exquisite pic- 
ture, revealing an old age of singular sweetness and dignity, 
of untiring intellectual activity and of the keenest domestic 
enjoyment. As compared with his previous experiences, 
his life in Worcester was absolutely uneventful ; aside from 
a small class of young ladies who came to him for a short 
period, he undertook no regular occupation: but with his 
library and garden at his command, a small but congenial 
social circle about him, and the political and religious ques- 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Park. 


tions of the day to interest him, he was independent of the 
world, and never murmured at the fate which had driven 
him from more exciting surroundings to this quiet retreat. 

Dr. Park was always a passionate collector of rare books. 
In his earlier days, when dollars were scarce, he could 
never pass a hook-auction unscathed, and had to run the 
gauntlet of his family's raillery, as he smuggled into the 
house his guilty purchases. J lis shelves showed many dif- 
ferent editions of his favorite Latin authors, especially of 
Horace ; and his descendants to-day ornament their book- 
cases, even if they do not store their minds, with superb copies 
of Virgil, Xenophon, Livy, Tacitus, Ovid, Pindar, in vellum 
bindings, with Dr. Park's exquisite lettering, more beauti- 
ful than printers' type, upon the outside. His passion for 
Horace never failed him. Amid the distresses and discom- 
forts of his West India voyages, Horace was constantly in 
his hand ; and in later days, when growing infirmities 
brought restless nights, the Odes lay always at his bedside, 
to while away the wakeful hours. On leaving his ow:« 
house in Worcester, his library of about 8,000 books was 
stored in Brinley Row ; and it was one of the sorrows of 
his old age when an unfortunate tire in the block destroyed, 
or seriously damaged, many of his most valuable volumes. 
His books were for use, not show. Almost every page of 
his Worcester journal has a notice of some new work which 
he had read, and of which he often gives a thoughtful and 
critical analysis. His reading 'was singularly catholic, con- 
sidering the prejudices of the age, extending even to trans- 
lations of the (ierman writers who were then coming into 
vogue; but while he frankly admires the brilliancy and 
originality of such authors as Jean Paul, he can never quite 
forgive German philosophy for dealing, as he expresses it, 
in "rhapsodical intimations rather than distinct sentiments." 

In politics, Dr. Park remained a sturdy Federalist and 
Whig to the end of the chapter, deploring in no measured 
terms, in later years, what seemed to him the steady 

90 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

growth of demagogueism. In his entry of November 8, 
1845, he says : "Worcester 1ms been and is yet thronged 
with political conventions preparatory to next Monday's 
election. Whigs, Democrats, Natives and Abolitionists, 
all have their turn. 1 go to none of them, but stay at home 
and mourn over the distracted state of the popular mind, 
and the low ebb of disinterested patriotism. The sellish dema- 
gogue is seen everywhere, the politician who wants noth- 
ing but his country's prosperity, — nowhere." His earlier 
political zeal changed by slow degrees into that strong dis- 
taste for participancy in national or municipal affairs, even 
at the polls, whose prevalence among our cultivated classes 
is so ominous a symptom in American politics. As early 
as April 3, 1837, he writes : f.« I never take any part in our 
municipal concerns, except occasionally to vote on an elec- 
tion day. 1 have no taste for such action, and that, in such 
a government as ours, is probably a defect in character." 
A letter from his son, Hon. John C. Park, written just after 
the exciting fall campaign of 1840 (the Harrison campaign), 
which Dr. Park transcribes in full, is interesting for its 
allusion to an evil which has since gained such stupendous 
dimensions, but which even then, in its -slighter forms, was 
filling generous minds with gloomy forebodtr^. "Has 
the spoils system," writes Mr. Park, "become a pari of our 
system of government; and will it not eventually destiny 
all honorable ambition; lessen the desire of honest and 
high-minded men (I should say the willinynexs, not the de- 
sire) to become holders of oflice? Will it not eventually 
throw all oflice into the hands of the needy, vicious, irre- 
sponsible and wicked, and finally work out the destruction 
of true liberty? In honest truth, the power I myself have 
been wielding (in the campaign) and wonderfully to my 
own astonishment, has led me to dread the worst. The in- 
sane thirst for oflice has broken out within three days like 
a mania ; and they regard poor me as a deceiver or a Hat, 
because I am not in an oflice fever." Notwithstanding all 


Reminiscences of Dr. John Pari: 


this, however, Dr. Park follows his eountry's varying desti- 
nies with the liveliest and most intelligent interest, depre- 
cates the Mexican War as wicked and aggressive, and the 
general democratic polic}' of the day as favoring the further 
extension of slave-territory, shares to the full the prevailing- 
Whig hostility towards the Abolitionists, and denounces 
heartily the first Free-Soil agitations which were making 
such mournful headway, and whose final outcome he did 
not live to see. 

In religious matters, Dr. Park held a consistent attitude 
throughout his life. From his youthful days, when he 
abandoned the Orthodox ministry because he coidd not 
accept the prevailing dogmas, he retained a thoughtful in- 
terest in theological enquiries to the end. In Boston, he 
worshipped first at Church Green, under the successive 
ministrations of Dr. Kirkland, Mr. Thatcher, Mr. 
Greenwood, and Mr. Young; and afterwards followed 
Mr. Greenwood to King's Chapel, though continuing to 
attend communion at Church Green. He was always fond 
of the liturgical service of the Chapel, and never became 
reconciled to the Congregational habit of public extempo- 
raneous prayer. In Worcester, he connected himself 
with the Second Parish, was a constant attendant at tbe 
Sunday services, took vigorous part in occasional Sunday 
evening gatherings for religious discussions, and established 
the most friendly personal intercourse with Dr. Bancroft 
and Dr. Hill. In his entry of October 31, 1841, he records 
the fact: "this is the first day I have not attended church 
for more than ten and a half years." On being once re- 
quested to serve as deacon, he unequi vocally refused, say- 
ing : "I am becoming tolerably grave to be sure, yet not 
quite enough so to wear the name of deacon." His interest 
in religion was largely a theological one. Its prolounder 
themes had constant attraction for him, and he was quite as 
familiar with the Biblical researches of the day as his cler- 
gymen themselves. On the appearance of JMorton's "Gen- 

92 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

uincness of the Gospels" in 1844, he accepted Norton's rev- 
olutionary views of the Jewish Scriptures as essentially what 
he had himself reached oil reading the Old Testament care- 
fully fifteen years before. In 1847, when 72 years of age, 
we lind him studying Matthew's Gospel, with a' view to 
critically comparing it with Luke's. While a pronounced 
Humanitarian in his belief, and as independent in his inter- 
pretations of the New Testament as of the Old, he had little 
patience with the religious mysticism which was creeping 
into Unitarian pulpits fifty years ago, imported straight, as 
he thought, from the German mystic philosophers whom he 
detested. "Spare me transcendentalism," he says, "give 
me something which can be distinctly comprehended, and I 
am willing to study hard." He speaks, in 1838, of "Mr. 
Emerson's intidel sermon," alludes, in 1845, to "the lllumi- 
nati who scoff at the authority of the Gospels" ; praises 
Theodore Parker for his eloquence, but complains that his 
splendid visions offer no basis for the earnest thinker, but 
leave him, where Socrates and Cicero left him, afloat, "upon 
the same dark sea of speculation'." Parker's preaching he 
epitomizes as asserting: "I have no higher authority than 
myself; every man w;is made to be his own Christ." But 
while disavowing these pernicious tendencies, and declaring 
that it was time for a line to be drawn between those who 
"believed the Gospels to be a revelation and those who did 
not," he kept always an open mind, and was led beyond his 
denunciations into renewed investigations into the evidences 
of Christianity. Writing in 1845, he declares theological 
studies, notwithstanding his "good old classics," to be his 
"greatest pleasure." 

Thus he passed his declining years. His home continued 
to be thqci^rcTof his sweetest and purest delight, satisfy- 
ing all the claims of a deeply affectionate nature ; his books 
kept the intellectual world continually open to him ; his 
passion for music lent glow and color to his daily life ; his 
capacity for intense emotion gave vividness to his enjoy- 


Itemrnisceuces of Dr. John Park. 


ment of the present and his recollections of the past. This 
last-named quality, which perhaps gives a truer key to the 
inner man than any other single trait, is best illustrated by 
a chance remark of his own towards the end of his life, with 
which I will close this inadequate sketch. I lis son-in-law, 
in an afternoon call, had questioned him as to his early life, 
and thus drawn out an account lasting two hours and a half, 
of his entire career. "The narrative was so exciting to 
myself," he writes, "that before I was half through, my 
cheeks were burning as if in a paroxysm of fever. This, 
however, is always the case with me, when in conversation 
my feelings are much engaged." 

His last days passed calmly and happily, notwithstanding 
the discomforts and sufferings of advancing years. Within 
a week of his death, he said to one of his family : "My life 
was never happier than now." Up to his 75th year, his 
health was good, and his out-of-door habits undisturbed ; 
but from that time a series of troubles, beginning with what 
seemed to be neuralgia of the foot, brought increasing infir- 
mities, borne with beautiful patience ; until, Mareh 1, 1852, 
his life came to a peaceful close. 


94 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



Of self-sacrilieing patriots who in troublous times have 
proved themselves worthy the lasting gratitude of the com- 
monwealth, very many have found no biographer ; but none 
seem more completely forgotten, even in the towns of 
which they were once the ruling spirits, than the officers 
who led the Massachusetts yeomanry during those tedious 
campaigns of the French and Indian War, which awoke the 
British colonies to consciousness of their strength and 
thereby hastened the founding of the Republic. A few in- 
cidents in the honorable career of one of these unremem- 
bered patriots — one whom perhaps diffidence only, pre- 
vented from being a very conspicuous figure in the battles 
for independence — 1 have brought together, and oiler as 
faint, unsatisfying outlines of an eventful and useful life. 

In "Appleton's Cyclopa'dia of American Biography," 
published in 1889, twenty-two lines are given to General 
John Whitcomb, nearly every date and statement in which 
is erroneous, it is alleged therein that he was born "-about 
1720, and died in 1812"; and the brief narrative is embel- 
lished with a romantic tale wholly borrowed from the mili- 
tary experience of a younger brother, Colonel Asa Whitcomb. 
Biographical notes in volumes XII. and XVI II. of the 
Essex Institute Historical Collections perpetuate like errors 
of date. Even in the most voluminous histories of the 
building, e£ the Republic, this general's name is barely, or 
iToF at all mentioned. 

John Whitcomb, or Whetcomb as the family always 

1890.] A Forgotten Patriot. 95 

wrote the name until within the present century, was born 
in that part of Lancaster, Massachusetts, which became 
Bolton, in 1738, the eldest .son of John and Rebecca; being 
of the fourth generation from John VVhetcomb, one of the 
original proprietors of the township, who came from 
Dorchester, England, about 1633. The exact date of his 
birth is not found, but in Rev. John Prentice's register it is 
set down that he was baptized, February 20, 171|. He 
was then about two years of age, for the modest slate-stone 
that marks his grave in the oldest burial-ground of Bolton 
records that "John Whetcomb, Esq., died November 17, 
1785, in the 73 year of his age." Not only does his epi- 
taph ignore the military rank of this soldier of three wars, 
but it closes with " Blessed are the peace-makers, for they 
shall be called the children of God." 

Of the boy John not very much can be learned. Before 
his seventh birthday he had lost his father by death, and his 
mother survived her husband but a few years, lie was 
placed in the guardianship of his uncle, Joseph Sawyer, the 
village blacksmith, and no doubt grew up in the little rural 
community that had gathered about the old garrison-house 

Inch his father's uncle Josiah had built, and of which 
Josiah's son was yet commandant. From items in the finan- 
cial account of his stewardship rendered by the guardian, 
we may infer that John had ailments, and swallowed the 
usual drastic doses ; and that these were mostly adminis- 
tered to him by a relative, Doctress Mary VVhetcomb — the 
first medical practitioner resident in Lancaster — who, as 
Mary (Hay ward) Fair bank, had been widowed in the mas- 
sacre of 1(597, and carried to Canada ; and who claimed to 
have brought from her two years' captivity among the Indi- 
ans a rare acquaintance with Nature's remedies, lie went 
to school from eight to twelve weeks in the year, and the 
town's schoolmaster, Edward Broughton, taught him to 
read, write and cipher passably well ; but if spelling was one 
of the educational exercises of his school, John never much 

i)fi American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

profited thereby. Every Sabbath he accompanied his elders 
to the meeting-house, five miles distant, to hear the impres- 
sive exhortations of the Reverend John Prentice, and doubt- 
less was well drilled in the catechism. Living upon the 
verge of English settlement, in an age when extreme fru- 
gality was compulsory upon all, and life to the majority an 
anxious scramble for covering and food, he certainly did 
not long eat the bread of idleness. 

Now and then bands of marauding Indians made their 
presence felt not far away, and as soon as John was strong 
enough to handle his musket well, he in his turn was de- 
tailed to serve as a ranger in the scouting-parties that were 
kept constantly scouring the woods at the north and west, 
in search of the skulking foe. lie was not old enough 'to be 
accepted as a volunteer by the noted captains Lovewell and 
White, in their scalping excursions, but he no doubt list- 
ened with envious admiration to the thrilling stories of their 
prowess, told by his neighbors, the local heroes of Indian 
warfare, when they brought home their bloody spoils of 
ambush and slaughter. The life with its peculiar restraints 
and privations, yet large liberty, could but favor expansion 
of character, and promote hardihood and self-reliance. 

Upon attaining manhood, John Wheteoinb received a 
moiety of his father's estate, coming into possession of the 
homestead in Bolton, then described as one hundred and 
thirty acres of land, with buildings. Limestone had been 
discovered upon or near this land, and the manufacture of 
lime became, in after time, the source of a generous income 
to him ; the product of his kiln exceeding that from any 
other quarry in Eastern Massachusetts. He was married 
to Mary Carter, June 12, 1735. She died in February, 
1744, at the age of twenty-six, leaving three (laughters. 
The following year he took a second wife, Heeky Wheteomb, 
a girl of eighteen, who, in due time, made him father of 

©*** " o" 

six more daughters and three sons. The twelve children 


all lived -to a ripe age, surviving their father. 


A Forgotten Patriot. 


In the absence of Jill muster-rolls of the two companies 
that enlisted from Lancaster and vicinity in 1745, to serve 
with Colonel Samuel Willard at the siege of Louisburg, it 
cannot be told whether John Whetcomb volunteered in that 
popular and brilliantly successful expedition. If in the 
service, it was not as an officer; but three years later his 
name appears with the title lieutenant, in the pay-roll of 
the Lancaster troop sent in pursuit of a party of savages 
lleeing for Canada with the trophies of a murderous raid. 
He had become the foremost citizen of Bolton. As regu- 
larly as the March town-meeting came he was chosen one 
of the selectmen, and usually held one or two other town 
ollices. When, in May, 174$, he was first elected a mem- 
ber of the (ieneral Court, he could not be persuaded to 
accept the honor, and Bolton was unrepresented ; but there- 
after, until called to a higher civil office in 1773, he was 
nearly always the town's representative, when any was 
chosen, holding that otlice for at least twenty years. In 
1754, he was appointed justice of the peace. lie had 
gained recognition in all the country around as an able man 
of affairs, whose word was an ample bond. 

Whatever his previous military experience may have 
been, he had won fair repute by it, for, upon the breaking 
out of the French and Indian War, he was commissioned 
tenant-colonel in the regiment raised by Colonel 
Samuel Willard, jr., for the first Crown Point expedition. 
He was with his command in the desperate battle of Sep- 
tember 8, 1755, at Lake George, and at the close of the 
campaign led the regiment home, having, been promoted to 
the colonelcy, October 27, at the death of Willard. 

\\\ the spring of 1756, the Council, when organizing a 
second expedition against Crown Point, resolved to establish 
a Committee of War, with headquarters at Albany, " to take 
care for the transportation of provisions and other stores for 
the use of the forces of the Province." Colonel Whetcomb 
was one of the three finally appointed upon this committee, 

08 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

and is found busy with bis official cares during the summer 
and autumn. Though onerous, his duties were not compli- 
cated by any grand strategic movement, for, owing to the 
lethargy of Abercrombie and Loudoun, the army did not 
leave its original base of supplies. 

In 1758, the vigorous policy of Pitt, and the payment of 
the Provincial claims for military expenditures aroused 
Massachusetts to enthusiastic preparation for a renewal of 
the struggle with the traditional foe. John Whetcomb 
went to the frontier, again as lieutenant-colonel, his brother 
serving under him as captain. It was his regiment, led by 
its colonel — Jonathan Bagley, another forgotten hero of 
this war — that made the victorious charge upon the French 
advance guard near Ticonderoga, on July 5, in which 
Lord Howe, the inspiring genius of the army, was slain. 
For so brief an engagement — it lasted but an hour — the 
regiment's loss was quite heavy. Reverend John 
Cleaveland, chaplain of the command, was the intimate 
friend of Colonel Whetcomb and occupied the same log-hut 
with him in the encampment at Lake George. From 
CJeaveland's diary, and that of the regimental surgeon, 
Caleb Ilea, many interesting particulars respecting the con- 
duct of the camps can be gleaned, but they contain nothing 
that pictures the personality of their lieutenant-colonel, or 
discloses what part he had in the foolhardy assault upon 
Ticonderoga, which ended the dismal record of Abercroinbie's 

The following year, Colonel Whetcomb Was probably not 
in the service, but in 17(50 he commanded one of the live 
Massachusetts regiments in General Amherst's army as- 
signed to the right wkiff, which, under Colonel William 
Haviland, moved out from Crown Point, August 10, in 
batteaux, for the invasion of Canada, His orderly-book for 
this, the closing campaign of the long war, is preserved in 
the Lancaster Library. It contains rosters of the eighteen 
companies of his command — which numbered about eight 

181)0.] A Forgotten Patriot. ( J9 

hundred men — and the general orders received between 
August 11 and November 9. Nearly forty deaths are 
noted in the rosters, mostly chargeable, it is to be presumed, 
to small-pox, and camp disorders, engendered by toil and 
exposure ; for no very resolute opposition from the enemy 
was encountered during the month spent in the advance 
upon Montreal. The victory speedily won and its fruits 
secure, the Provincials, both officers and men, hoped to be 
dismissed and return to farms and families needing their 
care ; but for two months more the grumbling, discontented 
yeomen were kept delving at fortirications and winter bar- 
racks for the battalions of regulars that were to garrison 
Crown Point. When these were at last completed, arms 
and tents were turned .over to the ordnance officer, and 
Colonel Whetcomb led his men across Vermont, then an 
unbroken wilderness, to the Connecticut river at Cliarles- 
town, and thence homeward through the New Hampshire 

Ten years passed in which the Colonel's sword rusted, 
but his Hocks and lands increased, and his services as mag- 
istrate were in constant request. Suddenly, in that green 
valley which slumbers in the evening shadows of the 
Wataquodock hills, there arose a fierce conflict concerning 
church polity, familiarly known as the (loss and Walley 
war, — so named from the two clergymen forced to become 
rivals in the contest. It was born of the temper of the 
times, and John and Asa Whetcomb were the prime expo- 
nents of that temper in the eastern part of Worcester 
county. The revolt against the autocratic claims of the 
clergy, in which the Whetcombs were leaders, was but an 
episode, a bubbling over of the boiling wrath against politi- 
cal tyranny. The radicals took up the Puritan cry "no 
bishops," been use they dared not yet shout their war-cry 
"no king." The overturn of the humble Bolton pulpit 
jarred, as with an earthquake shock, all the churches round 
about it. The controversy was ostensibly concerned oidy 

100 American Antiquarian Sociely. [Oct. 

with the powers of ecclesiastical councils and the arrogated 
right of the minister to negative the vote of the brethren ; 
hut it is noticeable that when a too patriarchal shepherd 
was pushed from his pulpit throne to make way for the in- 
stalment of one less insistent upon dignities, the registers 
show that the torics all continued to present their babes for 
baptism to the old incumbent, while the radicals all patron- 
ized the new one. 

A young and angry clerical pamphleteer, during the 
wrangle, once sneeringly referred to our colonel as "a jus- 
tice of a very slender capacity" ; but an able respondent 
dedicated his pamphlet, to Whetcomb, as a well-known 
champion of civil and religious liberty, and stigmatized the 
sneer of his assailant as impudence, sufficiently answered 
by the long service of the colonel as the town's honored 
representative. Whetcomb was one of the ninety-two who, 
in 1768, voted not to rescind, at royal dictation, the 
Massachusetts Representatives' circular-letter to the Colonial 
Assemblies. The public estimation of his capacity and 
character was further shown in 1773, by his election to a 
seat in the Council. Ue was, however, so distrustful of his 
qual ideations for the higher oflice, that he modestly begged 
to be allowed to remain in the lower branch of the 

When the spirit of republicanism in the province of Mas- 
sachusetts had been, by various causes, wrought up to the 
rash venture of rebellion against the acts of Parliament, her 
shrewd political managers saw the necessity of a thorough 
re-organization of the militia, and promptly set about the 
work. Military leaders of ability, tested in actual campaign- 
ing, there were in abundance. The younger of the heroes 
who took part in the capture of Louisburg, in 1745, were 
hardly past the prime of life, and colonels and captains who 
had earned their titles in the conquest of Canada, were to 
be found in every town. Though mostly clad in homespun, 
often uncourtly in manners, and far from masters in the in- 

1890.] A Forgotten Patriot. 101 

tricate science of tactics, these officers had not forgotten the 
many practical lessons taught them dining five years of war, 
— they had fresh in mind the costly blunders of the marti- 
nets sent from England to take command over them — they 
yet smarted under the supercilious treatment they had always 
experienced from those holding the King's commission. 
The majority of them were active in the democratic ferment 
of the times, although two of the most conspicuous for their 
military attainments and gallant services in the tield, Brig- 
adier-General Timothy Buggies and Colonel Abijah Willard, 
belonged to the conservative party ; the former being an 
avowed royalist, the latter, luke-warm, perhaps, in his alle- 
giance, but bound by many ties to the friends of monarchy. 
Brigadier-General Jedediah Preble, a member of the 
Council, who, in date of commission and soldierly reputa- 
tion, ranked second only to Iiuggles, was select* d by the 
second Provincial Congress as commander-in-chief of the 
Massachusetts forces, and four others, all members of the 
same elective body, were chosen general ollieers. They 
were: Honorable Artemas Ward, Colonel Seth Pomeroy, 
Colonel John Thomas and Colonel William Heath, taking 
rank in the order named. These appointments created 
some heart-burnings, for General Ward's reputation was 
chielly political, his rank in service never having been 
higher than lieutenant-colonel, and General Heath had 
never seen service. General Preble, who was nearly 
seventy years of age, declined his commission, and on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1775, Colonel John Wheteomb's name was added 
to the list of generals, the member of the Congress from 
Bolton bein<>- desired "to wait upon Hon. John Wheteomb, 
Us(j., with a copy of his being elected a general officer, and 
desire his answer whether he will accept that trust, as soon 
as may be." lie had already been chosen their eolonel by 
the line officers of the Lancaster regiment of minute-men. 
lie accepted the duties of both offices. Of the live Massa- 
chusetts generals thus appointed, Seth Pomeroy was the 

102 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

oldest by seven years, but Whetcomb had earliest won the 
rank of colonel in service, and could claim the most varied 
experience in military all'airs ; while the three younger offi- 
cers much surpassed both, in the advantages which a liberal 
education gives. 

The morning of the nineteenth of April, 1775, found 
General Whetcomb at his home, which was, by several 
miles, nearer Concord than were those of his company com- 
manders. When, therefore, the courier dashed up to his 
door announcing the long-expected raid of the British sol- 
diers from Boston, after despatching the necessary orders 
to his field-officers, he no doubt galloped towards the scene 
of conliict with such escort as hastily assembled, — for he 
came upon the bloody field and took part in the fighting 
that day, as attested by General Heath in his Memoirs. 
General Ward did not reach Cambridge until the next 
afternoon, when a council of war was held, at which 
Whetcomb was one of the three generals present. May 6, 
the Provincial Congress passed a resolve appointing Gen- 
eral Whetcomb and Colonel Benjamin Lincoln muster-mas- 
ters of the State's army. In declining the position, the 
General excused himself by pleading the engrossing de- 
mands upon his time of "various avocations," and his 
brother was then chosen to be Colonel Lincoln's associate. 

The third Provincial Congress, on June 13, elected 
John Whetcomb "first major-general of the Massachusetts 
army," Artemas Ward having been made commander-in- 
chief, and John Thomas lieutenant-general, the previous 
month. The next day Joseph Warren was chosen " second 
major-general," and committees were appointed to wait 
upon the two officers-elect and report their response. 
Whetcomb, either from modesty, or, feeling the weight of 
years and increasing cares, hesitated formally to accept the 
commission, whereupon, the Congress, on June 16, "or- 
dered, that Col. Richmond, Doct. Taylor and Mr. Partridge 
be a committee to draw a complaisant letter to General 

1890.] A Forgotten Patriot. 103 

Whetcomb, to desire a more explicit answer respecting his 
acceptance of the post of first major-general." The letter 
and reply were as follows :— 

Watertown, June 16, 1775. 
Sir: — Your letter wherein you express yourself willing 
to continue in the service of this Colony, until the army is 
regulated and properly encamped, and then rely on a dis- 
charge was read with much concern by this Congress, who 
earnestly hope you will continue in olfice till the conclusion 
of the campaign, and must beg your further and more ex- 
plicit answer. * * * 

To the Honb le Congress. 

Whereas you Desire of me to Give a more Explicit 
Answer as to my Opintment, as the Surcumstances of the 
army is so Dehcult and the Enemy so ner, I excep the Ser- 
vis to Do my Duty, as far as I shall Be Able. 

John Whetcomb Col . 
Cambridge, June y L 22 d , 1775. 

John Whetcomb was in active service at Cambridge 
before and during the battle of Bunker's Hill. Having 
received ollicial notice that he had been made first major- 
general, — and Lieutenant-general Thomas being in com- 
mand of the right wing, and General Putnam of the left,— 
he was of course next in rank to the commander-in-chief at 
the centre of the patriot lines investing Boston. We accord- 
ingly tind in a newspaper of the period this question asked : 
' k as there was no general officer that commanded on 
Bunker's Hill, was it not his duty to have been there?" 
The author of the query — who was a colonel, and on June 
17, near enough the battle-ground with his regiment to 
f have two men wounded, — was not sufficiently endowed 
with the spirit of prophecy to suspect that General Putnam 
was the "Commander at Bunker's Hill" ; and, moreover, 
ignored the fact, which Whetcomb doubtless knew, that 
Generals Pomeroy and Warren were at the front, and could 

104 America?* Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

have assumed command there. The whole testimony in the 
court-martial for trial of Colonel Scammons goes to show 
that General AVhetcomb was in his place, guarding, with 
some forces now unknown, that important strategic posi- 
tion, Lechmere Point. Whether stationed there by orders 
of his superior is not recorded, and is not material, since it 
was wise military prevision to expect attack in that quarter 
and prepare for it. Indeed, the British generals were criti- 
cised severely at the time, and have been censured since by 
high authority, for not making their main assault there. 
Whetcomb, when the arena of the conilict was determined, 
— if we may judge from the only act of his, on that day, 
which has been recorded for us, — was engaged at his post 
of duty in ordering such bodies of troops as he found avail- 
able to the re-enforcement of Prescott. 

The selection of general officers announced by the Conti- 
nental Congress in June,' 1775, was made with a careless 
disregard of previous commissions or claims for services 
rendered, and caused great dissatisfaction, not only to the 
veteran colonels of the last war, but among the soldiers by 
whom they were almost idolized. It might well be, that 
Whetcomb would feel aggrieved by the omission of his 
name from the list of Continental brigadiers, as did Pomeroy 
and Thomas by the rank assigned tliem in the list. There 
at once arose a clamor for revision of the appointments, so 
general and wrathful, that Washington withheld the com- 
missions and notified Congress of the fact. The Provincial 
Assembly sent the following letter to Whetcomb and other 
slighted officers : — 

In the House of Representatives, July 22, 1775. 
Sir: This house approving of your services in the sta- 
tion you were appointed in the army by the Congress of 
this Colony, embrace this opportunity to express their sense 
of them, and at the same time to desire your Continuance 
with the army, if you judge you can do it without impro- 
priety, till the final determination of the Continental Con- 

1890.] A Forgotten Patriot. 105 

gress shall be known in regard to the appointment of 
General officers. We assure you that the Justice of this 
House will be engaged to make 3^011 an adequate compensa- 
tion for your services. We have such intelligence as attbrds 

us confidence to suppose, that a few days will determine 
whether any such provision shall be made Cor you as is 
consistent with your honor to accept, and shall give you 
encouragement to remain in the; service. 

By Order of the House. 

The Continental appointments superseding the Provincial, 
John Whetcomh had no further part in the siege of Boston. 
June 5, 1776, he was commissioned a brigadier-general in 
the Continental army, and Washington then declared his 
intention to assign him at once to the command of the forces 
in Massachusetts, relieving General Ward who had tendered 
his resignation because physically disqualified for active 
duty. But Whetcomh, following the example of Seth 
Pomeroy, chose not to accept the recognition of his services 
and ability which had come so late. In returning the com- 
mission he asked "to be excused on account of age, and a 
diihdence of not being able to answer the expectation of 
Congress." The next month he was again elected a mem- 
ber of the Council, in which body he served with credit 
during four years, and then passed from public view to the 
quiet of his rural home. 

In the town which his whole life honored, no traditions 
are rife that tell us of his form or personal traits. His sons 
are remembered as men of ordinary stature and mould, 
good citizens of fair abilities. John Whetcomh obviously 
owed his great and lasting popularity to such qualities as 
made Prescott, Pomeroy and Stark historic names. He 
was a republicanized Puritan, a zealous, unselfish patriot, a 
man of action, ignorant of rhetoric, not given to bluster. 
Uneducated, and not disposed to over-rate his own powers, 
he rose to command by native force of character. He must 
have been brave in battle, and gifted with personal magnet- 
ism and tact, for volunteer soldiers followed him with love 

100 Amer'ican Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

and respect through campaign after campaign ; — exemplary 
in life, for he was looked up to in the church, and his enemy 
spoke nothing ill of him ; — impartial in judgment, for in his 
day and limited sphere his name stands oftenest in the rec- 
ords as moderator, arbitrator and magistrate; — energetic 
in administration, for those high in authority sought his 
aid; — judicious in legislation and council, for electors did 
not tire of honoring him with their unsought suffrages. 

1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 107 



Between the ages of nine and fourteen, my parents who 
then lived in a distant town very wisely permitted me to 
spend most of the sehool-less part of these five years, so 
critical for a boy's development, with a large family on a 
large farm in Ashiield of this State. Although this joyous 
"period ended in 18G0, the life, modes of thought and feel- 
ing, industries, dress, etc., were very old fashioned for that 
date and were tenaeiously and proudly kept so. In more re- 
cent years, as I have come to believe that nowhere does the 
old New England life still persist more strongly or can be 
studied more objectively, I have spent portions of several 
summers, with the aid of a small fund placed in my hands 
for the purpose, in collecting old farm tools, household 
utensils, furniture, articles of dress, and hundreds of mis- 
cellaneous old objects into a local museum, a little after the 
fashion of the museums of Plymouth, Salem and Deerfield. 
I have interviewed all the oldest inhabitants for details 
of customs, industries, persons, become interested in a map 
of the original farms, verified in part by old walls and cel- 
lar holes and apple-trees, and compiled a brief history of 
the town. My vacation interest grew into a record partly be- 
cause so many facts of the early life and thoughts of old New 
England are still unrecorded and are now so fast passing be- 
yond the reach of record, with the lamented decay of these 
little old towns, partly because despite certain evils this life 
at its best appears to me to have constituted about the 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

best educational environment for boys at a certain stage 
of their development ever realized in history, combining 
physical, industrial, technical with civil and religious 
elements in wise proportions and pedagogic objectivity. 
Again : this mode of life is the one and the only one that 
represents the ideal basis of a state of citizen voters as 
contemplated by the trainers of our institutions. Finally, it 
is more and more refreshing in our age, and especially in 
the vacation mood, to go back to sources, to the fresh pri- 
mary thoughts, feelings, beliefs, modes of life of simple, 
homely, genuine men. Our higher anthropology labors to 
start afresh for tin? common vulgar standpoint as Socrates 
did, from what Maurice calls the Ethos, and Grote the 
Nomos of common people and of a just preceding and a 
vanishing type of civilization, to be warned with its experi- 
ence and saturated with its local color. 

I have freely eked out the boyish memory of those 
five years with that of older persons : but everything that 
follows was in Ashlield within the memory of people living 
there three years ago. Time allows me to present here but a 
small part of the entire record, to sample it here and there, 
and show a few obvious lessons. 

I begin with winter, when men's industries were most 
diversified, and were largely in ivood. Lumber — or tim- 
ber — trees were chopped down and cut by two men work- 
ing a cross-cut saw, which was always getting stuck fast in 
a pinch which took the set out of it, unless the whole trunk 
was pried up by skids. Sometimes the fallen trees were 
cut into logs, snaked together, and piled with the aid of 
cant-hooks, to be drawn across the frozen pond to the saw- 
mill for some contemplated building, or, if of spruce, elf 
straight grain and few knots, or of good rift, they were cut 
in bolts, or cross-sections of fifteen inches long, which was 
the legal length for shingles. These were taken home in a 
pung, split with beetle and wedge, and then with a trow and 
finished off with a drawshave, on a shaving-horse, itself 

18 DO.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town, 


home-made* These rive shingles were thought far more 
durable than those cut into shape by the buzz-saw which 
does not follow the grain. To be of prime quality these 
must be made of heart and not sap wood, nor of second 
growth trees. The shavings were in wide demand for 
kindling lires. Axe-helves, too, were sawn, split, hewn, 
whittled, and scraped into shape with bits of broken glass, 
and the forms peculiar to each local maker were as 
characteristic as the style of painter or poet, and were 
widely known, compared and criticised. Butter-paddles 
were commonly made of red cherry, while sugar lap-pad- 
dles were made by merely barking whistle wood or bass, 
and whittling down one end for a handle. Mauls and 
beetles were made of ash knots, ox-bows of walnut, held 
into shape till seasoned by withes of yellow birch, from 
which also birch brushes and brooms were manufactured on 
winter evenings by stripping down seams of wood iff I he 
green. There were salt mortars and pig-troughs made from 
solid logs, with tools hardly more ell'ective than those the 
Indian uses for his dug-out. Flails for next year's thresh- 
ing ; cheese-hoops and cheese-ladders ; bread-troughs and 
yokes for hogs and sheep, and pokes for jumping cattle, 
horses and unruly geese, and stanchions for cows. Some 
took this season for cutting next summer's bean and hop 
poles, pea bush, cart and sled stakes, with an eye always 
out for a straight clean whip stock or tish pole. Repairs 
were made during this season, and a new cat-hole beside 
the door, with a hit e rally-working drop-lid which the cat 
operated with ease, was made one winter. New sled neaps, 
and lingers for the grain cradle, handles for shovels and 
dung-forks, pitch-forks, spades, spuds, hoes, and a little ear- 
lier for rakes. Scythes and brooms were home-made j and 
machines and men of special trades were so far uncalled for. 
Nearly all these forms of domestic wood work I saw, and 
even helped in as a boy of ten might, or imitated them in 
play in those thrice-happy days, while in elder pop-guns, 

1 10 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

with a ringing report that were almost dangerous in-doors ; 
hemlock bows and arrows, or cross bows, with arrow-heads 
run on with melted lead (for which every scrap of lead pipe 
or antique pewter dish was in great demand) often fatal for 
very small game ; box and figure 4 traps for rats and 
squirrels ; wind-mills ; weather-vanes in the form of fish, 
roosters or even ships ; an actual saw-mill that went in the 
brook, and cut planks with marino and black and white 
Carter potatoes for logs ; and many whittled tools, toys and 
ornamental forms and puppets ; — in all these and many more, 
I even became in a short time, a fairly average expert as 
compared with other boys, at least so I then thought. How 
much all this has served me since, in the laboratory, in 
daily life, and even in the study, it would be hard to esti- 

The home industry in woollen is a good instance of one 
which survives in occasional families to this day. Sheep, as I 
remember could thrive on the poorest hay, ororts,the leav- 
ings of the neat cattle. In summer they could eat brakes 
and polipods, if not even hardback and tansy, and would 
browse down berry briers and underbrush, while their 
teeth cut the grass so close that cows could hardly 
survive in the same pasture with them. The spring lambs 
were raised in the shed by hand, sometimes as cossets by 
the children, who often derived their first savings there- 
from. Sheep washing day was a gala day when, if at no 
other time, liquor was used against exposure, and shearing 
which came a week or two later, was hardly less interest- 
ing. A good shearer, who had done; his twenty-live head a 
day, commanded good wages, seventy-five cents or a dollar 
a day ; while the boys must pull the dead sheep, even though 
they were only found after being some weeks defunct. 
Fleeces for home use were looked over, all burrs and shives 
picked out, and they were then oiled with poor lard. "Bees" 
were often made to do this. Carding early became 
specialized and carders were in every town, but the im- 

1890.] Boy Life In a Massachusetts Town, 


plements were in each family, some members of which 
could not only card, but could even use the line, long- 
toothed worsted combs in an emergency. The rolls were 
spun at home, novices doing the woof or filling, and the 
older girls the warp, which must be better. It was taken 
from the spindle sometimes on a niddy-noddy held in the 
hand, at two rounds per yard', but more commonly on a 
reel, in rounds of two yards each. Every forty rounds was 
signalized on a reel by the snap of a wooden spring or the 
fall of a hammer, and constituted a knot, four, five, seven, 
or ten of which (in different families and for different pur- 
poses) constituting a skein, and twenty knots making a 
run. Four seven-knotted skeins of tilling, or six of warp 
was a day's work, , though now, I am told, few young 
women can accomplish so much without excessive fatigue. 
The yarn doubled if for stockings, after beimj washed clean 
of grease, next went to the great dye-tub in the chimney 
corner. Butternut bark for every-day suits, indigo for 
Sunday suits, and madder for shirting was the rule. There 
were also fancy dyes and fancy dyeing, braiding, binding 
tightly or twisting in a white thread to get the favorite hit 
or miss, or pepper-and-salt effect, a now almost incredible 
ingenuity in making op figures and fancy color effects for 
loom patterns in girls' dresses. Next the tilling was quitted 
and the warp spooled, the former ready for the shuttle, 
and the hitter for the warping bars (both of these latter 
being often home-made) to which it goes from the scarn or 
spool-frame. In warping, the leese must be taken with 
care, for if tin; order of the threads is lost they cannot be 
properly thumbed through the harnesses and hooked 
through the reed, and are good for nothing but to make 
into clothes lines and the piece is lost. A raddle also acts 
in keeping the warp disentangled and of proper width be- 
fore the lathe and tenters can hold it. Sometimes blue 
and white shirt-formed frock cloth was woven, sometimes 
kerseys and plaid dress patterns of many colors, or woollen 

112 Aiiier lean Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

sheets, and even woollen pillow-cases which were as warm 
and heavy, although coarser than those the olfaotorial 
zoologist Jager advises, and sells to his followers. The 
complication of harnesses and treadles required to weave 
some of the more complicated carpet, and especially cover- 
lid patterns, evinced great ingenuity and long study, and 
is probably now, although the combinations were carefully 
written down, in most communities a forever lost art. On 
coming from the loom the cloth was wet for shrinkage, and 
the nap picked up with cards of home grown teasels and 
sheared smooth on one side, although in those days this 
process had already gone to the local fuller. Coarse yarn 
was also spun from tag-locks which was of course home 
carded. Knitting was easy, pretty visiting work. Girls 
earned from two to three York shillings a pair for men's 
stockings, paid in trade from the store, which put out such 
work if desired. Shag mittens were knit from thrumbs or 
the left-over ends of warp. Nubias and sontags were knit 
with large wooden needles, and men's gloves, tidies, and 
clock stockings with ornamental open work in the sides 
were knit with one hook, and the tape loom held between 
the knees was kept going evenings. 

Domestic ilax industry still lingers in a few families. 
The seed was sown broadcast and grew till the bolls were 
ripe, when it was pulled and laid in rows by the boys and 
whipped, in a few days, to get the seed for meal. After 
laying out of doors for some weeks till the slaves were 
rotten, it was put through the process of breaking on the 
ponderous ilax-break. It was then swingled, hatchelled, 
and finally hanked. It was then wound on the distaff 
made of a young spruce top, and drawn out for spinning. 
Grasshopper years, when it was short, this was hard, and 
though ticking, meal-bags, and scratchy tow shirts could 
be made, liner linen products were impossible. After 
weaving it must be bleached in a goo'd quality of air. 

However it was with adults, child life was full of 

18 ( J0.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 


amusements. Children were numerous in every neighbor- 
hood, and though they were eaeh required to be useful, 
they were Jn early years left nmeh to themselves and were 
at home in every house, barn, or shed, within a mile, or 
more. There was of eourse coasting ; skating ; swimming ; 
gool ; fox and hounds ; and snow-balling, with choosing of 
sides, lasting for a whole school term, with elaborate forts ; 
cart wheel and men o' morn's in the snow ; collar and elbow, 
or square hold wrestling, with its many diiferent trips, 
locks and play-ups — side and back hold being unseientilie ; 
round ball ; two and four old cat, with soft yarn balls 
thrown at the runner. The older girl-boys spent the hour's 
nooning in the school-house and either paired oil' for small 
games or talks, or played "Here we stand all round this 
ring," "Needle's eye," "Kitty corners" or "Who's got the 
button." As in the age of Shakespeare the queen's maids 
of honor played tag, so here all children, and even adults 
often played childs' games with gusto. In the family, as 
they gathered about the stove, or sometimes about the 
grand old lireplaee in the back kitehen, with its baek-log, 
crane, pot hooks and trammels, there were stories of the 
old fort, of bears, wild cats, Indians and Bloody Brook, 
and other probably imprinted tales perhaps many genera- 
tions old. There were some who could sing old English 
ballads that had come down by tradition and which had 
never been in print in America and more who could sing a 
comic song or pathetic negro melody. Lord Lovel, 
Irving, Bunyau, TheYoutlts Companion and many Sunday- 
school books were read aloud. A pair of skates was 
earned by a boy friend one winter by reading the entire 
Bible through, and another bought an accordion with money 
earned by braiding the plain sides of palm-leaf hats where 
no splicing was needed, for the women at a cent per side. 
All families allowed the game of fox and geese, a few 
permitted checkers, and one, backgammon, which was 
generally thought to be almost gambling ; dominoes wen; 

114 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

barely tolerated, but riddles, rebuses and charades were in 
high favor by old and young and were published in all the 
local weekly papers. It was here that I learned that card 
playing, which T had often seen before but did not much 
understand nor care for, was very wrong, and a boy friend 
was taught old sledge, and euchre, up over the horse sheds 
on Sundays between services, by an older son of the 
officiating minister. There were hull-gull ; cats-cradle with 
two series of changes; string and knot puzzles: odd and 
even ; and most of the games, and many more than those in 
Mr. Newel's charming, and largely original, book entitled, 
"The Plays and Games of American Children, 1 ' connecting 
many of them conclusively with the sports and pastimes 
of the English people in the merry olden time of Brandt. 
One maiden lady, whom we all loved, could spell "The 
Abominable Bumble Bee with his Head Cut OH','' in an 
inverse House-that-Jack-built fashion, with a most side- 
splitting eifect. There were beech and chestnutting parties ; 
raisings ; and days set apart for all the men in the district 
being warned out by the surveyor to gather and work on 
the roads with teams. Work was easy, as it was for the 
town, and stories were plenty. There were huskings, witl 
cider and pumpkin pie, and games on- the barn lloor, wl 
it was cleared of corn ; paring bees, with bobbing, swinging 
a whole paring thrice around the head, thence to fall on the 
floor in the form of the fancied initial of some person of the 
other sex, and counting seeds to the familiar doggerel — 
one I love, two I love, three I love and say, four I love 
with all my heart, and live I cast away, etc. Here the 
apples were quartered and strung, and hung in festoons to 
dry, all over the kitchen. There were quilting bees for 
girls about to marry, where the men came in the evening 
and partook of the new species of rice pop-corn, served in 
two large milk pans, with perhaps the most delicious home 
made spruce and wintergreen beer. Spelling schools in 
which the parents took part, and where the champion 


1890.} Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town, 


spellers of rural districts, alter exhausting several spelling 
books, agreed to spell each other down on an abridged 
Worcester's dictionary. There were weekly evening sing- 
ing schools in winter, and several of us taught ourselves or 
each other to play the accordion, and tiddle by rote, to 
dance single and double shuttle on a board, and the steps of 
waltz, polka, and schottish. Even square dances were 
attempted to our own music, if we could get a caller-oil'. 
This latter was here a stolen sweet, as was the furtive 
reading of the thrilling tales of Sylvanus Cobb in the 
New York Ledger — sets of which were smuggled around 
among the boys and read after retiring, or in sheep shed, 
hay mow, or attic, on rainy days. I must not forget the 
rage for trapping and hunting, by which we learned much 
of the habits of crows, hawks, muskrats, woodchucks, 
squirrels, partridges and even foxes, and which made us 
acquainted with wide areas of territory. In a regular 
squirrel hunt organized by choosing sides, and a dinner to 
the victors paid for by the vanquished party, as determined 
by counting tails, boys of my age were not old enough to 
participate. We made collections however for whole 
seasons, of heads, legs, wings, and tails, as well as of 
woods, leaves, flowers 1 , stones, bugs, butterflies, etc. 

The dull days in Jurying time brought another sort of 
education. The men of the vicinity strolled together in a 
shed, and sitting on tool bench, grindstone, manger, 
wagons, chopping blocks, and hog spouts, discussed crop 
prices, ditching, walling, salting cattle, finding springs 
with witch-hazed, taxes, the preaching, the next selectmen, 
fence-viewer, constable, and, I suppose a little earlier, 
wardens, leather-sealers, deer reeves, surveyors of shingles 
and clapboards and of wheat, field drivers, tithing men, 
clerk of the market, and pound-keepers, as well a» the 
good brooks and ponds for trouting, or snaring pickerel 
with brass wire loops and a white-birch-bark light at night, 
and every sort of gossip. The old uncles who came to be 


116 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the heroes of current stories, unci who were in a sense ideal 
men, were shrewd and sharp, of exceeding few words, but 
these oracular, of most unpromising exteriors and mode of 
speech, with quaint and eccentric ways which made their 
quintessential wisdom very surprising by the contrast ; 
while in weather signs and in drugs the old Indian was 
sometimes the sage. At the opposite extreme was the 
unseasoned fellow who can be fooled and not get the best 
of it if he was ' k run" or played some practical joke. Absurd 
exaggerations told with a serious air, to test the hearer's 
knowledge or credulity, were the chief ingredients of this 
lowery-day wit. Thus the ass's head was not unfrequently 
clapped on some poor rich fellow, green from the city, or 
some larger town, suspected of the unpardonable sin of 
being " stuck up." 

In' this air a good " nag " has great viability. As a boy 
here, e. g., I often played hunt, snapping a disabled old 
Hint-lock musket at every live thing in Held and forest, for 
which an adult neighbor used to "run'* me unmercifully 
before the whole shed. Years after, when 1 was at home on 
a college outing, he had not forgotten it, and for perhaps a 
dozen summers since, I have met it. On a recent evening, 
when walking with a dignified city friend, he met me with 
the same old grind, " Hello, huntin' much this summer 
with Philander's old gun?" as he slapped his thighs and 
laughed till the hills rang, and, though T did not hear him, 
I am no less certain that he said to the neighbor with him, 
when they had ridden well by, that 1 was always a pretty 
middlin' good sort of a fellow after all, and wasn't stuck 
up. The joke will no doubt keep fresh another quarter of 
a century if my friend lives, and there are many more of 
the same kind. Another grind at my expense illustrates 
the inventive cleverness of this old Yankee type. As one 
of the speakers at an annual dinner in honor of the old 
town Academy, I had been several times introduced as a 
specimen of the former students of the Academy. One 



1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts 7 

night at the crowded post-office this shrewd old farmer told, 
in my presence and tor my benefit, the story of old Joe \\ r ., 
who went on the road as a drummer for the old tannery. 
He said Joe had just experienced religion, and was just 
then so all-fired honest that he selected, as the samples he 
was' to sell from, pieces of sole leather a trifle below the 
average quality, instead of above, as an honest drummer 
should do. He was afraid to hope that Professor N., who 
presided at the dinner, had experienced religion, but least- 
ways he was so all-fired honest that he leaned over back- 
wards worse than old Joe in calling me out as a sample 
Academy boy, for although 1 was middling smart there was 
not a boy of them who wasn't a plaguey sight smarter than 
I was. Another of his stories was of Stephen and Ann. 
They were courting, and she had sat in his lap in the kitchen 
one Sunday evening for some hours, when she suddenly 
asked if he was not tired. He gallantly replied, " Not a 
mite, Ann, keep right on settin'. I was awful tired an hour 
ago, but now 1 am numb." "That is the way 1 believe 

with Rev. P 's hearers when his long sermons end." 

Then there was the story of old Deacon S., who sold 
home-made cider brandy or twisted cider, at the rate of 
twenty-five cents per gallon, but who always used to get 
his big thumb into the quart measure, which had lost its 
handle, displacing its cubic contents of brandy. There 
was another tale of Captain A., who being cheated in a 
horse trade by Mr. B., called all his sous and grand- 
sons together solemnly, as if for family prayers, told 
them the circumstances, and enjoined them to cheat B, 
back to the amount of six dollars, and if they did not live 
to do it to teach their children and grandchildren to cheat 
his descendants to the end of time; but a few months 
later, after another trade with B., the captain convened his 
family again to say that the score had been paid with inter- 
est, and to release; them from the covenant. There was the 
story of Uncle (*., who began his courtship by " ereepin' 

118 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

in, all unbeknown," behind his best girl, stealing up close 
behind her as she was washing dishes, hat on and chair in 
hand, with the salute, " Well, Sal, feel kind'er sparky to- 
night?" to which she coquettishly but encouragingly 
replied, " Well, I reckon p'raps a leelle more sorter than 
'sorter not"; and how at last, the minister being away, they 
rode together on one horse twenty miles alone, and were 
married. There was the legend of old Squire V., who 
used to be a great favorite with the girls. Driving up to 
the town clerk's door one day he told him to have him 
M published" the next Sunday with Miss B., and drove oil*. 
Soon he returned and desired the name changed to Miss 
C, and finally, after several changes and some minutes 
of profound deliberation, settled on Miss II., whom 
he married. There was the tale of the turning of the 
Deer Held river by the two great but mystic ancestors of 
one family in town. It once flowed down the gap in Mr. 
P.'s pasture, through the pond and over the plain of the 
village, and was stipulated as the northern boundary of the 
possessions of these pioneers. They were ambitious, and 
had noticed that new settlers and their depredations fol- 
lowed rivers, so they hired hundreds of Indians to dig 
with sharpened sticks, day and night, one entire summer, 
till the stream at length washed over down a more north- 
erly valley so suddenly as to sweep away the dusky maiden 
beloved by one of the pioneers ; with many other romantic 
incidents. There was the story of the old horse jockey 
G., who in his travels found a negro of great strength but 
so simple as to agree to work for him a hundred years, on 
the expiration of which time the old jockey was to give 
him all the property and serve him a century ; and who 
cured him of the inveterate habit of sucking eggs by show- 
ing him a dozen, apparently freshly laid, in his bed one 
morning just after lie had risen, and frightening him out of 
the practice by convincing him that he had laid the eggs 
while he slept. There was the story of the old cat ground 

1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 


up in the mill with dreadful caterwaul ings, and of the two 

bushels of good rye required to grind the mill-stones clean 
again. Another, was of the case, famous in history, of the 
non-conforming Baptist * deacon who would not pay his 
town tax to support the Congregational preaching, and 
whose apple-trees were dug up by the constable and sold 
for payment; of the deacon's going to Boston to the Gen- 
eral Court, and of his return with a barrel of cider brandy 
drawn on two poles strapped together, one end of each in 
the hold-backs and the other end dragging on the ground. 
There were stories of a noted lady pioneer in the cause of 
female education, who solicited domestic utensils and prod- 
uce of every kind for a young ladies' seminary, following 
the men into stable and around hay mow in her quest ; of 
old Heeber, suspected of witchcraft, who lived apart and 
was buried outside the cemetery ; of old Sloper, who had 
no friends, and vanished so mysteriously that gradually a 
detailed story of his murder by a prominent, but not 
beloved citizen, was evolved ;< of the old church, stone- 
cold in winter, with two services and sermons from ten to 
four, and in summer with the rocks black at nooning with 
people, mostly members in close communion, eating their 
Sunday dinner and picking caraway or meetin-seed ; of 
the waste of timber, or the greed of individuals in shack- 
ing hogs on the then extensive undivided land or common, 
and even of the secular variations of the compass to 
account for the disparity between the old surveys of 
boundary lines and new ones. 

Evenings in the kitchen were spent with light work and 
gossip, unremitting. Candles, in olden times before cot- 
ton, it is said were made by loosely spinning tow-wicking. 
Candle rods were then whittled out or cut from cat-tails, 
on which wicking for a dozen candles was put, and they 
were hung over the back of an old, high, straight-backed 
chair tipped down, and dipped every few minutes in beef, 
or better, mutton tallow melted in the tin boiler. Of 

120 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

course candles grew faster on cold days, but were more 
likely to crack. Good iron candlesticks were rare, and at 
balls and parties potatoes were used, and wooden blocks. 
The evolution, 1 have heard, was first a "slut" or linen 
ra<>- in fat, or a bowl of woodchuck's oil with a floating 
wick through a wooden button. Later came a square strip 
of fat pork with a thin sliver of wood thrust through to 
stiffen it and serve as a wick. Fire could still be made by 
friction of wood in an emergency. The best-raked tire 
would sometimes go out, and then fire must be borrowed 
from a neighbor. Those who wished to be independent 
obtained tinder-boxes with Hint and iron, smudged tow and 
punk. Home-made matches, with brimstone and saltpetre, 
would catch readily, but friction matches were a great nov- 
elty. One of these friction matches, also home-made, of 
spruce lumber, by the boys, was " drawed " by their in- 
credulous father who, when he found it would really go, 
put it carefully in his pocket for future use. 

The ideal hearth and fireplace of olden times (restored at 
Plymouth, and especially at Deerlield, Mass., by George 
Sheldon,) was indeed the centre about which the whole 
family system revolved. On the swinging crane, evolved 
from the earlier wooden lug-pole, hung from pot-hooks, 
chains and trammels, several species of iron pots and brass 
kettles, in front of a green back-log, so big and long that 
it was sometimes snaked in by a horse. Below, attached 
to the upright part of the andirons, was the turnspit-dog, 
revolved by hand, and sometimes, at a later date, by clock- 
work, for fancy roasts. There were roasters and dripping 
pans, and the three-legged spider, in which bread was 
baked, iirst on the bottom and then, tipped up to the coals, 
or else the top was done by a heavy red-hot iron cover. 
Here rye used to be roasted and mortared for coffee, which 
was later boiled in water and maple molasses. On the 
shelf or beam above the tire stood the foot stove ; a horn of 
long, and another of short paper lamplighters ; a sausage 

1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 121 

stutter ; tin lanthorn ; mortar ; dialing dish ; runlet ; noggin ; 
llatirons, perhaps of new fashion, hollowed for hot iron 
chunk! ; tinder-box ; tankard ; and coilee pots ; and high 
above all a bayoneted Hint gun or two, with belt, bayonet 
sheath, brush and primer. Overhead on the pole hung 
always a hat or eap on the end, and perhaps a haunch of 
dried beef, with possibly a ham, a calf's rennet stretched 
with a springy willow stick inside ; pumpkins cut into long 
ringlets ; bundles of red peppers ; braided seed corn and 
dried apples, the latter also perhaps half covering the roof 
and south side of the house. About the tireplace stood, or 
hung the bed-warmer, the tongs, and long " slice," a hol- 
low gourd or crook-necked squash ; candle holders with 
long tin reflectors ; bellows ; woollen holders ; toasting irons ; 
smoking tongs ; pewter porringer ; spoon moulds ; trivet ; 
skillet and piggin ; a tin kitchen ; a tin baker and steamer ; 
a Hip iron ; the big dye tub always in the corner, and the 
high-backed settle in front. Near by stood the cupboard, 
displaying the best blue crockery, and the pewter, kept 
bright by scouring with horsetails (equicetae) ; sealed 
measures, and a few liquids, and perhaps near by a pump- 
kin Jack-o'-lantern, with an expression when it was lighted 
in the dark as hideous as that of the head of an Alaskan 

The grandma was both nurse and doctor, and the children 
had to gather for her each year a supply of herbs. Chief 
among these, were pennyroyal, tansy, spearmint, pepper- 
mint, catnip, thoroughwort, motherwort, liverwort, mug- 
wort, elecampane, opodeldal, burdock, mayweed, dogwecd, 
fireweed, ragweed, poke weed, aconite, arnica, scratch-grass, 
valerian, lobelia, larkspur, mullein, mallow, plantain, fox- 
glove or nightshade, osier, fennel, sorrel, comfrey, rue, saf- 
fron, Hag, anise, snakeroot, yarrow, balmony, tag alder, 
witch-hazel, and bloodroot. Each of these, and many more, 
had specific medicinal properties, and hung in rows of dried 
bunches in the attic, and all grew in Ashfield. In Mr. 

122 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Cockayne's Leechdom, Wort-cunning and Starcraft, a re- 
markable collection of Anglo-Saxon medical prescriptions, 
1 have identified the same symptoms for which the same 
herb was the specific, showing how this unwritten medical 
lore, as Mr. Mooney calls it in his interesting pamphlet, 
survives and persists unchanged. 

The attic lloor was covered a foot deep with corn on the 
car, to be shelled winter evenings by scraping across the 
back of a knife driven into a board ; the cobs being fed out 
' to stock, or used for baking and smoking tires. Here, too, 
were tins and boxes, and barrels of rye and barley, and, 
later, oats, wheat and buckwheat. In the corner stood, or 
hung, perhaps, a hand-winnower, a tub of frozen cider 
apple sauce, an old hat and wig block, a few woodchucks' 
skins to be made into whip-lashes, a coon skin for a cap, a 
hand-still for making cider brandy or twisted cider. So, 
too, the cellar, shed, hog-house, barn, sheep and horse 
barn, sugar-house and corn-house, were stored with Objects 
of perennial interest to boys. 

The " sense of progress," which a recent psychologist 
writer calls a special, though lately evolved, sense, was by 
no means undeveloped. Men loved to tell of old times, 
when maple sap was caught in rough troughs 'made with an 
axe, and stored by being simply turned in their places ; to 
show the marks on old maple trees, where their grand- 
fathers tapped by chipping with a hatchet and driving in a 
bass-wood spout made at a blow with the same iron gouge 
that prepared for its insertion, and to describe how, later, 
the rough unpainted tubs with unbarked hoops, and, be- 
cause smaller at the top, so hard to store and carry, and so 
liable to burst by the expansion of the ice on freezing, were 
superseded by the Shaker pails. The old days when sap 
was gathered by hand with a sap yoke, and stored in long 
troughs and boiled out of doors in a row of kettles on a 
pole or crotches, were talked over, with complacent pity, 
perhaps, while modern pans on a new arch and in a new 

1890.] Boy Life hi a Massachusetts Toum. 123 

sugar-house were kept going all night during a big run 
which had filled every tun and hogshead, while the best 
trees were running over. 

Hour-glasses, especially to spin by, and dials, were some- 
times used, and there were many noon-marks at intervals 
over the farm. In many families, even where coal and 
kerosene stoves are used, along with wood, oven- wood is 
still cut for the old brick oven, which Christmas time, at 
least, if not once every week or two through the winter, is 
heated, and then swept out with a wet birch broom. First, 
the rye and Indian bread is made up in a bread trough and 
then put on the broad, meal-sprinkled peel, with hands 
dipped in water to avoid sticking, and very dexterously 
thrown in haycock and windrow shapes, perhaps on cab- 
bage leaves, on to the bottom of the oven. When this was 
done it was still so hot that pies could be baked, and, last 
of all, a bushel of apples was thrown in and the week's 
baking was over. Many could then tell of the time when, 
with pudding or mashed potatoes and milk for the meal, no 
table was set, but each took a bowl of milk and helped 
himself from the kettle on the stone ; or again, the family 
gathered about the well-scoured table, with no individual 
plates or butter knives, or waiting on the table, but each 
took a slice of bread and helped himself from the meat 
dish, or dipped the brown bread into the pork fat with 
forks. Wooden, pewter, then earthen plates, was the 
order of evolution. So, in the dairy, milk used to be set 
in wooden trays, then in thick, brown earthen bowls, before 
the modern milk-pans came into vogue. The evolution of 
the skimmer from the clam shell, through a rough wooden 
skimmer; of churning, trom a bowl and paddle on to the 
old dasher churn; of straining milk, from the linen rag 
strainer, up ; of bails, from the ear and peg fashion, on ; 
the history of the artistic forms of butter balls, and the 
stamps used ; the very gradual development of the scythe- 
snath, which no artist ever represents correctly, to the 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

present highly physiological and very sharply discriminated 
forms, as well as of the hoe and pitchfork ; why are not 
these and the growth of the eorn-sheller, hen-coop, plough, 
mop, the story of the penstock, the broom, from a hush or 
bundle of twigs, "up through the birch broom with fibres 
stripped both up and down ; of window transparencies, 
from the hole and oiled paper, etc., as scientific anthropo- 
logical themes, as the evolution of the fish-hook, arrow- 
head and spear? Why is not the old soap-making process, 
with the lye, strong enough to -support an egg, dripping 
from the ash barrel on the circularly grooved board or 
stone, and the out-of-doors boiling and basket straining, 
etc. ; why is not the old-fashioned semi-annual geese- 
picking day, with the big apron, great vase-shaped goose 
basket, and the baby's stocking drawn over the goose's head 
to keep it from biting; why is not cheese making, when 
the milk from three families was gathered in a big tub, 
coagulated with a calf's rennet, broken up into curds and 
whey by the tingers, scalded, chopped, salted, perhaps 
saged, hooped, turned, and pared of those delicious curds, 
and daily greased all summer ; why is not the high festivity 
of road breaking in winter, when all the men and oxen 
in the neighborhood, often twenty yokes of oxen in one 
team, turned out after a long storm and blow to break out 
the roads which the town had not discontinued for the 
winter, to church, stores, doctor and school, when steers 
were broken in, sandwiched between the yokes of old cat- 
tle, where often up to their backs in a drift, with a sled to 
which ploughs were chained to each side and a dozen men 
and boys on it, they could only wait, frightened and with 
lolling tongue, to be shoveled out ; why are not the antique 
ceremonies and sequelae of butchering day, and the fun and 
games with pluck and lights and sausages, which city-bred 
boys were told, and said to believe, are caught like fish ; the 
process of making pearlash and birch vinegar ; cider- 
making ; the manifold summer beers and other domestic 

1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 


drinks, etc., quite as worthy of investigation, of illustra- 
tion in museums, as the no more rapidly vanishing eustoms 
of savage tribes? 

At the place and time of which I write many domestic 
industries were more or less specialized. Farmers' sons 
often went away to learn trades. Broom making, e. g., was 
the evening occupation of one member of the family I 
knew, and I saw the process of planting, breaking, tabling, 
hatchclling, for the seed was worth about the price of oats, 
bleaching with brimstone in a big bin down cellar, etc. 
Tying was the most interesting process. It included 
arranging the hurls, braiding down the stalks on the handle 
with wire, pressing in the great vise, and sewing with a 
six-inch needle, thimbled through by leather palms. 1 was 
allowed to sandpaper the handles, and once, in a time of 
stress, when a man was making forty plain Shaker brooms 
per day, even to put on the gold leaf. The local tanner 
allowed us to run among his vats, and see the hides salted, 
pickled, washed and limed, and, best of all, skived over 
the big beam. Last summer this tanner told me he be- 
lieved his eighteen months in tanning an ox hide and the 
six weeks required by modern chemical methods, repre- 
sented about the relative durability of the two leathers'. 
His trade has lasted on, despite such competition, because 
his townsmen have something the same idea. Within boy- 
range, too, was a cooper's shop, a gunsmith, a family who 
made baskets, a small carding mill, turning shops where 
wooden spoons, bowls, sieve rims, pen handles, plain 
broom handles, etc., were made;, a general tinker ami 
solderer, besides carpenters, blacksmiths, shoe and harness 
makers. Some fanners specialized, more or less, in sheep ; 
others in young cattle, or pigs and horses. Some were 
always lucky with corn, others with rye or wheat, buck- 
wheat, potatoes, grass, etc., to which they had mainly 
settled after much experiment, or to which the traditions 
of the farm or family inclined them. Thus, in tine, 

12(5 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

there were many grades of progress and versatility. 

I have alluded to but few of the oeeupations of these peo- 
ple. Their commonest industries — planting, fertilizing, gath- 
ering each crop — have been revolutionized by machinery 
and artificial fertilization, within twenty-five years. These, 
and their religion and beliefs, and domestic social customs, 
methods of doing their small business, are all fast chang- 
ing. The women are haggard and worn with their work, 
the men are sometimes shiftless, and children are very rare. 
The heart of these communities has left it, and onty the shell 
remains. The quaint, eccentric characters that abound in 
these towns, types of which may be found faithfully de- 
picted in Mary E. Wilkins's "A Humble Romance," to 
'which Senator Hoar kindly called my attention, or, in 
Mary B. Clatlin's "Brampton Sketches," kindly sent me by 
Col. Stoddard, or, in a few of the sketches in " Profitable 
Tales," by Eugene Field, are for the most part types of 
degeneration well recognized by alienists and characterized 
by Morel. These are quite different from the no less rus- 
tic characters in De Gaspe's " Old Canadians, or the work 
of Du Bray's School." Did the earlier generations work too 
hard in diggnig stumps and stones, and laying the hundreds 
of miles of heavy stonewall and clearing the timber? were 
the conditions of life too severe? Is our race not adapted 
to the new conditions of climate, soil,, water, and, as Dr. 
Jarvis said, is it still a problem whether the Anglo-Saxon 
race can thrive in its new American home, or is this but an 
incident, an eddy in the great onward current of progress? 
I have no answer, but I know nothing more sad in our 
American life than the decay of these townlets. 

Nowhere has the great middle class been so all-con- 
trolling, furnished so large a proportion of scientific and 
business leaders, been so respectable, so well combined 
industry with wealth, bred patriotism, conservatism and 
independence. The farm was a great laboratory, tending, 
perhaps, rather more to develop scientific than literary 

1890.] Boy Life in a Massachusetts Town. 


tastes, cultivating persistency, in which country boys excel, 
if at the expense of versatility. It is, says Prof. Brewer, the. 
question with city parents what useful thing the children 
can do, while in the country, where they are in great 
demand on the farm they are, in a sense, members of the 
firm. Evenings are not dangerous to morality, but are 
turned to good account, while during the rowdy or ado- 
lescent age the boy tendency to revert to savagery can 
find harmless vent in hunting, trapping, and other ways 
less injurious to morals than the customs of city life. 

Some such training the heroes of '70 had ; the independ- 
ent conditions of communities like this was just the reverse 
of that of the South at the outbreak of the Rebellion ; 
such a people can not be conquered, for war and blockade 
would only drive them back to more primitive conditions, 
and restore the old independence of foreign and even 
domestic markets* Again, should we ever have occasion 
to educate colonists, as England is now attempting, we 
could not do so better than by reviving conditions of life 
like these. 

I close by mentioning an interesting new educational 
experiment, as a bright spot in this sombre present, which 
was somewhat feebly but happily tried in Ashticld, as a 
result of the recently awakened interest in its own antiqui- 
ties : A prominent citizen, once a teacher, has studied 
from sources largely imprinted the history of the town, 
which connects it with the Revolution, and even the 
French and Indian wars, and on the lines of an old ma}) 
he has made of the original town surveys, gave an hour 
per week during part of a winter in teaching history, 
from a local standpoint in the little Academy, with 
its score of pupils, and adding many of the antiquities 
such as this paper has referred to, with free use of the 
museum, and all with excellent results. A village pas- 
tor, who is an excellent botanist, took the class a few 
times each year on excursions, and the older girls have 

128 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

gathered and pressed for him in a school museum all the 
Ashfield plants and grasses, on the basis of which he taught 
a little botany gratuitously. The Doctor co-operated with 
them and talked on physiology and hygiene, and brought his 
microscope and other instruments. A student of an agricult- 
ural college has gathered all the Ashtield rocks and min- 
erals, and taught geology. He has gathered cabinets of the 
local animals, birds, eggs, butterflies and insects, which a 
summer resident makes a basis of some instruction. A 
summer boarder was drafted in to teach drawing to all 
comers half a day per week. This experiment in what I 
consider co-operative education, begins at home, with what 
is nearest and often despised. The local Faculty about the 
teacher give but little time, but their teaching is full of in- 
terest and stimulus. The}' strengthen the teacher whom 
they really guide, and bring home and school nearer to- 
gether. This new curriculum is without expense, and alto- 
gether may prove a suggestive novelty. t 

1890.] Financial Embarrassments of \N~. E. Ministers. 12!) 



It may bo remembered that at the last annual meeting of 
this Society one of our older and most learned members 
suggested as a tit subject for investigation the history of 
the Christian ministry in Massachusetts, and specially noted 
"the perplexing and difficult relations of the ministers with 
the parish at the time of the depreciation of the currency." 
The materials for an adequate treatment of this subject are 
not less abundant than the materials which Mr. Wecden has 
used so admirably in his "Economic and Social History. of 
New England." Blit they are widely scattered through 
town and church histories, and their proper collocation 
would require much more time than has been at my dis- 
posal since I was asked to prepare a paper for this meeting. 
I can hope only to make a slight contribution toward the 
illustration of the subject, based for the most part on origi- 
nal documents preserved among the Belknap Papers in the 
possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and 
soon to be printed. 

Of that society Dr. Belknap was the recognized founder, 
and besides holding a foremost place among our older histo- 
rians he was also a parish minister of conspicuous fidelity 
and usefulness. Jeremiah, or, as he was commonly called, 
Jeremy Belknap, was born in Boston, June 4, 1744, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 17(>2. After teaching 
school for a few years he was called at the age of twenty- 
two to be minister of the church in Dover, N. II., as col- 
league with the Rev. Jonathan dishing, who was then far 
advanced in life and died a few years afterward. At that 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

time there was an apprehension prevailing among many 
persons that the contract between a minister and people is 
like the marriage covenant, "binding for life. 1 ' By the 
terms of the call to Mr. Belknap and his acceptance he was 
to receive one hundred pounds lawful money ($333.33) 
yearly, and a further sum of one hundred and fifty pounds 
($500) on his settlement, "which is to provide himself 
a comfortable house to dwell in during his ministry amongst 
us." Before accepting these terms he consulted friends 
better qualified to judge than he was, on the question 
whether the proposed salary would be sufficient for his 
"comfortable subsistence in life," if he should have a fam- 
ily. It was their opinion that as he was not to have any 
parsonage land, there ought to be added to his annual 
salary "so many cords of wood as will be necessary tot the 
use and convenience of a family during the year." He ac- 
cordingly expressed a hope that some provision of that 
kind would be made for him, if he should live to see sonic 
of their present expenses terminate. His hope was not real- 
ized. It was not, however, until he had been settled ten 
years that he found himself involved in serious difficulties'. 
He had been ordained in February, 1707, — twenty churches 
being represented in the Council convened on that occasion ; 
and in the following June, he was married to Ruth Eliot, 
sister of Samuel Eliot, a distinguished benefactor of Harvard 

With the addition of a growing family, and the rapid 
depreciation of the currency which began soon after the 
opening of the war of the Revolution, he found himself de- 
prived of a large part of his salary and with debts pressing 
heavily on him. For the three years, 1777-1771), there 
was due to him, according to the scale of depreciation, up- 
ward of one hundred and twelve pounds, or more than one- 
third of his salary. At this time, some attempts were 
made to relieve the minister from his embarrassments. So 
early as March, 1777, he wrote to the parish selectmen 

1890.] Financial Embarrassments of "ffl. E. Ministers. 131 

that in consequence of the increase of his family and the 
clearness of some of the necessaries of life he found it im- 
possible to live on his salary. After several adjournments 
of the annual meeting' of the parish, it was voted to make 
their reverend pastor a present of twenty pounds. At a 
special meeting held in the following January, it was voted 
to make him a grant of sixty pounds, lawful money, " for 
his better support," but as this vote was found to be " in- 
sufficient to answer the end in view," and, "disagreeable to 
many persons," it was reconsidered six weeks later, and 
nothing further was done during that year. In April, 
177U, Mr. Belknap submitted to the parish a plan "for his 
future support" ingeniously calculated to make his salary, 
whether paid in the necessaries of life or in money, equiva- 
lent to what it was for the first seven years of his ministry. 
When it was communicated to the parish meeting the 
parish voted not to act on the plan at present, but "to let 
it lay." They were either unable or unwilling to face the 
difficulty of a depreciating currency, and they contented 
themselves with voting Mr. Belknap "a present of four 
hundred pounds." About one-half of this sum was paid in 
Continental bills, and the other half, Mr. Belknap took oil' 
the rate list from the names of such persons as paid him 
the full value of their last year's taxes. In November of 
the same year, it was "voted, to make an addition to Mr. 
Belknap's salary of fourteen hundred pounds for the pres- 
ent year." At the time this vote was passed, tin; grant, 
according to the scale of depreciation, was "equal to nearly 
three-quarters of his salary, but before it was all paid was 
not equal to one-fifth." The next year his salary was tixed 
on the price of corn/ 4 the plentiest and cheapest article then 
in the country. " Bill the relations between the minister 
and the parish were still much strained, and they so con- 
tinued during the remainder of his residence at Dover. 

In August, 1782, he gave from the; pulpit a detailed 
account of his relations with the parish from his settlement 

132 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

down to that time, with a statement of the difficulties under 
which he was then laboring. In conclusion he told them 
that if no regard was paid to what he had then said he 
should be under the painful necessity of laying the whole 
affair before an Ecclesiastical Council. Another parish 
meeting was thereupon held, at which it was voted "to pay 
the deficiency of his salary occasioned by the fluctuating 
situation of the paper currency," if any should be found by 
a committee appointed to examine into the matter. This 
committee found that there was due to hiin £112. 7. 10J 
lawful money, as already stated. Their report was ac- 
cepted, and a note for the amount was given to Mr. 
Belknap : but no part of it was paid during the next two or 
three years except about £30, for which one of the collect- 
ors assumed a debt due by the minister. Early in 1784, a 
demand was made on him for the payment of a note due to 
the estate of one of his deceased creditors in Boston ; and 
in settlement of it he assigned to the administrator the par- 
ish note. Payment of the note, however, was evaded ; and 
in June, 1785, a suit was brought against the parish, on 
which judgment was entered, in September, for £85. 10. 5 
damages and £4. 12 costs. Execution was issued and 
levied on the body of one only of the three wardens by 
whom the note was signed, and was made returnable at the 
April Term in the following year. Meanwhile, it was pro- 
posed that lumber instead of cash should be given in dis- 
charge of the execution, and this proposition was accepted ; 
but less than one-third of the required quantity was deliv- 
ered before the last day on which the execution was return- 
able. Under these circumstances the unfortunate parish 
warden must have gone to jail ; and in order to prevent this 
unsatisfactory issue of the suit, Mr. Belknap, acting in be- 
half of his creditor, indorsed satisfaction on the back of the 
execution and paid the costs, thus releasing the parish from 
their debt, while his own liability to his creditor remained. 
By this time his patience had become wholly exhausted ; 

1890.] Financial Embarrassments of ''&. 1$. Minister. 138 

and on the last day of April he made an address from the 
pulpit formally resigning- to the parish for himself, his heirs, 
and all persons claiming from, by, or under him, all right 
and title to any salary which might after that day become 
due to him by virtue of any contract or engagement between 
him and them. "The consequence of this," he said, "will 
be that Jn future my connexion with this parish will be al- 
together voluntary, and may be dissolved at the pleasure of 
either party, or if continued will be upon a diil'erent footing 
from what it has been heretofore." This declaration led to 
another parish meeting, at which a committee was chosen 
"to converse with the Rev d M 1 Belknap relative to the diffi- 
culties subsisting between him and the parish." The con- 
ference was in writing ; and the committee asserted on their 
part that they had no doubt " respecting the present validity 
of the contract between him and the parish, being fully con- 
vinced from reason that a contract entered by the joint con- 
sent of two parties cannot be legally dissolved, but by their 
mutual consent and approbation, or by some jurisdiction 
competent for the purpose." To this Mr. Belknap rejoined 
in writing that his opinion as to the dissolution of the con- 
tract remained unchanged "because my reason teaches me 
that a contract unperformed on one part and given up on 
the other is really dissolved." However, that nothing might 
be wanting to make the dissolution complete, he desired 
that a parish meeting should be called "to dissolve the con- 
tract which is now supposed to subsist, or join with me in 
choosing and calling an Ecclesiastical Council, to whom the 
question concerning the validity of the contract or the pro- 
priety of dissolving it may be submitted for their opinion 
and advice." Finally, on the 27th of September, 178b\ the 
parish voted that the contract should be dissolved "in com- 
pliance with the desire of the Rev. Mr. Belknap." 

Subsequently some unsuccessful attempts were made to 
agree on a new contract, with a view to Mr. Belknap's 
remaining in Dover; but they need not be detailed here. 

134 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

After considerable delay a final settlement of all the finan- 
cial questions was effected, in February, 1787, by Mr. 
Belknap's making a free gift of £84. 19. — .J to the parish, 
and their giving him a note on interest for the balance of his 
claim, £16. 1. 2\ ; and on the 8th of March, the brethren 
of the Church voted "that the pastoral relation betwixt the 
Uev. J. Belknap and this Church be at his request dis- 
solved." lie had already accepted a call from the Church 
in Long Lane, Boston, afterward widely known as the 
Church of William Ellery Channing and Ezra Stiles 
Gannett ; and on the 4th of April he was regularly installed 
over it. By the terms of his call he was to receive a 
weekly salary of two pounds eight shillings ($8) ; "and in 
case our society shall increase and the pews be all occupied, 
the salary shall then be increased to a comfortable support." 
That was a day of small salaries. In 179(5, the largest sal- 
ary paid to any Congregationalist minister in Boston was to 
Peter Thacher of the Brattle-street Church, who received a 
weekly salary of seven pounds four shillings and his wood 
and house rent. Dr. Freeman at King's Chapel had an an- 
nual salary of £250 and twenty-live cords of wood. The 
other salaries were much smaller. Dr. lie I knap's salary at 
that time was eighteen dollars a week, having been increased 
three times in nine years. lie died suddenly of apoplexy, 
June 20, 1798, honored and beloved by his people. 

The diiliculties of Mr. Belknap at Dover were not excep- 
tional. The balance of the salary due to his venerable col- 
league, Jonathan dishing, was not paid until fifteen years 
after Mr. Cushing's death, when his heirs obtained a judg- 
ment against the parish] This judgment was satisfied out of 
money raised to pay Mr. Belknap. When Mr. Thacher 
went from Maiden to Brattle-street, in January, 1785, his 
parish owed him two hundred and nine pounds fourteen 
shillings and eight pence; and the story was circulated that 
he was nearly reduced to starvation. This he denied in an 
advertisement in the Independent Chronicle, in which he 

1890.] Financial Efafoarra&ments of N^.E. Ministers. 135 

said "Though 1 liuve suffered great inconvenience by my 
salary's not being punctually paid nie, yet (for ought I 
know) the people there have been as punctual in their pay- 
ments as other parishes in the country generally are." It is 
worth while to add that the Maiden parish made a claim on 
the Brattle-street Church for pecuniary compensation on 
account of the loss of their minister ; and accordingly a 
subscription of 'three hundred pounds ($1,000) was raised 
among the members of the Brattle-street Society, out of 
which the debt to Mr. Thacher was paid. In March, 1780, 
Rev. John Eliot, minister of the New North Church in 
Boston, wrote that by the terms of his settlement the depre- 
ciation in the currency was to be made up every three 
months. "Before the fortnight expired after the three 
months were ended, I applied for my due. The deacons 
and others, said I had better wait till after May meeting 
when they would pay all together. I knew that in this case 
much would be set down to my loss ; and 1 therefore in- 
sisted upon the settlement before more time elapsed. I 
told them peremptorily that, if they did not call the Society 
together, 1 would ; that 1 had kept firmly to my engage- 
ment, and only begged they would do the same. The con- 
sequence was they have done it, and I have now where- 
withal to live on : otherwise I must have been naked and 
starved." In July of the following year, he wrote : "I am 
in a confounded strait for money ; or at present spend as 
much as I get, though not so much as is due from my peo- 
ple. Saturday 'night generally makes me even with the 
world : and with regard to temporal things I am neither 
better nor worse than I was the week before. . . . Every- 
thing is so abominably high that it is difficult to procure 
the necessaries of subsistence, though the bounties of Provi- 
dence roll in upon us like a Hood. Ministers' salaries are 
inadequate to a support with a family." These instances 
will help to set in a clearer light some of the difficulties of 
a minister's life in New England, in the latter part of the 
last century, arising from the depreciation of the currency. 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



During the past summer, a singular ancient work on a high 
plateau in the Little Miami valley at Foster's, Warren 
county, Ohio, was explored under my direction with the 
assistance of Messrs. Cresson and Dorsey of the Peabody 

This remarkable structure proved to be a circumvallation 
over half a mile in extent. Where it was carried across the 
northern portion of the plateau the bank is nine to twelve 
feet high above the level of the tield, and is about iifty-h've 
feet in average width. Across the southeastern portion, the 
bank, though partly destroyed, is still several feet high. 
Around the western edge of the hill, the rise above the level 
of the enclosed portion is hardly perceptible, but the struc- 
ture texends into the sides of the hill about fifty feet, and 
from ten to twenty feet down the sides. The whole cir- 
cumvallation is made up of a carefully laid wall of Hat stones 
along the outer side several feet in height ; behind this are 
loose stones, both large and small, making nearly half the 
structure ; and behind and over these stones a mass of clay 
burnt to all degrees of hardness, from that only slightly 
burnt to great masses of slag, showing that the clay had 
been subjected to very great heat, in places forming a vit- 
reous surface over the slag, which resembles that from a 
blast furnace. In many places the limestone had been 
burnt in varying degree, and here and there large quantities 
of pure lime were found. Large pieces of charcoal and 
beds of ashes were discovered in many parts of the structure. 
At one place on the north side, where the burnt material 
runs out in the form of a low mound nearly one hundred 


A Singular Ancient Work. 


feet long and eighty feet wide, there was a larger quantity 
of charcoal and ashes than in other parts of the work ex- 
plored. Here was also uncovered a singular wall of small 
stones about six feet long and two feet high. At every part 
of the work through which a trench was dug the same story 
was told, — burnt stones and clay, ashes and charcoal, and 
the mass of stones, faced on the outer side by a good stone 
wall. In the northern portion, a few potsherds, two Hint 
points and a i'aw Hint Hakes were found in the burnt clay, 
and this was the only evidence discovered of the work of 
man, except the singular structure itself. Several trenches 
were made within the enclosure, and the ploughed portion 
was carefully examined for traces of former habitation and 
for burials. But with the exception of a few arrow points, 
found on the surface, not a thing was discovered to indicate 
that the place had ever been inhabited. And yet this stu- 
pendous structure must have been the labor of many per- 
sons working for a long time; and it is probable that their 
habitations were inside the enclosure, while their burial- 
places must be in the vicinity. 

This is one of the most remarkable structures I have seen, 
and one that should be more thoroughly examined before 
we can hope to get at its meaning, or find the additional 
evidence of occupation which will lead to a knowledge of the 
people who did this strange work. Its singular construc- 
tion and the manner in which the extensive burning was 
accomplished, as well as the uses of the work itself, make 
one of the greatest puzzles for the archaeologists. 

Should it prove possible, further explorations will be 
made here in order to clear up the mystery in which it is 
involved. It is locally known as "The Fort," but although 
well situated it does not seem at all to answer the require- 
ments of a fortification ; and, apparently, if such was in- 
tended, a bank could have been made of ordinary clay with 
a retaining stone- wall that would have answered the purpose 
as well without all this labor of burning. 

138 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



A special meeting of the Council was held, under a call 
from the President, at the hall of the Society, on Tuesday, 
January 20, 1891, at a. 30 o'clock P. M. 

President Salisbury in the chair. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Mr. Charles 
A. Chase, was chosen Secretary pro tern. 

President Salisbury announced the purpose of the meet- 
ing as follows : — 

Gentlemen of the Council. I have called you together 
to take notice of the death of our first vice-president, Hon. 
George Bancroft, LL.D., which took place in Washington 
on the 17th instant. His character, intellectual ability and 
public services are to-day in the thoughts of a large portion 
of our countrymen. Not alone in the United States, but 
in Europe have the fame and works of our associate become 
familiar and honored, so that we are assured of sympathy 
from beyond the seas. Not often is a society called upon 
to consider the life of one whose record was so complete 
and well rounded, and whose aims and objects had been so 
uniformly successful. 

Mr. Bancroft was elected a member of this Society in 
1838, and has been, with Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, one 
of the two earliest members in time of election. From 
1877 to 1880 he was Secretary of Domestic Correspond- 
ence, and from 1880 he has been vice-president. His use 
of our library has been large, and his services during the 
long period of his membership are now remembered with 
gratitude. As Secretary of Domestic Correspondence for 

1890.] Action of the Council. 139 

three years, he was called upon with the confidence that 
any matter requiring tact and delicacy, could safely he 
entrusted to his careful management. 

In October, 1883, Mr. Bancroft wrote the report of the 
Council, treating as his subject an incident in the life of 
Alexander Hamilton, and his retirement from the position 
of Secretary and Chief-of-Staif of Gen. Washington in 
1781. He has often shown his interest in the proceedings 
and welfare of this Society since that time, and in Septem- 
ber, 1886, was present and participated in a meeting of our 
council. It is pleasant to remember that his father, Rev. 
Aaron Bancroft, D.D., was one of the six petitioners for an 
act of incorporation for this Society in 1812, and was vice- 
president for fifteen years. 

I will ask Hon. P. Emory Aldricu to express the views 
of the Council upon the death of Mr. Bancroft. 


In the recent death of Mr. George Bancroft at his home 
in the city of Washington, the country has lost one of its 
most illustrious citizens, and this Society has, by the same 
event, been deprived of its most eminent domestic member ; 
one whose name in its list of oilicers has given additional 
distinction to the American Antiquarian Society among all 
other kindred associations in this and foreign lands. lie 
had the good fortune which rarely falls to the lot of men 
who undertake great enterprises, requiring many years for 
their accomplishment, for he lived long enough to complete 
the great work upon which he entered in early manhood, of 
writing the history of his country, from its first beginnings 
in the colonial period until it rightfully assumed its proud 
position as a nation among the great powers of the earth. 
He was not only able to bring that work to completion by 
the publication of the tenth volume just forty years after 
the publication of the first, but he also, in the centennial 
year, 1870, published a carefully revised- edition of the 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

whole work in six volumes, leaving it as a monument of 
learning, of industry, and of persevering and accurate re- 
seareh, which will give it a permanent place among the 
great historical compositions of the world. One of his con- 
temporaries and fellow-members in this Society says of him : 
"Our eminent associate, Bancroft, is second to no histo- 
rian in the thoroughness of his investigation, in conscientious 
accuracy of detail, and in artistic skill and pictorial power." 
There is a deep and calm philosophical speculation under- 
lying and giving direction and tone to all his historical 
writings. He does not look upon events as detached and 
unrelated occurrences, but as forming a continuous and re- 
lated whole. "It is," he declares, "this idea of continuity 
which gives vitality to history. No period of time has a 
separate being ; no public opinion can escape the influence 
of previous intelligence. We, are cheered by rays from 
centuries, and live in the sunny reflection of all their light. 
What though thought is invisible, and even when elfective, 
seems as transient as the wind that raised the cloud? It is 
yet free and indestructible ; can as little be bound in chains 
as the aspiring ilame ; and, when once generated, takes 
eternity for its guardian. We are the children and heirs of 
the past, with which, as with the future, we arc indissolu- 
bly linked together; and he that truly has sympathy with 
everything belonging to man, will, with his toils for poster- 
ity, blend aifection tor the times that are gone by, and seek 
to live in tin; vast life of the ages. It is by thankfully rec- 
ognizing these ages as a part of the great existence in which 
we share, that history wins power to move the soul. She 
comes to us with tidings of that which for us still lives, of 
that which has become the life of our life. She embalms 
and preserves for us the life-blood, not of master-spirits 
only, but of generations of the race. It sees the footsteps 
of providential intelligence everywhere, and hears the gen- 
tle tones of her voice in the hour of tranquillity: — 
" 'Nor God alone in the culm we find ; 

ile mounts the storm and walks upon the wind.' " 

1890.] Action of the Council. 141 

After the completion of his general history of the United 
States, Mr. Baneroi't began, and in 1882 published, what 
must he considered a most instructive history of the Con- 
stitution of the United States. Still later, he published 
in pamphlet form a review and searching criticism of the 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the 
notorious legal tender case, in which that Court held for 
the first time that Congress possessed the constitutional 
power to make paper money a legal tender in the payment 
of debts. For wealth of learning, power of reasoning and 
eloquence, Mr. Bancroft's argument against the conclusions 
of the Court in that ease has rarely been surpassed in any 
cause or in any court by the most eminent forensic advo- 
cates and jurists. 

Soon after Mr. Bancroft's graduation from Harvard Col- 
lege, at the age of seventeen, he went to Europe for the 
purpose of prosecuting his studies in language, philosophy 
and history, and spent some years in several of the leading 
German universities. While thus employed, and during 
the years immediately following, he wrote essays on a 
variety of subjects connected with his studies : On Studies 
in German Literature, — its General Characteristics; The 
Revival of l Gcrinan Literature; Men of Science; and Learn- 
ing; The Ai»e of Schiller and Goethe: and translations in 
verse from both those great poets. He also wrote several 
essays under the titles of: Studies in History; Economy 
of Athens ; Decline of the Roman People ; Russia ; and The 
Wars of Russia and Turkey. These essays, together with 
Occasional Addresses, were published by Mr. Bancroft in 
one volume in 1855, a volume that will well repay a peru- 
sal by any student of history and philosophy, even at this 
late day, when German literature and philosophy are no 
longer the possession of a few, but have become the common 
property of all scholars. 

In his essay on the Economy of Athens, he contrasts 
the democracy of that city with that of our own republic, 
showing the artilicial character of the Athenian common- 

142 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

wealth, and with what a chary hand it conceded the rights 
of citizenship to the strangers resident on its soil. He 
proceeds to say: "It is the genius of our institutions to 
leave everything to find its own natural level, to throw no 
obstacles in the way of the free progress of honest industry, 
to melt all the old castes of society into one mass, to extend 
the rights of equal citizenship with perfect liberality, and 
to prevent everything like a privileged order in the State." 
These brief extracts from his early and later writings serve 
to show Mr. Bancroft's views of the true functions of 
human governments and of his strong convictions upon the 
subject of the universal rights of man. 

Upon returning from his foreign travels and studies he, 
in connection with Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell, founded the 
celebrated Round Hill School, in Northampton, which, 
under their joint management, attracted large numbers of. 
students from all parts of the country, many of whom 
became themselves distinguished as scholars or as leaders 
in public allairs. Among them at one time was John 
Motley, the accomplished diplomatist, and the historian 
of the Dutch Republic. After leaving that school, if not 
before, Mr. Bancroft took an active and conspicuous part 
in the politics of the times. He was frequently called 
upon as the orator of his party, and if he did not succeed 
as a public speaker it must have been because he was too 
learned and refined for political campaign oratory. He 
was appointed Collector at the port of Boston, by President 
Van Buren, which office he held until General Harrison's 
accession to power. 

Upon the organization of President Polk's cabinet, Mr. 
Bancroft was appointed Secretary of the Navy, which posi- 
tion he held until December, 184G, when he was sent as 
our Minister to the Court of St. James, and remained there 
until the accession of General Taylor to the presidency. 
He then returned to this country and gave his undivided 
attention to his historical studies and writings, until he ac- 

1890.] Action of the Council. 143 

cepted an appointment from President Johnson as Minister 
Plenipotentiary from this country at the Prussian and after- 
wards German Court. He held that important post with un- 
usual distinction until 1874, when he was recalled at his own 
request. He returned home and taking up his residence in 
Washington and Newport, he passed the closing years of 
his long and illustrious life among men of a younger genera- 
tion, honored as few men have been by their contemporaries. 
The best evidence of his eminent rank among the great 
diplomats of his age is perhaps the testimony of the great 
German Chancellor, Bismarck. In a letter to Motley, the 
Chancellor, then at the height of power, says : " Bancroft is 
one of the most popular personages in Berlin . . . He repre- 
sents practically the same great process of development in 
which Moses, the Christian revelation, and the Reformation 
appear as stages, and in opposition to which the Ca'sarian 
power of ancient and modern time, the clerical and dynastic 
prejudices of the people, oiler every hindrance, including that 
of calumniating an honest and ideal minister like Bancroft." 
This notice of a great career, brief and altogether inade- 
quate as it is, cannot be further extended at this time. 
Mention of two or three facts showing Mr. Bancroft's 
relation to Worcester will only be now added. lie was born 
in Worcester, October 3, 1800. He was the sou of Rev. 
Aaron Bancroft, a distinguished clergyman, who was him- 
self a student and well-known writer of history. Although 
Mr. Bancroft has been but rarely seen in his native town 
during the last half-century, yet he has recently furnished 
plenary evidence that he had not forgotten the place of his 
birth or become inattentive to the memory of his honored 
ancestry. He established a few years since what is known 
as the Aaron and Elizabeth Bancroft scholarship as a me- 
morial of his father and mother, by giving in trust to the 
city of Worcester the sum of $10,000, the income of which 
is to be expended in aiding meritorious young men of 
Worcester to acquire a liberal education. 

144 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

All that was mortal of the grand personality of which I 
have spoken will, by his own order, be buried in our Rural 
Cemetery. Mr. Bancroft was long a member of this Soci- 
ety, and occasionally he enriched its Proceedings from the 
overflowing treasury of his historical learning. A just and 
adequate memorial of this great man's life and works 
will be prepared by order of the Council for future 

Mr. Samuel S. Green said: — 

Anions the most interesting incidents recorded in the re- 
cently published correspondence of the late John Loth 1 op 
Motley are those which have to do with that gentleman's 
familiar intercourse with Prince Bismarck, while a fellow- 
student in one of the German universities, and afterwards 
when they had both been honored by being placed in the 
highest positions in the gift of their respective countries. 
Mr. Motley writes in his letters that Prince Bismarck 
told him that our distinguished countryman, Mr. George 
Bancroft, stood in the highest esteem in Berlin with 
the whole intelligent population. As I took up a news- 
paper this morning and read the despatch from the young 
German Emperor, sent as a tribute of respect to the 
memory of one who had had intimate relations with his 
grandfather, the late King of Prussia, head of the Con- 
federation of Northern Germany and German Emperor, 
and remembered with what respect Mr. Bancroft was 
regarded by Prince Bismarck, I realized profoundly the 
greatness of the opportunities which were afforded him 
for serving this country in Germany, and felt proud 
to remember how admirably he had improved those 

Mr. President, I have never enjoyed the privilege of 
intimate acquaintance with Mr. Bancroft. Our walks in 
lite have not often crossed, and the difference in our ages 
may be indicated by the fact that he became a member of 

1890.] Action of the Council. 145 

this Society the year after I was born. I remember dis- 
tinctly, however, how he appeared at the Commencement 
dinner of the alumni of Harvard College in 18l>7, as the rep- 
resentative of the class of 1817 on the occasion of the fiftieth 
anniversary of graduation. As he stood up and spoke in 
the great dining-hall of the University, every man in the 
immense assembly of graduates was impressed by the 
strength of his voice, the firmness of his carriage and the 
vigor which he showed in all movements of mind and body. 
When Mr. Bancroft visited Worcester in 188G, 1 had the 
rare felicity of acting as his guide in going about the city, 
and was with him the larger portion of an afternoon, an 
evening-, and for a few hours on the following morning. I 
should like some time to prepare an account of that visit, 
for it recalled to Mr. Bancroft certain reminiscences which 
it is well should be put in print before they are forgotten. 
While he was here he showed many of the qualities that 
have been known as his characteristics. There was appar- 
ent the enthusiasm and energy which have always marked 
his career, the thorough spirit and love of hard work which 
ever distinguished him, and that conspicuous gallantry 
in the presence of women which no one ever failed 
to notice who had been brought in contact with him. 
Mr. President, it is a source of great satisfaction to me 
to remember that Mr. Bancroft wished to associate his own 
name with the memorial which lie established here in honor 
of his father and mother, and that his name will suggest to 
citizens of Worcester now and hereafter not only the histo- 
rian of the United States and the great statesman, but one 
who although long absent from the place of his birth re- 
membered that birthplace in his old age by adding to its 
educational facilities. It is also a source of satisfaction to 
me to remember that we have in this city the little house in 
which Mr. Bancroft was born, and that by his own choice, 
his remains are being borne hither to find a resting-place in 
a grave in our own Rural Cemetery. 

140 American Antiquarian Society. 

Hon. Edward L. Davis said: — 


Mr. President : It seems to me that our late associate, 
George Bancroft, the most illustrious man ever horn in 
Worcester, furnishes a beautiful and forcible illustration of 
that love of one's native place, which is inherent in us all, 
but which not unfrequcntly finds no expression or proof in 
the lifetime of its possessor. His boyhood was spent in 
Worcester, but after college life at Cambridge came studies 
in foreign lands, and varied experiences in private and 
public life, so that he never returned to stay in the place 
of his birth. 

About the year 1846 he was here, and although his homes 
in New York and Newport were within easy distance of his 
native place he did not after that time revisit Worcester for 
a period of forty years. Meantime, however, he had estab- 
lished the scholarship at the Worcester High School in mem- 
ory of his father and mother, and when at the age of eighty- 
six he did appear here for a little while, he gave substantial 
evidences of his love for his native place, and received grat- 
ifying proofs of the affectionate regard and esteem in which 
he was held by the citizens of Worcester, to which more 
extended allusion has been made by our associate, Mr. 
Samuel S. Green. 

Mr. Nathaniel Paine, speaking of Mr. Bancroft's inter- 
est in Worcester, said : A few years ago I had a very 
pleasant call upon Mr. Bancroft at his Newport residence, 
in company with our President. At that time he made 
inquiries for some of his old friends and acquaintances in 
AYorcester, and spoke of old locations with which he was 
familiar in his boyhood. In a letter received from him some 
years ago, he stated that at that time he had not visited 
Worcester since he was ten or twelve years old, except on 
brief school vacations. This was a few years before the 
visit mentioned by Mr. Davis. 

1890.] Action of the Council. 147 

Mr. J. Evarts Greene said: — 

What I can say of Mr. Bancroft is scarcely worthy of an 
occasion like this. I knew him personally only through a 
visit of two days, nearly ten years ago at Mr. Evarts's house 
in Windsor, Vermont, where Mr. Bancroft was also a guest. 
He was then more than eighty years old : his hair and his 
long heard were snow white ; but his slight figure was 
erect, his step elastic, and there was in his speech and man- 
ner a suggestion of vivacity and alertness, uncommon at 
any age, and extraordinary at his. The remarkable brill- 
iancy and restlessness of his dark eyes added to this 

He seemed inclined to talk with me as opportunities 
offered, somewhat to my surprise, because several of the 
company were friends whom he had known for many years, 
and were otherwise, as I supposed, more likely than I to 
engage his attention. It seemed that the fact of my living 
in Worcester attracted him, for he spoke much of the town 
as it was when he knew it, and enquired of the persons 
whom he remembered. 

His manners were both ceremonious and abrupt, an ap- 
parent contradiction, but true. His phrases in conversation 
were formal, and his action or gesture such as implies elabo- 
rate courtesy, but these movements were so rapid and com- 
pressed, and his words so sharply spoken as to leave a 
confused impression of punctilious civility and startling 

In Mr. Bancroft's presence you felt that he did not think 
lightly of himself. He had the air of one to whom the 
society of great men is familiar and whose opinions are im- 
portant because their expression may have influenced the 
destiny of nations. A man who, besides having had a part 
in making the history of our own country at an interest- 
ing period, has been on familiar terms with Bismarck and 
his master when they were founding an empire, can scarcely 
help revealing by his manner that his associations have been 

148 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. '!)().] 

with great events and great men. I do not wish to be 
understood that Mr. Bancroft's manner displayed vanity or 
suggested condescension. It seemed to me that there was 
nothing in it which could give offence on that score to the 
most morbidly sensitive person. On the contrary, his de- 
meanor put his companion distinctly upon his own level so 
that it seemed to imply: "We (not J) have been familiar 
with great personages and are their equals." 

These were my impressions of Mr. Bancroft, formed 
during the acquaintance of two days, and continued in one 
or two short conversations with him since. They are not 
worth much, I fear. But while I know that many members 
of our Society knew Mr. Bancroft much longer and more 
intimately than I did, I remember that there are others 
and yearly will be more who did not know him person- 
ally at all. 

Vol. VII. 

New Sebies. 

Part 2. 



Qmrwm ^ntiparran $uki % 



APRIL 29, 1891. 




311 Main Street. 

18 91. 


Proceedings at the Meeting 149 

Report of the Council. George F. Hoar . . 162 

Government in Canada and the United States. George F. Hoar, 178 

Report of the Treasurer , 201 

Report of the Librarian 206 

Givers and Gifts 226 

George Bancroft. Samuel Swett Green . , . 237 

Dr, Schliemann and his Discoveries. Thomas Chase. .... 257 

Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. Herbert B. Adams 274 


April, 1891.] Proceedings. 149 



The President, Stephen Salisbury, A.M., in the chair. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Mr. Washburn, 
Mr. Ciiables A. Chase was elected Recording Secretary 
pro tempore. 

The record of the last meeting was read and accepted. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : Robert C. 
Winthrop, George E. Ellis, Edward E. Hale, George F. 
Hoar, Andrew P. Peabody, Nathaniel Paine, Stephen 
Salisbury, Samuel A. Green, Elijah B. Stoddard, Edward 
L. Davis, James F. Hunnewell, Egbert 0. Smyth, Edward 
11. Hall, Albert II. Hoyt, Edward G. Porter, Charles C. 
Smith, Francis A. Walker, Edmund M. Barton, Thomas 
L. Nelson, Charles A. Chase, Samuel S. Green, Henry W. 
Haynes, Solomon Lincoln, Andrew McF. Davis, Cyrus 
Hamlin, J. Evarts Greene, Henry S. Nourse, William B. 
Weeden, Daniel Merriinan, Reuben Colton, Henry H. 
Edes, James P. Baxter, Thomas Chase, A. George 
Bullock, John N. Brown, G. Stanley Hall, William E. 
Foster, Hamilton A. Hill, John F. Jameson. 

The President: — "It is a matter of interest to the 

Society, I think, to call their attention to a communication 

received from the oldest of our associates, Dr. Lucius R. 

Paige. He is now in his ninetieth year, and it is very 

gratifying to the Society to note the interest that he takes 


150 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in our proceedings. This letter was directed to our associ- 
ate, Hon. Samuel A. Green, and runs as follows: — 

Cambridgeport, April 28, 1891. 
Dear Sir: — I regret my enforced absence from the 
meeting of the American Antiquarian Society to-morrow. 
I am still under the daily care of my physician, but am glad 
to say that 1 am gradually, and I think surely, recovering 
from a three weeks' illness of la grijppe. 

Truly yours, 

Lucius R. Paige. 
Hon. S. A. Green. 

On motion of Hon. George F. Hoar, the Secretary was 
directed "to convey to Dr. Paige the salutations of the 
Society and to assure him of our affection and our desire 
that his life and health may be prolonged." 

Mr. Samuel S. Green: — "Dr. George Chandler of 
Worcester, who has generally been with us, celebrated his 
eighty-fifth birthday yesterday, and it would seem a very 
pleasant thing to send our congratulations to him. He 
wished to be particularly remembered to the older members 
of the Society to-day, and to have me say that he wished 
to express to the Society the great interest which he felt 
in it." 

The President: — "I think it will be very grateful to 
the Society also to extend their felicitations to our associate, 
Dr. Chandler of Worcester, who is so far advanced in his 
life career and is among the oldest of our members. Those 
in favor of the Secretary's extending our felicitations to Dr. 
Chandler will manifest it by the uplifted hand." The mo- 
tion was unanimously carried. 

The report of the Council was read by the Hon. George 
F. Hoar. 

The report of the Treasurer was read by Nathaniel 
Paine, Esq. ; and the report of the Librarian was read by 
Mr. Edmund M. Barton. 

These reports, together constituting the full report of the 


Proceed 'iityt 


Council, were accepted, and referred to the Committee of 

The following-named gentlemen, having been recom- 
mended by the Council, were duly elected to membership 
in the Society, on separate ballots: — 

Ciiakles P. Bowditcii, Esq., of Tain worth, N. H. 

Charles P. Greenouoii, A.M., of Brooklinc, Mass. 

Georce D. Robinson, EL.D., of Chicopee, Mass. 

Edwin D. Mead, Esq., of Boston, Mass. 

George Olcott, Esq., of Charlestown, N. II. 
And to foreign membership: — 

William E. II. Leckey, of London, England. 
■ The following communication, received from Hon. 
Edward L. Davis of Worcester, was read by the temporary 
secretary, who stated that the Council had accepted the 
gift with thanks : — 

Worcester, April 28, 1891. 

To the Council of the American Antiquarian Society : 

Gentlemen. — In January, 18(58, my father, Isaac 
Davis, established the " Isaac; Davis Book Fund," by a gift 
of $500, which, with subsequent additions made by him, 
now amounts to the sum of $1,500. By the terms of the 
gift, the income of the fund " is to be applied to the pur- 
chase of books, maps, charts and works of art relating to 
that portion of North America lying south of the United 

I should be very glad to have my name associated wilh 
that of my father, in this work. To this l i ih\, and in appre- 
ciation of the cordial co-operation of the Society in carrying 
out his wishes, I oiler the American Antiquarian Society 
the sum of $f>,000 to be added to the principal of the above 
named fund, Ihe income to be used for the purposes al- 
ready expressed. 

Very respectfully, 

Edward L. Davis. 

Mr. J. E v arts Greene : — " We all know that the 
Society has often been largely indebted to Mr. Davis, 

152 American Antiquarian /Society. [April, 

as well as to his father. I wish to oiler the following 
^motion : — 

"The Soeiety has heard with grateful satisfaction the 
generous proposal of our assoeiate, the Hon 1 . Edward L. 
Davis, to make a larae addition to the ' Isaae Davis Book 

''The Soeiety hereby expresses to Mr. Davis its earnest 
thanks for this timely and liberal benefaction, accepts it 
with gratitude, and directs that the fund to which this is an 
addition shall be hereafter known as the Isaac and Edward 
L. Davis Book Fund." 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Samuel S. Green, A.M., read a sketch of George 
Bancroft, LL.D., late First Vice-President of the Society. 

Hon. Elijah B. Stoddard : — " Perhaps it may be inter- 
esting to the members of the Society to know that Mr. 
Bancroft left in the hands of his step-son, Col. Alexander 
Bliss, an ample sum with which to erect a monument in the 
Rural Cemetery, on his lot. He so informed me on the 
day of the funeral of Mr. Bancroft. The plans arc now 
being made for that purpose." 

Cyrus Hamlin, D.D. : — "I should like to mention a 
little anecdote which will illustrate, perhaps, some of the 
characteristics of Mr. Bancroft. He visited Constantinople 
while I' was in that long contest with the Turkish Govern- 
ment to obtain leave to erect Robert College. I wanted to 
interest him in the question and get his influence. I invited 
him to the proposed site of the College and he came. He 
was exceedingly enraptured with the scenery from the site. 
He sat down and discussed it, and discussed the various 
points of historic interest on the Asiatic shore, and spent so 
much time that the driver of the carriage came and said, 
' Mr. Bancroft, it will be very dark before we get to your 
hotel and the streets are very narrow, and it is time for us 
to go.' k Never mind the narrow streets,' he said, and 
shook him off; '1 shall never enjoy this scenery again, and 
I am going to enjoy it now.' After a time the driver came 

1891.] Proceedings. 153 

again and said, « Mr. Bancroft, do you see those clouds 
rising? It is going to he very dark, I assure you.' * Let 
it he dark as Egypt, 3 he replied, and the driver did not 
dare to come again ; and Mr. Bancroft sat there and enjoyed 
the scenery until it began to fade. It was undouhtedly 
'dark as Egypt' when he got safely to his hotel." 

Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D. : — "I, perhaps, am 
the only person present who has any remembrance, and 
that traditional, of Mr. Bancroft's preaching. My prede- 
cessor in the ministry in Portsmouth was a pupil of Dr. 1 
Bancroft. Mr. Bancroft preached perhaps his second 
sermon in the pulpit that ] afterwards occupied in Ports- 
mouth. The sermon left a long memory. It was not edi- 
fying, hut particularly unedifying to the more devout 
members of the coiiff relation. But there was one figure 
which he used, and not an inappropriate figure, on the 
whole, though it sounded very unfamiliar, and adhered to 
the memory of his hearers as long as they lived. Me spoke 
of ' our dear pelican Jesu.s,' — a figure peculiarly homely, 
certainly not inappropriate, and yet intensely unedifying." 

Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D., gave some remembrances 
of Mr'. Bancroft, of a confidential nature. 

Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, who was greeted with ap- 
plause, arose and said : — "I thank my friends of the Society 
for this kind reception. I am not here, however, to attempt 
to make a speech. 1 come somewhat with the feeling with 
which I used to hear Mr. Webster make a speech which 
he was fond of making in regard to good old General 
Stark of New Hampshire, who, upon one occasion, very 
unusual for himself, came to a meeting, either a meet- 
ing of war or it may be of peace, a little too late. ■ Oh,' 
says Stark, 'I have come too late, but you will never find 
me going away too early.' It was approaching the time 
just now, as 1 looked at my watch, when I must take my 
leave, and I cannot be present at the dinner which has been 
proposed, so titly, on the part of our Boston associates to 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

those who come from Worcester. Indeed, I have come 
here under great reluctance, for, as I wrote to a friend not 
many days ago, it seemed to me that within the last month 
a whole avalanche of age and infirmities had fallen upon me, 
and that my use, my general condition for doing anything 
in public or in private even had been materially impaired. 
I hope there may be some change for the better, but I dare 
not bestow all my tediousness upon this Society, more es- 
pecially as I have to confess a great want of attention to its 
meetings for so many years past. 

"You have mentioned, most justly, the memory of Mr. 
Banouqft. I do not forget that he and I have shared so 
long the distinction of being the oldest members of the 
Society, and that is now left to me alone. But I have no 
more to say about him. I paid my little tribute to him at 
our Massachusetts Historical Society, and 1 have nothing to 
add to it and nothing to detract from it. 

"I can remember malvy occasions on which I have met 
with this Society, though these doubtless have forgotten it 
— some of them even before I had the honor of being a 
member. I recall the days when my own father occupied 
the chair Which you now have, at the May meetings of the 
Antiquarian Society ; good men like honest John Davis, Levi 
Lincoln and William Lincoln, his younger brother, and 
Rejoice Newton, whose name I always remember, and 
George Folsom ; when there came to Boston to meet us 
such men as William Jenks, and, let me not forget, old Dr. 
Bancroft himself. 1 More than once I remember him, in his 
small-clothes, coming down to attend some of these meetings 
in days, gentlemen, when there were no railroads, when 
there were no stage-coaches or any conveniences to bring 
them down. They always dined with my father. Some 
twenty or thirty members of the Society were always to be 
seen upon those days at his table; and although I was then 
somewhat of a youngster, not long after I graduated from 

1 Key. Aaron Bancroft, DA)., father of the historian. 

1891.] Proceedings. 155 

College — for I was admitted here as early as 1838, and in 
1828 I graduated — but although I was then quite a young 
man I was always admitted to the privileges of that table, 
and I became ay familiar with the Antiquarian Society, and 
more especially with those from Worcester, as if 1 had been 
a member for twenty years before. 

* "But more recently the memory which I cherish most 
fondly is of my attendance at the fiftieth anniversary of this 
Society, when I was at Worcester with the rest of you ; 
when we had the dinner at the hotel ; when 1 did what I will 
not say is not my custom on such occasions, made a speech 
alter the dinner was over, and where we had one of the 
most agreeable and festive occasions which we are likely to 
have either at Parker's to-day or at any other day that may 
intervene between this and the second fiftieth, which will be 
the centennial anniversary of the Society. 

"Sir, let me conclude by wishing that the Society may 
continue in all its prosperity and honor, and more particu- 
larly under the auspices of yourself, sir, as President, who 
have added to the name of Salisbury the principal endow- 
ments and patronage of this Society for so many years, and 
that under your auspices and with the aid of the benefac- 
tions which your excellent father has bequeathed to us, the 
Society may attain an eminence which it lias never yet 
reached, but which at this day it so plainly promises." 

The members of the Society arose and remained standing- 
while Mr. WiNTiinoL* took his departure. 

Rev. ttinvAiiD Eveuett Hale, D.D. :— "With Mr. 
Green's permission and yours I will take the liberty of send- 
ing to him a private note which I have from the late Rev. Dr. 
Hedge, in which he expresses his earlier and later gratitude 
to Mr. Bancroft. It is one of those interesting tributes 
which one great man gives to another, and 1 think Mr. 
Green will like to include some part of it in his memoir. 
I have often heard Dr. Hedge speak of Mr. Bancroft in 
just the same way, of the obligation he felt as a young boy 

156 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for the care and kindness which Mr. Bancroft had be- 
stowed upon him. I am not myself a young man, but I 
should be sorry if on this occasion I did not speak of the 
very great kindness which I have always received, as I think 
all those interested in historical matters have received from 
him, and the great generosity with which he has thrown 
open his papers to other students." 

The note to which Dr. Hale referred is in the following 
words : — 

Brookline, May 8, 1858. 

Dear Hale : — I was very sorry not to see you the other 
evening. Emerson was brilliant and beautiful. 

I had intended to write a notice of Bancroft's volume for 
July. [Dr. Hedge means for the Christian Examiner for 
July.] I stand to him in peculiar personal relations, dat- 
ing from my boyhood, when I received great kindness at 

his hands, and such favors as I can never repay I 

like the book exceedingly, and I want the Examiner should 
say a strong word by way of acknowledgment of the great 
service the country owes to him as its historian. If you 
can conscientiously say that word, and can write the notice 
in this spirit, I should like very much to have you do it. 

Thomas Chase, LL.D., of Providence, 11. I., read a 
biography and review of the life of our deceased associate, 
Dr. Henry Schliemann. 

Senator Hoar: — "It will be remembered that at the 
meeting of the Society a year ago I called attention to a 
statement in Mr. Spencer Walpole's Life of Earl Russell, 
then just published, that Mr. Everett, the American Minis- 
ter, had taken the unusual course of appealing from the 
Government to the Opposition by a letter addressed to 
Lord John Russell, then the leader of the Opposition, in 
regard to the Oregon controversy between England and the 
United States. I pointed out that this letter was written by 
Mr. Everett after he had ceased to be Minister. He was the 
last person to have been guilty of such an indiscretion. The 
attention of Mr. Walpole has been called to his error, which 


Proceed iru/s. 


he has acknowledged in a very courteous personal letter to 
1119. He has also in the second edition of the Life of Earl 
Russell withdrawn the statement, for which he has substi- 
tuted the following words: — 'And Mr. Everett, who had 
recently retired from the post of American Minister in 
London, wrote to Lord John on the subject.' I have re- 
ceived through the great courtesy of Mr. Robert T. Lincoln, 
our Minister at London, a copy of the original letter of Mr. 
Everett in the papers of the late Earl Russell, which I wish 
to lay before the Society. The letter is of great interest 
and ability, though quite brief, and I think should be pub- 
lished in our Proceedings. I move it be referred to the 
Committee of Publication." 

[Copy of original letter in the papers of the late Earl Russell. Ad- 
dressed at bottom of first page: Lord John Russell.] 

Boston, IT. S. A. 
2S Deer 1845. 

My Dear Lord John, 

In pursuance of an intimation which I made 
to you before I left London & which seemed acceptable to 
you, I will now undertake to give you very briefly my view 
of the existing controversy between the two countries. It. 
is proper in the outset to state that I am not in the confi- 
dence of our own government, & know nothing of their 
views, beyond what may be gathered from the ordinary 
sources of public & private information. The present state 
of the controversy seems to be the following : our govern- 
ment has ottered to yours the 49th degree of latitude to the 
Pacific Ocean, with a free port, or ports as you wish, on 
the south end of Vancouver's island. You have offered to 
us the 49th degree till it strikes the Columbia River, thence 
down that river to the Pacific, with a detached territory 
North of the Columbia, including a port within the Straits 
of Euca, & such other free ports as we wish. These offers 
with the exception of the Eree ports on the two sides are 
the same which were made & rejected in the former nego- 

Our oiler of the 49th, as originally made in 1818, & re- 
newed in 1824 & 182(>, was, I have always understood, 
rejected by the British Administration of those days, under 

158 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the suggestion of the North West and Hudson's Bay Com- 
panies, that the navigation of the Columbia river was abso- 
lutely necessary to an advantageous possession of any part 
of the back country, partially drained by it. I believe that 
J his representation, as a matter of geographical fact, is en- 
tirely unfounded. The bar at the mouth of the Columbia 
& the terrilic surf that breaks upon it make it nearly inac- 
cessible, and all navigation is stopped by the falls at tlie 
distance of eighty or one hundred miles from the sea. The 
natural drainage of the greater part of the country North of 
the 49th degree is by Frazer's River, by which also there is 
a more direct approach to the pass through the mountains 
which your fur traders use, than there is from the Colum- 
bia. There is therefore no particular reason for insisting 
on the Columbia, on the ground of necessity or convenience. 
Such being the case, & you admitting — or rather contend- 
ing, — that the territory is an unappropriated one & open to 
joint occupation ; what line of boundary can fee conceived 
(now that partition is rendered expedient), more equitable 
than that which we have always proposed, viz ; to continue 
West of the mountains the line which divides us for 1000 
to 1200 miles East of the mountains? Considering the 
debatable country as extending from Mexico to the Arctic 
Sea, this line would give you | of the space. It is true it 
would <*ive us the portion most favored in climate, but on 
that coast the climate is milder than on the eastern coast of 
our continent, & there is reason to think thai with the same 
elevation above the sea, while our portion of the territory 
thus divided would possess a climate like that of France, 
yours would have the climate of the British isles and the 
North of Europe. In assuming the 49th parallel as the 
boundary, we should act on the natural & obvious principle 
of extension to the West of the mountains of territories 
which lie conterminously for such a vast distance east of 
the mountains. Each government would acquire the region 
which lies contiguously to its former possessions and neither 
have a preference ; although if a preference belonged to 
either on the American continent, it would seem rightfully 
to belong, — not so much to ou, who claim only the exten- 
sion of a distant colony, a to us who are seated on this 
continent, & who — beside our own right, of juxtaposi- 
tion — have united with car own that of France and of 
Spain. 1 do not speak now of any right of possession de- 




rived from those powers, but of the natural right of 
extension, which they would have possessed, had they 
remained masters the one of Louisiana & the other of 
Mexico. Whatever distributive share of Oregon would 
have belonged to them, in a partition among the Great 
Powers holding territory on the North American Continent, 
has been acquired by us. We do not, however, use it for 
any other purpose than to show our moderation in content- 
ing ourselves with that which equitably falls to our single 

Now this equitable offer of the .49th degree whs rejected 
by your Government in 1818, 1824 & 182(> and has re- 
cently been rejected again ; originally I believe under the 
erroneous suggestion of the Fur companies, that the naviga- 
tion of the Columbia was of great importance, even to the 
region North of 49°, a suggestion which as I have observed, 
I regard as unfounded in fact. I admit the difficulty, on 
the part of your government, — substantially in the same 
hands 'now as in 1818-182C), — of agreeing to what they 
then rejected. The point of honor and consistency must be 
saved ; but in proportion as the rejected proposal was really 
equitable, such modification as may be insisted upon to save 
the point of ministerial consistency, ought to be moderate. 
Such a modification has been offered by our government in 
the form of free ports on the southern extremity of Vancou- 
ver's island. I think that the cession of that extremity 
would be by us agreed to; — in other w(frds that our Gov- 
ernment would agree to the 49th parallel till it strikes the 
sea, leaving to you the whole of Vancouver's Island. This 
to you is a very important and substantial modification of 
the proposal formerly rejected. Whether your ministers 
will accept it is a question for themselves ; but their course 
will no doubt in a great degree depend upon yours. If you 
choose to rally the public opinion of England against this 
basis of compromise, it will not be easy for Sir li. Peel & 
Lord Aberdeen to agree to it. If you are clearly of opinion, 
as a point of public interest or honor, that this compromise 
ought not to be agreed to, you will of course encourage the 
ministers in rejecting it. But if the only point to be saved 
is one, — not of national ut merely of ministerial consistency, 
it will 1 think deserve your most serious consideration — 
yours & that of your ' lends — whether you will encourage 
& stimulate the gove nment to plunge into a why, for the 

1 GO American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

nake of adhering k> the worst traditions of Lord Liverpool 
and Lord Castlereagh. 

You will not infer from the general strain of my remarks 
and my silenee as to the course which has been pursued on 
this side of the water, that I approve that course. I think 
it wrong in Congress to attempt the negotiation ; and the 
tone of the President's message is not to my taste ; but you 
must consider that the persevering rejection by your Gov- 
ernment of a basis of compromise which all moderate nieVi 
here think reasonable (and which was approved in the very 
able article of the Edinburgh lievieiv last July), tends 
greatly to encourage the extreme pretensions of the. domi- 
nant party in Congress, and to put the friends of moderate 
counsels in the wrong. 

I pray you to pardon the freedom of this letter. It is 
dictated by the feeling, that Peace between the two coun- 
' tries is the great interest of the World, & that its preserva- 
tion is wrapped up in the folds of your mantle. May God 
guide you to a wise decision. 

I remain, my dear Lord John, with true respect, 

Sincerely yours 

Edward Everett. 

Pray remember me with great kindness to lady John & 
to the Duke & Duchess of Bedford. 

I do not expect you to answer this letter, but should you 
have occasion to write to me, your answer could be sent to 
Mr. John Miller, 2(> Henrietta Street, Co vent Garden. 

Rev. Dr. Hale: — "In connection with the coming cele- 
bration at Chicago it has been my pleasure to be occupied 
this winter in some studies on the life of Columbus, and 
perhaps at some time I may have the great pleasure of mak- 
ing some contribution to the Society's Proceedings on that 
matter. I should like to say now that some of us arc at- 
tempting what seems to be an appropriate celebration — if 
the navy department will detail a proper vessel under one 
of its officers, — having the vessel reproduce, day by day, 
Columbus's first voyage. Jt is proposed that the vessel 
shall touch on the morning of the 12th of October at the 
spot where Columbus touched. They will stay there as 

1891.] Proceedings. 161 

long as Columbus stayed there, and then they will follow, 
with his journal in hand, from day to day the different spots 
at which he touched. .When he caught a lizard they Avill 
catch a lizard. When he caught a turtle they will catch a 
turtle. Lady Black has made the voyage in a yacht owned 
by herself or her husband, and has published a private ac- 
count of it. But what we propose is a diurnal celebration. 
When they get to the point where cigars were first observed 
the gentlemen will open a box of the best Cuban cigars, 
and will celebrate the event on the spot where the cigar 
was lirst discovered. We know the day and almost the 
hour of the great discovery. In this suggestion to the 
government we shall be glad of the assistance of any mem- 
ber of the Society, and possibly the Council may think it 
worth while to further this suggestion. 

''I think some gentlemen will remember that Mons. 
Jomard sent us forty years ago a picture he had discovered 
with the name of Christopher Columbus upon it, but which 
has generally been discredited, and I believe correctly so. 1 
will lay on the table for the amusement of the gentlemen a 
portrait of Philip the Third which so resembles the 
Columbus that I am disposed to think that Jomard was 
cheated, together, I believe, with some members of the 
Society, by the purchase of an old picture with the words 
' Christoporus Columbus' painted across an indifferent 
Philip the Third, and that one of these pictures accounts 
for the other." 

A sketch of the life and works of the late Brasseur de 
Bourbourg prepared by Prof. Herbert B. Adams, was 
presented by the President. 

On motion of Hon. Samuel A. Queen the several papers 
which had been presented and the remarks which had been 
made, were referred to the Committee of Publication. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 

liecordimj Secretary pro tempore. 

162 American A idiquarian Society. [Apri 


The Reports of the Treasurer and the Librarian, which 
make part of the Report of the Council, show that the 
Library and the investments arc in good eondition, and that 
the ordinary work of the Society has gone on in a' satisfac- 
tory manner for the past six months. But it has been a 
period made memorable to the Society, as to the country, 
by the death of an unusual number of men whose names 
'were among our most valued possessions. The country 
mourns its great military and its great naval commander, 
who lay dead on the same day. This Society is ealled 
upon to record the loss within a few weeks of each other of 
the only representative among its members of the name and 
blood of its founder; of the great explorer, who has trans- 
ferred the tale of Troy divine from the domain of romance 
to that of veritable history ; of the great authority upon the 
history of New England Puritanism ; of the foremost histo- 
rian of the country : and of the beloved soldier, jurist, 
orator and gentleman, who added to all these titles to our 
respect and allection that of being the person who in his 
historical speeches — alas, too few! — has given better than 
any other mini (he spirit of the great War for the Union, 
in which he bore so honorable a part. 

Dr. Dexter, Mr. Bancroft and Judge Devens was each 
conspicuous in an important lield of historical study. One 
trait was common to them. Each was a loving and rever- 
ent student of a great period in history and of the forces to 
winch that period owed its greatness. Each had a steadfast 
faith in his country and in his countrymen. Each well knew 
that in a free country men who are governed in their or- 
dinary conduct by the ordinary passions, often by the 

1891.] Report of the Council. 1G3 

meaner and baser passions of mankind, arc capable of the 
loftiest virtue when they are dealing with great interests, 
and that to that capacity is due the planting of our country, 
the building of it's institutions, and the strength its people 
have put forth in war and in peace. Each understood that in 
writing the chronicles of the voyage of some great ship, 
freighted with the fate of humanity, it is more important to 
study the forces which furnish the motive power and the 
direction, than to describe the smell of the oil, the soot and 
the cinders, the quarrels of the forecastle, or even the jeal- 
ousies of the cabin. Neither shared the modern taste for 
preserving the rejected scandals of history, or thought that 
the annals of our House Beautiful should be written by its 
sewer rats. 

Henry Martyn Dexter was born in Plympton, 
Massachusetts, August 13, 1821. lie was the son of 
Elijah Dexter, who was pastor of the Congregational 
Church there for forty-four years, and of Mary Dexter, the 
sister of Governor Marcus Morton. He entered Brown 
University, but finished his college course at Yale, where 
he was graduated in 1840. lie was graduated at the 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1844. He was then 
settled over the Franklin-street Congregational Church at 
Manchester, N. II., where he remained three years. In 
1849, he was transferred to the Pine-street Church, Boston, 
where he remained eighteen years. In 1851, he became 
one of the editors of the Congrer/ationalist, the organ of 
the Congregational Churches in New England, in founding 
which, two years before, he had taken much interest. In 
185(>, he became the general editor of that paper, which 
oilicc he held until January 1, 1866. In May, 18(>7, he 
resigned his pastorate;, and became editor-in-chief of the 
Oo?i(/re;/cUion(disl, in which ollice Ik; continued until his 

He was one of the founders of the Coyujregatioual 
Quarterly, which he edited from 1859 until I860. He was 

164 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

elected a member of this Society, April 28, 1869. He was 
also a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society and 
of the American Historical Association. He was Lecturer 
on Congregationalism at Andover Theological Seminary 
from 1877 to 1880. In 1865, he received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Iowa College. In 1880, he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology from Yale 
College. He received the degree, of Doctor of Laws, from 
the same institution in 1890, being the only graduate 
of Yale on whom the two degrees have been conferred. 
He was a corporate member of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He has published a 
great number of important works : religious, literary and 
historical. 1 

iTiik Moral Inkluenceok Manufacturing; Towns: A Dedication Ser- 
mon, pp. 32, 18-18. 

Oijk National Condition and its Hkmkdy. pp. 44, 1850. 

Tiik Voice ok the Rirlk, the Verdict ok Reason, pp. 56, ls5s. 

Meeting Houses, Considered Historically and Suggestively, pp. 
29, 1850. 

Street Thoughts, pp. 210, 1850. 

Twelve Discourses, pp. 210, 1800. 

What Ought to He Done With the Ereedmen and With the Rebels: 
a sermon, pp. 3(5, 1865. 

The Verdict ok Reason, etc. pp. 157, 1805. 

Congregationalism : What it Is, Wlieuee it Is and How it Works, pp. 300, 

The Si'Read ok the Gosrel in the City. pp. 30, 1800. 

A Glance at the Ecclesiastical Councils ok New England, pp. OS, 

Sermon: Funeral of Israel W. Putnam, D.D. pp. 24, 1808. 

The Church Polity ok the Pilgrims, the Polity ok the New Tes- 
tament, pp. 82, 1870. 

Pilgrim Memoranda, pp.40, 1870. 

As to Roger Williams, pp. 141, 1870. 

Pastorless Churches and Churchless Pastors: a paper before tbe 
National Couneil. pp. 20, 1877. ,' 

The Cong reg ationalism ok the Last Three Hundred Years, as 
Seen in its Literature, with a Riuliograkhy. pp. 710, 1880. 

The True Story ok John Smyth, the Sk-Raktist. pp. 80, 1880. 

Hand-Rook ok Congregationalism, pp. 212, 1880. 

Common Sense as to Woman Sukkrage. pp. 33, 1885. 

Weeds j a sermon, pp.23, 1887. 

Early English Exiles in Amsterdam, pp.25, 1800. 

Elder Brewster's Library, pp. 51, 1800. 


Report of the Council. 


At the suggestion of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe he 
-prepared the famous protest against the Nebraska bill, 
to whieh he secured the signatures of 3050 Protestant 
clergymen in New England. He carried this protest to 
Washington, where it gave rise to a famous debate in which 
Mr. Sumner, Mr. Everett, and afterward Mr. Rockwell 
took a leading part on one side, and Mr. Douglas of Illinois 
on the other. 

Dr. Dexter was a great champion of the religious faith 
whieh he held and of righteousness wherever it seemed to 
him to be assailed. Hut he was a man of a sweet and gra- 
cious gentleness in both manner and nature, winning and 
retaining the affection of all men with whom he came into 
any close personal relations. One of his friends from early 
youth compares him in .strength and steadfastness to the 
oak which grew before his door, and his friendship to the 
delight of its summer shade. lie was lull of a warm and 
hearty sympathy for young and old, ever ready with coun- 
sel and with help. 

The crowning honor of his life was his election to preach 
the opening sermon at the International Congregational 
Council at London, in July, 1891, for which, on the Mon- 
day before his death, he was unanimously chosen. This is 
the greatest honor which it is in the power of the Congre- 
gational Churches to bestow on one of their clergymen. 

He died November 13, 1890. The day before his death 
he, seemed in unusual health and spirits, working in his 
library as usual and making plans for his journey abroad. 
The next morning at half-past six he was found lying on 

Sketch of the Life of Increase N. Tarbox. pp. 22, 1890. 
The English and Dutch Life of the Plymouth Men. This was left 
in manuscript, nearly complete; it will be published. 

He also edited, 1S6T>~7: — 
Molrt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth. 
The History of Kino Philip's War; by Benjamin Church. 
The History of the Eastern Expeditions, etc.; by Benjamin Church. 

He was one of the founders and first proprietor* of the Congregational 
Quarterly, and wrote much for it. 

166 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

his side, his head resting on his hand, apparently asleep ; 
but he had died in his sleep without suffering. 

He had been all his life a devoted student of the founding 
and building of New England, the origin and growth of her 
ideas of Christian doctrine, church government, constitu- 
tional law and civil liberty. In this knowledge he was, in 
the later years of his life, the profoundest living master. 
He had in preparation a work upon the founders of New 
England, to be entitled "The English and Dutch Life of 
the Plymouth Men," which had made great progress to 
completion, but which no man can finish as he would have 
finished it. He was always welcome at the meetings of this 
Society. We had expected larger service from him in our 
special work, if his life had been spared, as he should with- 
draw himself from the engrossing activities of his work in 
his profession. Dr. Dexter left a wife and one son, the 
Rev. Morton Dexter, who was associated with him as one 
of the editors of the Congregationalist. 

Our associate, Mr. Samuel S. Green of the Council, 
has kindly undertaken to prepare a sketch of the life of 
Mr. Bancroft. Dr. Thomas Chase will perform a like 
duty in regard to Dr. Schlicmann. 

Edward Isaiah Thomas, great-grandson of Isaiah 
Thomas the founder of this Society, was born in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, November 19, 1833; was elected member of this 
Society October 21, 1881 ; and died in Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, December 25, 1890. He was the son of Isaiah 
Thomas and Mary A. (Reeder) his wife, and the grandson of 
Isaiah Thomas, the only son of our founder. Ills father 
was appointed Consul at Algiers by President Lincoln, and 
sailed from New York for Havre on his way to his post in 
the Milwaukee, with two sons and a daughter. The ship 
was never heard of after she left New York. 

Edward Isaiah Thomas attended Wittenberg College in 
1852. About a year afterward he came back to Massachu- 

1891.] Report of the Council. 1(57 

setts, where he engaged in business. He married Miss 
Henrietta Williams Briggs on the 31st day of Deeember, 
• 1857. who with three daughters survives him. lie settled 
in Brook line. He was a most upright, eourteous, and 
worthy gentleman, of pleasant maimers, full of public 
spirit, generosity and bounty. He took a large part in the 
affairs of the town and of the Church, of which he was 
deacon for eighteen years. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts House of Representatives for the years 
1876-1880, and of the State Senate for the years 1884- 
1885. He was several years Chairman of the Committee 
on Banks and Banking, and a member of the Committee on 
the revision of the Statutes in 1881. He took great inter- 
est in Mr. Duncan's important work in the redemption from 
barbarism of the Metlakahtla Indians, and was largely in- 
strumental in raising the fund for their benefit. He highly 
prized his membership of the Society, and was a constant 

attendant at its meetings. 


To draw an adequate portraiture of Charles Devens 
would require the noble touch of the old masters of paint- 
ing or the lofty stroke of the dramatists of Queen Eliza- 
beth's day. Ho filled many great places in the public ser- 
vice with so much modesty and with a gracious charm of 
manner and behavior which so attracted and engrossed our 
admiration that we failed at first to discern the full strength 
of the man. It is not until oiler his death, when we sum 
up what he has done for purposes of biography or of eulogy, 
that we see how important and varied has been the work of 
his life. 

Charles Devens was born in Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts, April 4, 1820. His family connections led him to take 
early in life a deep interest in the military and naval his- 
tory of the country, especially in that of the War of 1812; 
while the place of his birth and the fact that he was the 
orandson of Richard Devens gave to him the interest in 
the opening of the Revolution which belongs to every son 

1G8 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of Middlesex. He was a pupil at the Boston Latin School ; 
was graduated at Harvard in 1838 ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1840; practised law in North-field and afterward in 
Greenfield ; was Senator from Franklin County in 1848 and 
1849 ; was brigadier-general of the militia ; was appointed 
United States Marshal by President Taylor in 1849, holding 
that office until 1853 ; removed to Worcester in 1854 ; formed 
a partnership with George F. Hoar and J. Henry Hill 
in December, 1850 ; was city solicitor in the years 1850, 
1857 and 1858. The news of the surrender of Fort Sum- 
ter was received in Worcester Sunday, April 14th. Mon- 
day forenoon came the confirmation of the news and Presi- 
dent Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers. General Devens 
was engaged in the trial of a cause before the supreme 
court, when the news was told him. He instantly requested 
another member of the bar to take his place in the trial, 
went immediately up street, offered his services to the gov- 
ernment, was unanimously chosen the same day major of 
the Third Battalion of Massachusetts Rifles, commissioned 
the next day, April 16th, departed for the seat of war April 
20th. The battalion under his command was stationed at 
Fort McIIenry. On the 24th of July following he was 
appointed Colonel of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment. 
Gen. Devens was in command of the Fifteenth Regiment 
at the disastrous battle of Ball's Bluff, where he was struck 
by a musket ball, which was intercepted by a metallic but- 
ton which saved his life. His conduct on that day received 
high encomium from Gen. McClellan. He was soon after 
appointed a Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and assigned 
to a brigade in Couch's division of the Fourth Corps. His 
division was engaged in the battle in front of Fort Magruder 
on the 5th of May, 1862. On the 31st of the same month 
he was engaged in the most critical portion of the desperate 
fight at Fair Oaks, where his command was conspicuous for 
valor and devotion. This was one of the most stubbornly 
contested fields of the war. Gen. Devens was severely 

1891.] Report of the Council. 169 

wounded toward the close of the day, but with a few other 
officers he had succeeded in reforming the repeatedly broken 
lines and in holding the field until reinforcements arrived 
and stayed the tide of Confederate triumph. He returned 
to his command as soon as his wound would permit, and 
took part in the battle of Fredericksburg in December, 1862. 
In his official report Gen. Newton says, "My acknowledg- 
ments are due to all according to their opportunities, but 
especially to Brigadier-General Charles Devens, who com- 
manded the advance and the rearguard, in the crossing and 
recrossing of the river." In the following spring Gen. 
Devens was promoted to the command of a division of the 
Eleventh Corps. He was posted with his division of 4,000 
men on the extreme right of the Hank of Hooker's army, 
which was attacked by 26,000 men under the great rebel 
leader Stonewall Jackson. Gen. Devens was wounded by 
a musket ball in the foot early in the day ; but he kept the 
field, making the most strenuous efforts to hold his men 
together and stay the advance of the Confederates until his 
Corps was almost completely enveloped by Jackson's force 
and, in the language of Gen. Walker, " was scattered like 
the stones and timbers of a broken dam." He recovered 
from his wound in time to take part in the campaign of 
1864. His troops were engaged on the first of June in the 
battle of Cold Harbor, and carried the enemy's entrenched 
line with severe loss. On the third of June, in an attack 
which Gen. Walker characterizes as one " which is never 
spoken of without awe and 'bated breath by any one who 
participated in it," Gen. Devens was carried along the line 
on a stretcher, being so crippled by inflammatory rheuma- 
tism that he could neither mount his horse nor stand in his 
place. This was the last action in which he took an 
active part. On the third of April, 1865, he led the 
advance into Richmond, where the position of Military 
Governor was assigned to him after the surrender. He 
afterwards was second in command to General Sickles, 

170 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in the Southeastern Department, and exercised practically 
all the powers of government for a year or two. This 
' command was of very great importance to him as a part of 
his legal training. Upon him practically devolved the duty 
of deciding summarily, but without appeal, all important 
questions of military law as well as those affecting the civil 
rights of citizens during his administration. 

He was offered a commission in the regular army, which 
he declined. He came back to Worcester in 1800 ; renewed 
his partnership with George F. Hoar for a short time ; was 
appointed justice of the superior court April, 1807 ; was 
appointed justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts in 
187o ; was offered the appointment of Secretary of War in 
the Cabinet of President Hayes March f>th, 1877 ; a day or 
two later was tendered the office of Attorney-General by 
the President, which he accepted and held until the expira- 
tion of President Hayes's administration. He was offered 
the office of judge of the circuit court of the first circuit at 
the death of Judge Shepley, which he very much desired 
to accept. P>ut the President, although placing this office at 
his disposal, was exceedingly unwilling to lose his services 
in the Cabinet; and Gen. Devens, with his customary self- 
denial, yielded to the desire of his chief. He was again 
appointed justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts in 
1881, and held that oilice until his death. 

He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian 
Society October 21, 1878. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. lie received the degree 
of LL.D. from Harvard University in the year 1^77. He 
was chosen President of the Harvard Alumni Association, 
and again elected President of that Association in 1880, in 
order that he might preside at the great celebration of the 
250th anniversary of the foundation of the college, which 
he did with a dignity and grace which commanded the 
admiration of all persons who were present on that interest- 
ing occasion. He died January 7, 1891. 

1891.] Report of the Council. 171 

General Devens gained very soon after establishing him- 
self in Worcester the reputation of one of the foremost ad- 
vocates at the bar of Massachusetts. He was a model of the 
professional character, of great courtesy to his opponent, 
great deference to the court, tidelity to nis client, giving to 
every case all the labor which could profitably be spent upon 
it. The certainty of the absolute fidelity, thoroughness, and 
skill with which his part of the duty of an important trial 
would be performed, made it a delight to try cases as his 
associate. He was especially powerful with juries in cases 
involving the domestic relations, or which had in them 
anything of the pathos of which the court-house so often 
furnishes examples. He did not care in those days for the 
preparation or argument of questions of law, although he 
possessed legal learning fully adequate to the exigencies of 
his profession, and never neglected any duty. 

His powers continued to grow as he grew older until his 
death. 1 think he was unsurpassed in this country in the 
generation to which he belonged in native gifts of oratory. 
He had a tine voice, of great compass and power, a grace- 
ful and dignified presence. He was familiar with the best 
English literature. He had a pure and admirable style, an 
imagination which was quickened and excited under the 
stimulus of extempore speech, and was himself moved and 
stirred by the emotions which are most likely to move and 
stir an American audience. Some of his addresses to juries 
in Worcester are now remembered, under whose spell jury 
and audience were in tears, and where it was somewhat 
difficult even for the bench or the opposing counsel to resist 
the contagion. He never, however, undertook to prepare 
and train himself for public speaking, as was done by Mr. 
Choate or Mr. Everett, or had the constant and varied prac- 
tice under which the fine powers of Wendell Phillips came 
to such perfection. But his fame as an orator constantly 
increased, so that before his death no other man in Massa- 
chusetts was so much in demand, especially on those occa- 

172 ' uimerican Antiquarian Society. [April, 

sions whore the veterans of the war were gathered to com- 
memorate its sacrifices and triumphs. 

Among the most successful examples of his oratoric 
power is his Address at Bunker Hill at the Centennial in 
1875, where the forming the procession and the other exer- 
cises occupied the day until nearly sundown, and General 
Devens, the orator of the day, laid aside his carefully pre- 
pared oration and addressed the audience in a brief speech, 
wholly unpremeditated, which was the delight of everybody 
who heard it. 1 

At New Haven he delivered the address before the Army 
of the Potomac in commemoration of General Meade and 
the battle of Gettysburg, which is a tine specimen of his- 
toric narrative mingled and adorned with stately eloquence. 
At the banquet in the evening of the same day the gentle- 
man who had been expected to respond to the toast, "The 
private soldier," was unexpected!}' called away, and General 
Devens was asked at a moment's notice and without prepara- 
tion to take his place. The writer has heard President 
Grant — no mean judge — who had himself listened to so 
much of the best public speaking in all parts of the coun- 
try, say that General Devens's response to this toast was the 
finest speech he ever heard in his life. The eulogy upon 
Grant delivered at Worcester, especially the wonderful pas- 
sage where he contrasts the greeting which Napoleon might 
expect from his soldiers and companions in arms at a meet- 
ing beyond the grave with that which 'Grant might expect 
from his brethren, is also one of the best specimens of elo- 

1 We annex an extract from the diary of our associate, Mr. Henry ii. Edcs, 
under date of June 17th, 1S70. Mr. Edes took a very large part in making the 
arrangements for the centennial celebration of that date 

"The oration by Judge Devens was magnificent. lie spoke wholly without 
notes and his effort was largely extemporaneous. He began by saying that the 
Jalencss of the hour ('twas nearly six o'clock) would prevent his following the 
train of any previously prepared ellbrt and he would briefly review the history 
of the battle and its results upon ihe world's history, lie spoke for nearly an 
hour and a quarter, holding his line audience in rapt attention by his eloquence, 
the elegance of his diction and his superb enunciation. It was, indeed, a won- 
derful effort, and will compare favorably with Webster's great orations in '2f> 
and '-i:J." 

1891. J Report of the Council. 173 

quence in modern times. Surpassing even these are the 
few sentences he addressed to his regiment after the battle 
of Ball's Bluff. 

General Devens had a modest estimate of his own best 
powers. While he was an admirable judge, bringing to 
the eourt the weight of his gre J, experience, his admirable 
sense, his stainless integrity, his perfect impartiality, his 
great discernment, his abundant learning, it has always 
seemed to the writer that he erred after the war in not pre- 
ferring political life to his place upon the bench. He could 
easily have been Governor or Senator, in which places the 
affection of the people of Massachusetts would have kept 
him for a period limited only by his own desire, and might 
well have been expected to pass from the Cabinet to an even 
higher place in the service of his country. But he disliked 
political strife, and preferred those places of service which 
did not compel him to encounter bitter antagonisms. 

He was invited by President Hayes to a seat in his 
Cabinet. He tilled the place of Attorney-General with a 
dignity and an ability which has been rarely if ever sur- 
passed b} r any of the illustrious men who have filled that 
great office. The judges of the Supreme Court long after 
he had left Washington were accustomed to speak of the 
admirable manner in which he discharged his duties. The 
writer quite recently heard Mr. Justice Bradley, who is 
without a superior, if not without a peer, among living 
jurists on either side of the Atlantic, speak enthusiastically 
of his recollection of General Devens in the office of Attor- 
ney-General. Judge Bradley has kindly acceded to a re- 
quest to put in writing what he had said. His letter is here 
inserted : 

Washington, January 20th, 1891. 
Hon. Geo. F. Hoar. 

My Dear Sir: — You ask for my estimate of the services 
and character of Gen. Devens as Attorney-General of the 
United States. In general terms I unhesitatingly answer, 
that he left upon my mind the impression of a sterling, 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

noble, generous character, loyal to duty, strong, able, and 
courteous in the fulfilment of it, with sueh accumulation of 
legal acquirement and general culture as to render his coun- 
sels highly valuable in the Cabinet, and his public efforts 
exceedingly graceful and effective. His professional ex- 
hibitions in the Supreme Court during the four years that 
he represented the Government, were characterized by 
sound learning, chastely and accurately expressed, great 
breadth Of view, the seizing of strong points and disregard 
of minute ones, marked deference for the court and cour- 
tesy to his opponents. He was a model to tho younger 
members of the bar of a courtly and polished advocate. 
He appeared in the court only in cases of special impor- 
tance ; but of these there was quite a large number during 
his term. As examples, I may refer to the cases of Young 
v. United States (97 I J. S. 3 ( J), which involved the rights 
of neutrals in our civil war, and particularly the alleged 
right of a British subject, who had been engaged in running 
the blockade, to demand compensation for a large quantity 
of cotton purchased in the Confederacy and seized by the 
military forces of the United States ; — Reynolds v. United 
States (98 U. S. 145), which declared the futility of the 
plea, in cases of bigamy among the Mormons, of religious 
belief, claimed under the first amendment of the Constitu- 
tion ; and established the principle that pretended religious 
belief cannot be accepted as a justification of overt acts 
made criminal by the law of the land; — The Sinking Fund 
Cases ( ( Ji) U. S. 700), which involved the validity of the 
act of Congress known as the Thurman Act, requiring the 
Pacific Railroad Companies to make annual payments for a 
sinking fund to meet the bonds loaned to them by the Gov- 
ernment ; — Tennessee v. Davis (100 U. S. 257), as to the 
right of a United States officer to be tried in the Federal 
courts for killing a person in self-defence whilst in the dis- 
charge of his official duties; — The Civil Rights case of 
Strander v. W. Virginia and others (100 U. S. 303-422), 
in vvluch were settled the rights of all classes of citizens, 
irrespective of color, to suffrage and to representation in 
the jury box, and the right of the Government of the 
United States to interpose its power for their protection ; — 
Neal v. Delaware .(103 U. S. 370), by which it was de- 
cided that the right of suffrage and (in that case) the con- 
sequent right of jury service of people of African descent, 


Report of the Council. 


were secured by the 15th Amendment of the Constitution, 
notwithstanding unrepealed state laws or constitutions to 
the contrary. 

in all these cases and many others the arguments of the 
Attorney-General were presented with distinguished ability 
•and dignity, and with his habitual courtesy and amenity of 
manner; whilst his broad and comprehensive views greatly 
aided the court in arriving at just conclusions. In all of 
them he was successful ; and it may be said that he rarely 
assumed a position on behalf of the Government, in any 
important case, in which he was not sustained by the judg- 
ment of the court. His advocacy was conscientious and 
judicial rather than experimental — as is eminently fitting in 
the oflicial representative of the Government. It best sub- 
serves the ends of justice, the suppression of useless litiga- 
tion, and the prompt administration of the law. 

I can only add that the members of the Supreme Court 
parted with Attorney-General Devens with regret. Of 
him, as of so many other eminent lawyers, the. reflection is 
just, that the highest efforts of advocacy have no adequate 
memorial. Written compositions remain ; but the noblest - 
displays of human genius at the bar — often, perhaps, the 
successful assaults of Freedom against the fortresses of 
Despotism — are lost to history and memory for Want of 
needful recordation. Vixcre fortes ante Af/amemnona ; or, 
as Tacitus says of the eloquent Ilaterius, "Whilst the plod- 
ding industry of scribblers goes down to posterity, the sweet 
voice and lluent eloquence of Ilaterius died with himself." 
Very Truly Yours. 

Joseph P. Bradley. 

General Devens took no active part in the work of this 
Society, although he was quite a frequent attendant at our 
meetings. He had hoped before long, if he had lived, to 
write for us a paper on the government of Massachusetts 
during the period between the breaking out of the Involu- 
tion and the adoption of the Constitution of 1780. This 
work, if done at all, must be done by other hands. But he 
was an admirable historical investigator and narrator. He 
carefully investigated the facts. He told the story of the 
heroic days of the Revolution and of the heroic days of the 

176 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

War for the Union with a graphic power which will give 
his addresses on such subjects a permanent place in our 
best historical literature. 1 

But it is as a soldier that his countrymen will remember 
him, and it is as a soldier that he would wish to be remem- 
bered. Whatever may be said by the philosopher, the 
moralist, or the preacher, the instincts of the greater por- 
tion of mankind will lead them to award the highest meed 
of admiration to the military character. Even when the 
most sellish of human passions, the love of power or the 
love of fame, is the stimulant of the soldier's career, he 
must at least be ready for the supreme sacrifice — the will- 
ingness to give his life, if need be, for the object he is pur- 
suing. But when his end is purely unselfish, when the love 
of country or the desire to save her life by giving his own 
has entire mastery of the soul, all mankind are agreed to 
award to the good soldier a glory which it bestows nowhere 

There was nothing lacking in General Devens to the 
complete soldierly character. He had a passionate love of 
his country ; he was absolutely fearless ; he never flinched 
before danger, sickness, suffering or death. He was 
prompt, resolute, and cool in the face of danger. He had 
a warm and affectionate heart. He loved his comrades, 
especially the youth who were under his command. He 
had that gentle and placable nature which so often accom- 

1 The following is a partial list of the publications of General Devens:— 

Letter. To Hon. Henry Wilson, U. S. Senator, December 16, 1804. - 

Addruss. Before the Army of the James, delivered Sept. 2, IStiS. 

Ouation. On General Meade, delivered at New Haven, May 14, 1873. 

Okation. On Centennial of Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1875. 

OUATION. Dedication of Soldiers' Monument at Boston, Sept. 17, 1877. 

Address (2). On General Grant; one at Boston, July 20, and one at Worces- 
ter, Aug. 8, 1885. 

Address. To the Fifteenth Mass. Uegiment, at Gettysburg, June 12, 188(1. 

Oration. On General Sheridan, before the Loyal Legion, Nov. 7, 1888. 

Oration. On the 25th Anniversary of the Loyal Legion, at Philadelphia, 
April 15, 181)0. 

Address. At the 250th Auuiversary of Hurvard University. 

1891.] Report of the Council 111 

panies great courage. He was incapable of a permanent 
anger. He was still less capable of revenge or of willing- 
ness to inflict injury or pain. 

As Clarendon says of Falkland, " He had a full appetite 
of fame by just and generous actions, so he had an equal 
contempt for it by base and servile expedients." He never 
for an instant tolerated that most pernicious and pestilent 
heresy, that so long as each side believed itself to be in the 
right there was no difference between the just and the un- 
just cause. He knew that he was contending for the life of 
jiis country, for the fate of human liberty on this continent. 
Mo other cause would have led him to draw his sword ; and 
he cared for no other earthly reward for his service. 

" Oh just and faithful knight of God, 
Hide on, the prize i.s near." 

For the Council, 


178 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



The history of the relation between Canada and the 
United States, fronra time preceding the War of Independ- 
ence until to-day, affords a remarkable instance how little 
the relations of communities with each other are determined" 
by their interests or by mere reason. The desire of our 
statesmen at the time of the Revolution that Canada should 
join with us in throwing off the yoke of Great Britain, and 
that she should become a part of our confederacy, is well 
known. Undoubtedly a like desire has possessed the great 
body of the American people ever since. It would have 
seemed that everything in the condition and interest of 
Canada would have promoted the accomplishment of this 
desire. Along her whole border, now extending for more 
than 4,000 miles, the physical conditions are such as 
tend to union rather than to separation. Nature seems to 
have designed her several provinces for union with the 
United States, if not for separation from each other. 
Canada had been brought under the authority of England 
but twelve years before our Re volution, by conquest. Her 
people were descended from England's hereditary rival and 
foe. Language, interest, religion, history, tradition, the 
memories of wars going back to the earliest days of the 
civilization of the two countries, would seem to have made 
it impossible that the French Catholics of England's North 
American provinces would ever abide content under the 
British yoke. \ r et England never had a colony so obedient 
and so tranquil. 

1891.] Government in Canada and U. 8. compared. 179 

The question of our relations with Canada is now pressing 
upon the American people "as never before. Every Cana- 
dian engaged in productive or profitable industry, whether 
a fanner, miner, manufacturer, lumberman, or fisherman, 
is either a customer, a source of supply, or a competitor of 
some American. The Canadian lines of railroads, which 
now cross the continent, which have been constructed at a 
cost of more than £120, 000, 000 sterling, originally intended 
to be competitors with the railroads of America as well 
as military roads, have become largely tributary to the 
United States, are building up American cities at the ex- 
pense of those of Canada, and enable New England and the 
Northwest to hold their own in the rivalry between them 
and the communities of the Middle States and the South. 
Out of the present condition of things there has come such 
large advantage to us that the stream of emigration from 
Canada to the United States is probably at this time larger 
than from any other country in the world in proportion to 
the capacity of the fountain. More than one million Cana- 
dians are now upon American soil. They are among the 
most energetic and valuable of that people. There are 
regions in Canada which have been abandoned by all their 
young men, who have sought occupation here. I was told 
of a single township where, on a voting-list made up two 
years ago, there were two hundred and eighty-six names, 
sixty-six of whom within that time have come to this coun- 
try. The historical scholars of the United States may, 
therefore, well deem it as much within their province to 
make their countrymen familiar with the history, traditions 
and institutions of Canada, as if it were already embraced 
within the Union itself. 

It is the purpose of this essay to give a brief outline of 
the Constitution of Canada, to show what portion of it has 
been derived from the United States, ami what portion of it 
is of British origin. This will be done without an attempt 
to bring to light any historical fact not generally known, or 

180 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to add anything- new to information now readily accessible, 
but only in the hope that it will tend to stimulate the inter- 
est which American scholars already feel in the engaging 
subject of Canadian history and institutions, around which 
the genius of Parkman has already thrown so resplendent 
a light. 

The term Canada throughout this essay will be applied to 
all the territory of North America lying north of the United 
States (of course not reckoning Alaska), together with the 
adjacent islands which are subject to Great Britain, although 
Newfoundland and Labrador are not included in the politi- 
cal organization known as the Dominion of Canada. 

This domain, as has been said, borders upon our own for 
more than 4,000 miles. It contains 3,010,000 square miles, 
or, excluding water surface, 3,470,257 square miles. It is 
connected politically with the power which is our principal 
manufacturing and commercial rival in peace, and which 
would be most formidable to us as an antagonist in war. 
Its institutions are largely modeled 14)011 our own, and, 
where they differ from our own, allbrd a field of interesting 
and profitable study. The two countries have in general 
the same language, similar laws and a common literature. 

Canada, though in theory and in fact, dependent on the 
Parliament of Great Britain for her constitutional and legal 
rights, is, in a large degree, a self-governing people. Her 
system of government is copied, in many of its features, 
from that of the United States. In others, she follows the 
methods of Great Britain. Since the conquest of Canada 
from the French, which was followed by the Convention 
signed September 8, 1760, her dependence on Great Britain 
has been unquestioned. Various powers and privileges of 
self-government have been conferred on her from time to 
time. But these came from the bounty and grace of the 
power to which she was subject, and were not asserted as 
birthrights, as was the case with the United States. 

The Act of Parliament of March 2\), 1867, known and 

1891.] Government in Canada and (J. S. comjmred. 181 

cited us the British North America Act, united the Prov- 
inces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick under 
the name of the Dominion of Canada, provided constitutions 
of government for the Dominion and the several Provinces, 
and prescribed the conditions under which Newfoundland, 
Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Rupert's Land 
and the Northwest Territory might thereafter be admitted 
to the confederacy or union so created. 

Since 1 8 f > 7 , all the British possessions on the continent 
of North America to the north of the United States, and all 
the islands adjacent to such possessions, except Newfound- 
land and Labrador, have been included within the Dominion 
of Canada. 

The Constitution of the Dominion has taken from the 
United States her modification of the federative principle; 
Like the United States, Canada has local government in 
the different provinces, and a general federal government 
with authority over the entire Dominion, whose jurisdiction 
depends upon the subject-matter, and not upon local bound- 
aries, and whose legislative, executive and judicial powers 
operate directly upon the citizen. As in the United States, 
the central and the local powers are kept each within its 
own domain by the authority of a supreme judiciary. 

While many things which we think essential to self-gov- 
ernment and to the due security of personal and individual 
rights are not enjoyed by the people of Canada, in one most 
important respect the will of her people takes effect in legis- 
lation more directly and effectively than does that of the peo- 
ple of the United States. The British North America Act 
was passed after our Civil War. Its authors conceived that 
the}' had so thoroughly studied our system as to be able to its defects. The theory of the Constitution of Canada, 
if that term may properly be applied to an act of legislation 
which may beat any time revoked or altered at the pleasure 
of the Legislature which enacted it, is that the power of the 
Queen and Parliament of Great Britain over Canada is sov- 

182 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

creign and unlimited. The people of the United States, or 
of the colonies which now form part of the United States, 
never recognized such authority in Great Britain, and do 
not admit the existence of unlimited powers of government 
over them to be vested anywhere. The British North 
America Act of 1867 is not strictly a constitution amenda- 
ble only by the people, or even a charter, operating as a 
grant of political power which can only be forfeited by judi- 
cial decision, or surrendered by the people whom it ailects. 
It has no higher authority than any other act of ordinary 
legislation. It is probable that the desire of Great Britain 
to retain the allegiance of her dependencies, and the lesson 
that power has learnt from her conflict with the people of 
the territories now composing a large part of the United 
States, render the liberty of Canada practically secure 
against any domination of Parliamentary authority or im- 
perial encroachment of any kind. But, legally and theoreti- 
cally, Canada, in respect of her liberties, is but a tenant at 
the will of Great Britain. In the United States, all powers 
not granted to Congress are reserved to the States or the 
people. In Canada, all powers granted to the Provinces 
are subject to the Dominion or to Great Britain. She has, 
moreover, no Bill of Rights. The doctrine which lies at 
the foundation of every American system of government, 
state or national, that there are domains upon which no 
human authority can be permitted to enter, and acts which 
no human power shall be permitted to do, is unknown to her. 
In her foreign relations, Canada is wholly under British 
control. She has no voice in the treaty-making power, or 
in making war or peace. Any wise administration in Great 
Britain would doubtless consult Canadian statesmen in mak- 
ing a treaty, and would give her, when convenient, a repre- 
sentation in the negotiation, where Canadian interests were 
specially affected. In several very important cases recently 
she has been so consulted. But the final authority is that of 
Great Britain. She may plunge Canada in war against her 

18iH.] Government in Canada and if. S. compared. Itf3 

interest, her wishes, even her honor; or may seriously 
injure her by treaties with other nations in peace. Great 
Britain has just rejected an arrangement which Newfound- 
land desired with the United States in consequence of the 
remonstrance of the Dominion. 

The veto power, if kept in force in practice according to 
the letter of the provisions of the British North America 
Act, not only leaves little of the local self-government to 
the Provinces, but is a most serious restraint upon the pop- 
ular will in federal or general legislation. This power 
whenever exerted is absolute. No legislative body, how- 
ever large the majority or entire the unanimity, can pass a 
bill over the veto. The pardoning power for the Provinces, 
as well as for the Dominion, is vested in the Governor- 

In each Province the chief executive power is vested in a 
Lieutenant-Governor, who is appointed by the Governor- 
General in Council, and whose salary is fixed and provided 
by the Parliament of Canada. Every bill passed by the 
legislature of a Province must be presented to the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, who may either assent to it, withhold assent 
to it, or reserve it for the consideration of the Governor- 
General. If he withhold assent, the bill fails to become a 
law. If he assent, it may be disallowed by the Governor- 
General at any time within one year. If he reserve it, it 
does not become a law unless the Governor-General assent 
within one year. 

In the same way all acts passed by the Parliament of the 
Dominion may be assented to by the Governor-General in 
the Queen's name, may be reserved fur the royal pleasure, 
or the Governor-General may declare that he withholds the 
royal assent. In the tirst case the act becomes law. In the 
second, it fails to become law, unless assented to by the 
Queen within one year. In the last case, it is defeated. 

Further, bills for appropriating any part of the public 
revenue, or for imposing any tax or impost, must, if in the 

184 • American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Dominion Parliament, originate in the House of Commons, 
and if in the legislature of a Province, in the popular 
branch. No such measure can be adopted or passed in 
cither, unless it has first been recommended by the Gov- 
ernor-General or Lieutenant-Governor in the session at 
which if has passed. 

The Senate of the Dominion Parliament is composed of 
Senators, originally not exceeding seventy -eight in number, 
now limited to eighty-two, who are requirod to have a 
property qualification, and who are appointed by the Gov- 
ernor-General for life. The Speaker of the Senate is ap- 
pointed by the Governor-General, and is removable by him. 
The Constitution of the legislative bodies of the Provinces 
is not uniform. In Ontario, the Legislature consists of the 
Lieutenant-Governor and one House. In Quebec, there 
are two Houses. The Senate is composed of twenty-four 
persons, who are appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor for 
life, until the Legislature shall otherwise provide. In Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, there are two Houses, the 
members of one of which are appointed for life by the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. In Prince Edward Island, there are two 
Houses, both elected. In Manitoba and British Columbia, 
there is but one House. 

The judges of the principal courts of the several Prov- 
inces, as well as of the Dominion, are appointed by the 
Governor-General. Their salaries are fixed and maintained 
by the Parliament of the Dominion, and are entirely subject 
to its control. 

The Queen is declared to be a part of the Dominion 

The executive power of the Dominion is vested in the 
Queen, who exercises it through .the Governor-General, 
whom she appoints and removes at pleasure. His salary, 
now fixed at £10,000, cannot be reduced without his con- 
sent. He appoints the principal executive ollicers for the 
Dominion. In the Provinces these ollicers are appointed 
by the Lieutenant-Governor. 

1891.] Government in Canada and IT. S. compared. 185 

It will be seen that, according to the scheme of the Cana- 
dian Government, the authority of the Dominion controls 
and restricts that of the Province at every point. The au- 
thority of the Queen controls and restricts that of the Domin- 
ion at every point. No law involving raising or expending 
money can be introduced except on the recommendation of 
the Governor-General appointed by the Queen, or passed 
without the concurrence of the Senate, appointed by her 
representative, or go into eliect until approved by her repre- 
sentative, or by herself in Council. Canada can neither 
raise a penny nor spend a penny unless the Government 
propose the tax or the expenditure. No people claiming to 
be self-governed were ever placed in so tight a constitu- 
tional straight-jacket before. But in practice the popular 
control over legislation is secured in another way resem- 
bling that of Great Britain. Canada has avoided the re- 
straints which exist in the Constitution of the United States, 
which fetter the immediate action of the popular will, and 
make a change of legislative policy so difficult here. In 
the United States the executive power can change but once 
in four years. The veto power is vested in the President, 
which can be overcome only by a two-thirds vote in each 
legislative chamber. The legislative power can be trans- 
ferred from one party to another only when the majority in 
each House has been changed. It frequently happens, as 
was the case during the whole period from 1875 to 1889, 
that the United States is without the possibility of national 
legislation, except in the case where the two political parties 
into which the nation is divided are agreed. So with re- 
gard to foreign relations. Treaties can be made only with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate. Ordinarily, 
therefore, no treaty can ever be made without the concur- 
rence of two parties into which the country is divided. 

On the other hand, the Government of Canada is carried 
on by a Ministry, appointed indeed by the Governor-Gen- 
eral, but responsible to the House of Commons, and chang- 

186 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

ing when the majority in that House changes. In this 
respect the English system prevails there. 

It is sometimes claimed that the veto power of the Queen 
over the Acts of the Dominion Parliament, like that of the 
Queen in Great Britain, which has been obsolete since 
1704, is a power never again to be used. Mr. Bourinot 
expressed this view in his paper read before the American 
Historical Association. But it is difficult to believe that 
Great Britain would treat a great constitutional power as 
obsolete, which was expressly reserved in a scheme of gov- 
ernment enacted in 1867, and which has been exercised 
since that time. 

Both parties in Canada have laid it down in their plat- 
forms that the veto power should not be. exercised by the 
Dominion authority over Provincial legislation " in case of 
acts clearly and unequivocally within the legal and consti- 
tutional powers of the Province." Mr. Bourinot admits 
that there is a latent peril in this power, even so restrained, 
in times of excitement, and that it would have been better 
to leave it, as we do, to the Courts. 

We suppose the veto power reserved to the Queen in 
Council would be exercised only where such veto seemed 
to her advisers in England necessary for the preservation of 
the royal authority, or the existing constitutional relation 
of Canada to the Empire. The veto power reserved to the 
Governor-General, or to the Lieutenant-Governors in the 
Provinces, is, we suppose, a living and real power. There 
were forty-five cases of disallowances of Provincial acts be- 
tween 1867 and 1887. The power seems so far to have 
been exercised with great caution and discretion. 

Another practice, also, has grown up under which Provin- 
cial acts are commented on, that is, the Minister of Justice, 
acting for the Governor-in-Council, has pointed out to the 
Provincial Government the particulars wherein certain 
measures are objectionable. In such cases, they have been 
amended or abandoned. 

1891.] Government in Canada and U. S. compared. 187 

Provincial Acts are disallowed on three grounds, viz. : — 

As not within the power of the Provincial legislatures; 

As in conflict with Federal legislation ; 

As prejudicial to the advantage of the Dominion as a 

The latter ground would include the objection that the 
act was in violation of common right. 

As the Governor-General in exercising this power is gov- 
erned by the advice of the Ministry, who are the political 
leaders of the majority in the Dominion House of Com- 
mons, these vetoes are likely, in many cases, to be regarded 
by the opposition as political, especially if the vetoed meas- 
ure were introduced by the governing party in the Province, 
being opposed to that of the Dominion. 

The power vested in the Governor-General to reserve 
acts of the Dominion Parliament has been exercised in a 
few instances. An example is the Copyright Act of 1872, 
where the Royal assent was refused. 

The Governor-General is instructed so to reserve meas- 
ures which in his judgment are inconsistent with Great 
Britain's treaty obligations, which prejudice the rights of 
British subjects outside Canada, or which strike at the 
Queen's supremacy, and, perhaps, others where like objec- 
tions exist. 

The preamble to the British North America Act recites 
that " the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New 
Brunswick have expressed their desire to be federally united 
with the Dominion under the crown of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, with a constitution similar in 
principle to that of the United Kingdom." The essential 
resemblance of the Canadian constitution to that of (heat, 
Britain, and its essential diiference from that of the United 
States, is shown by the fact that the administration is re- 
sponsible to the House of Commons, and the Ministry must 
resign if they cease to be in accord with that majority. 
The appointment of all judges and senators, and of the 

188 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

Speaker of the Senate and all executive officers, the allow- 
ance or disallowance of the acts of Provincial legislatures, 
the introduction of bills for raising and expending money, 
in general all executive administration and the institution 
and conduct of all important legislation, depends upon the 
will of a majority of the House of Commons. The num- 
ber of Senators is limited. So that the resistance of the 
Senate to the desire of the House of Commons, cannot be 
overcome by the appointment of new Senators, as that of 
the House of Lords to the will of the Commons by a creation 
of Peers. 

While, therefore, changes in the executive government 
and in the administration of that government respond to the 
.popular will as represented by a majority of the House of 
Commons, in a manner unknown to the United States or to 
any of our States, if it were desired to declare the inde- 
pendence of Canada or to unite her to any other country, 
or to make for her a commercial union with any other coun- 
try, which should give that country large advantages which 
were denied to Great Britain, the promoters of the plan 
must not ouly be able to overcome all the influences of 
patronage, of attachment to England, of jealousy of other 
countries, of conservatism, of the interests which bind in- 
fluential men and strong parties to existing conditions, but 
they must encounter the legislative power of a Senate 
whose members are appointed by the crown and hold office 
for life, and the veto powers expressly reserved by the Act 
of 18(57 to the royal Governor-General and to the Queen in 
Council. It may be that some method may be devised of 
forming such political or commercial union other than an 
act of the British Parliament or a revolution. Put it is not 
yet apparent. 

The Queen is commander-in-chief of all the forces, and 
has the right to determine the seat of government for the 

1891.] Government in Canada and U. S. compared. 189 

The seats of the several Provincial governments are de- 
termined by the executive authority of each. 

The Dominion Parliament has also unrestricted authority 
to make provision for the uniformity of all or any laws 
relative to civil rights and property, and the procedure in 
' the courts of the various Provinces. But these laws do not 
go into effect in any Province until adopted by the Legisla- 
ture thereof. 

As originally established in 1867, Canada consisted of 
Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, who 
were to elect a House of Commons, consisting originally of 
181 members, 82 for Ontario, 65 for Quebec, 19 for Nova 
Scotia, and 15 for New Brunswick, to be enlarged there- 
after at the will of the Parliament of Canada, preserving, 
however, the proportion among those colonies according to 
population. The members of the House of Commons 'must 
possess the same qualifications as would entitle them to sit 
and vote in a Provincial assembly. The qualifications of 
voters may be prescribed from time to time by Parliament. 
The other House of Parliament of Canada consists of 
a Senate, originally of 72 members, each of whom must 
dwell in the Province from which he is appointed, must be 
a natural born subject of the Queen of Great Britain, or 
naturalized by either of the Provinces of the Union, or by 
the Parliament after the Union, and must be seized of a 
freehold worth four thousand dollars over all incumbrances, 
and must also be worth four thousand dollars above all debt. 
The person ceasing to have either of these qualifications 
ceases to be a Senator. The Senate originally consisted of 
72 members, 24 each for Ontario and Quebec, and 24 for 
the maritime Provinces. The Queen may on recommenda- 
tion of the Governor-General increase the number of Sena- 
tors, three at a time, the total number not to exceed 78. 
Since the admission of the new Provinces the number of 
Senators has been increased to 80. 

Sections 91, 92, and 93 of the British North America Act 

190 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

are inserted here. They provide generally for the distri- 
bution of legislative power between the Dominion and the 
Provinees, and with what has already been said exhibit the 
general character of the Constitution of Canada: — 

91. It shall be lawful for the Queen, by and with the 
Advice and Consent of the Senate and House of Commons, 
to make Laws for the Peace, Order and Good Government 
of Canada in relation to all Matters not coming within the 
Classes of Subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to the 
Legislatures of the Provinces; and for greater certainty, 
but not so as to restrict the Generality of the foregoing 
Terms of this Section, it is hereby declared that (notwith- 
standing anything in this Act) the exclusive Legislative 
Authority of the Parliament of Canada extends to all Mat- 
ters coining within the Classes of Subjects next hereinafter 
enumerated, that is to say : — 

1. The Public Debt and Property. 

2. The Regulation of Trade and Commerce. 

3. The liaising of Money by any Mode or System of 


4. The borrowing of Money on the Public Credit. 

5. Postal Service. 

f>. The Census and Statistics. 

7. Militia, Military and Naval Service and Defence. 

8. The fixing of and providing for the Salaries and Allow- 

ances of Civil and other Officers of the Govern- 
ment of Canada. 

9. Beacons, Buoys, Lighthouses and Sable Island. 

10. Navigation and Shipping. 

11. Quarantine and the Establishment and Maintenance of 

Marine Hospitals. 

12. Sea Coast and Inland Fisheries. 

13. Ferries between a Province and any British or For- 

eign Country, or between Two Provinces. 

14. Currency and Coinage. 

15. Banking, Incorporation of Banks and the Issue of 

Paper Money. 

16. Savings Banks. 

17. Weights and Measures. 

18. Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes. 

19. Interest. 

20. Legal Tender. 

1891.] Government in Canada and IT. S. compared. 191 

21. Bankruptcy and Insolvency. 

22. Patents of Invention and Discovery. 

23. Copyrights. 

24. Indians and Lands reserved for the Indians. 

25. Naturalization and Aliens. 
i'(). Marriage and Divorce. 

27. The Criminal Law, except the Constitution of the 

Courts of Criminal Jurisdiction, hut including* the 
Procedure in Criminal Matters. 

28. The Establishment, Maintenance and Management of 


29. Such Classes of Subjects as are expressly excepted in 

the Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects by this 
Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of 
the Provinces. 
And any Matter coming within any of the Classes of 
Subjects enumerated in this Section shall not be deemed to 
come within the Class of Matters of a 'local or private Na- 
ture comprised in the Enumeration of the Classes of Sub- 
jects by this Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of 
the Provinces. 

92. In each Province the Legislature may exclusively 
make Laws in relation to Matters coming within the Classes 
of Subjects next hereinafter enumerated ; that is to say : 

1. The Amendment from Time to Time, notwithstanding 

anything in this Act, of the Constitution of the 
Province, except as regards the Oliice of Lieutenant- 

2. Direct Taxation within the Province in order to the 

raising of a Kevenue for Provincial Purposes. 

3. The 'borrowing of Money on the sole Credit of the 


4. The Establishment and Tenure of Provincial Offices, 

and the Appointment and Payment of Provincial 

5. The Management and Sale of the Public Lands belong- 

ing to the Province, and of the Timber and Wood 

6. The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of 

Public and Iveformatory Prisons in and for the 

7. The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of 

Hospitals, Asylums, Charities and Eleemosynary 

192 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Institutions in and for the Province, other than Ma- 
rine Hospitals. 

8. Municipal Institutions in the Province. 

9. Shop, Saloon, Tavern, Auctioneer, and other Licenses, 

in order to the raising of a Revenue for Provincial, 
Local or Municipal Purposes. 

10. Local Works and Undertakings, other than such as are 

of the following Classes, — 

a. Lines of Steam or other Ships, Railways, Canals, 

Telegraphs, and other Works and Undertakings, con- 
necting the Province, with any other or others of the 
Provinces, or extending beyond the Limits of the 
Province : 

b. Lines of Steamships between the Province and any 

British or Foreign Country : 

c. Such Works as, although wholly situate within the 

Province, are before or after their Execution de- 
clared by the Parliament of Canada to be for the 
general Advantage of Canada or for the Advantage 
of two or more of the Provinces. 

11. The Incorporation of Companies with Provincial Ob- 


12. Solemnization of Marriage in the Province. 

13. Property and Civil Rights in the Province. 

14. The Administration of Justice in the Province, includ- 

ing the Constitution, Maintenance, and Organization 
of Provincial Courts, both of Civil and of Crimi- 
nal Jurisdiction, and including Procedure in Civil 
Matters in those Courts. 

15. The Imposition of Punishment by Fine, Penalty, or 

Imprisonment for enforcing any law of the Province 
made in relation to any Matter coining within any of 
the Classes of subjects enumerated in this Section. 

16. Generally all matters of a merely local or private na- 

ture in the Province. 
93. In and for each Province the Legislature may ex- 
clusively make Laws in relation to Education, subject and 
according to the following Provisions : — 
(1.) Nothing in any such Law shall prejudicially af- 
fect any Right or Privilege with respect to Denom- 
inational Schools which any Class of Persons have 
by Law in the Province at the Union ; 

1891.] Government in Canada and U. S. compared. 193 

(2.) All the Powers, Privileges, and Duties at the Union 
by Law conferred and imposed in Upper Canada on 
the Separate Schools and School Trustees of the 
Queen's Roman Catholic Subjects, shall be and the 
same are hereby extended to the Dissentient Schools 
of the Queen's Protestant and Roman Catholic Sub- 
jects in Quebec ; 

(3.) Where in any Province a System of Separate or Dis- 
sentient Schools exists by Law at the Union or is 
thereafter established by the Legislature of the 
Province, an Appeal shall lie to the Governor-Gen- 
eral in Council from any Act or decision of any Pro- 
vincial Authority allecting any Eight or Privilege of 
the Protestant or Roman Catholic Minority of the 
Queen's Subjects in relation to Education ; 

(4.) In case any such Provincial Law as from Time to Time 
seems to the Governor-General in Council requisite 
for the due Execution of the Provisions of this Sec- 
tion is not made;, or in case any Decision of the Gov- 
ernor-General in Council on any Appeal under this 
Section is not duly executed by the proper Provin- 
cial Authority in that behalf v then and in every such 
case, and as far only as the circumstances of each 
case require, the Parliament of Canada may make 
remedial Laws for the due Execution of the Pro- 
visions of this Section, and of any Decision of the 
Governor-General in Council under this Section. 

The important particulars, then, in which the institutions 
of Canada differ from our own — and they are important as 
showing what things in a constitution established in 1787 
have seemed wise to the statesmen of 1807 — are these : — 

Their system of changing the executive with the changing 
majority of the House of Commons. Of this a few words 
will be said presently. 

The presence of their Executive in Parliament. 

The Government's initiation and control of legislation. 

The permanent tenure of their civil service, which does 
not change with ihe changes of political power. 

The reservation of the power over divorce to the central 
government. The Senate of the Dominion is the tribunal 

194 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of such trials, except in the maritime provinces. In Que- 
bec divorce is not allowed by the Church to Catholics. So 
from 1869 to 188.(5 there were but 11(5 divorces in Canada, 
to 328,613 in the United States. 

The life tenure of the Senate. 

The appointment of its members by the Government. 

Their property qualification. 

The real absence of any considerable weight in legisla- 
tion from the upper house. This house is always reluctant 
to make any substantial modification in Government meas- 

The general prevalence of the Australian ballot system. 

The property qualification for voting and for seats in Par- 

A Judiciary appointed by the Crown and holding office 
during good behavior, but dependent upon the Legislature 
for their salaries. 

The jurisdiction in the courts of all cases of contested 

The right of impeachment and of trial by the legislature, 
which James Monroe said is the mainspring of the great 
machine of government, is unknown to Canada. 

Canada has no bill of rights. 

No constitution was ever submitted to the people there, 
except in a single instance in New Brunswick. 

Her whole polity is controlled by the one pervading fact 
that in the last resort the power which governs her is from 
above and from without, and not from below and from 
within. The Queen appoints her Governor-General, the 
Governor-General appoints the Ministry and the Senate. 
The Ministry initiates all legislation. An appeal lies from 
her highest court to the Privy Council in England. The 
British Parliament can at any time overthrow her Constitu- 
tion at a stroke. All her treaties are made by a power 
foreign to her. All her legislation is subject to the triple 
veto power of her Majesty. 

1891.] Government in Canada and U. S. compared. 195 

It is doubtful, also, whether, under the great control 
exercised by the central power over the Province, State 
affection, State pride, State sovereignty, local public spirit, 
which have had so strong an influence upon us, and to 
which we owe what is greatest in our history, can ever be 
engendered there. The executive head of the Province is 
appointed by the executive of the Dominion. His salary is 
'fixed and provided by the Dominion Parliament. In those 
Provinces where there are two legislative houses, the mem- 
bers of the upper branch are appointed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor for life. The Governor-General has an absolute 
veto over all Provincial legislation. The pardoning power 
for the Provinces is vested in the Governor-General. It 
will be seen by the sections of the Act of 18(57 which we 
have cited, how large a share of the legislative power which 
we leave to the States, especially in the matter of crimes, 
is exercised in Canada by the Dominion. 

But the distinction which Canadian students like specially 
to insist on between their parliament and ours is that which 
we have already brielly spoken of — the change in the exec- 
utive with the changing majority in the House of Commons. 
Canada has adopted the modern English system, which never 
has obtained here in the national government or in any State. 
Indeed, it was not fairly established in England very long 
before our Constitution was framed. To establish it here 
would require the complete abrogation of the authority of 
the President, except so far as he should determine what 
members of the popular legislative branch were the persons 
who were entitled to be entrusted with power as best repre- 
senting its will. It would require, also, the abolition of the 
legislative function of the President. It would require that 
the authority of the Senate, both in ordinary legislation and 
in the treaty-making power (which is but another form of 
legislation), should be nominal only, or at most should be 
only suflicient for unimportant amendments to measures 
proposed by the other House, or to require the other House 

196 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

occasionally to reconsider its purposes. It would also re- 
quire elections of members of the House for a long term, 
and the vesting in the government the power of dissolution 
and appeal to the people. 

A discussion of the comparative advantages of this system 
and our own is a tempting subject, to which a larger space 
than can be given to this Report might profitably be de- 
voted. We do not believe that such a form of government 
would have been practicable during the early period of our 
history. Nor do we believe that it would be practicable 
now. It would certainly be rendered very difficult by the 
great number of important questions which present them- 
selves for solution almost at the same time in the United 
States, and which will increase with us with the increase of 
our population and wealth and the variety of our interests. 
Suppose one party to-day could carry a majority of the 
House of Representatives on the question of control of 
national elections, or on the tariff, or the national banking 
system, or subsidies for foreign commerce, or the question 
of silver coinage, or the expenditures for rivers and har- 
bors, or reciprocity with Canada, or with South America, 
and the other party could carry a majority on the rest of 
these questions or some of them. The Congress which has 
just adjourned was the first for sixteen years where the Exec- 
utive and both Houses of Congress were in the power of the 
same party. It dealt with more than twenty great subjects, 
the fate of any one of which would have overthrown or es- 
tablished an administration in England. Must we have a new 
national election every three weeks, whenever one or the 
other of them had been brought to a vote? We should 
have, also, if this were attempted, to change the constitu- 
tional term of office of the Representative. With all the 
power and greatness of England, she has as compact a pop- 
ulation as one of our great States. Canada has but live 
millions of inhabitants. Although her territory is nearl}' as 
large as ours, her population is much less widely scattered. 

1891.] Government in Canada and (J. 8. compared. 197 

Her present system will, it is believed, be found impracti- 
cable long before her population equals that of the United 

Her present system of government has not so far been 
found wholly satisfactory in its operation. Within twenty 
years, in spite of the vast aids she has received from 
England, she has contracted a debt of more than six hun- 
dred million dollars. Meantime our mighty magnet has 
attracted the best of her population to us. Halifax, Quebec 
and Montreal are but ports of entry for an immigration to 
the United States. There are probably 1,250,000 Cana- 
dians now dwelling in this country. 

But we shall have dealt with but half this subject, until 
the very peculiar relation to Canada of the Province of 
Quebec, and of the French Catholic population who con- 
trol that Province, and are spreading into some districts of 
Ontario and into Northwest Canada, is fully understood. 
The space in the Proceedings of the Society which may 
fairly be allotted to this Report forbids us from even enter- 
ing upon this most attractive topic. Quebec has an area 
of 258,634 square miles. Deducting 69,94b' covered by 
the inland waters and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, there are 
still left 188,688 square miles — a territory exceeding that 
of France by 54,000 square miles — with a population of 
about 1,500,000, of whom 88 per cent, are Catholics. 
This population makes up '60 per cent, of all Canada, and 
sends seventy French members to the Dominion House of 
Commons. The political control of this body of men is 
ecclesiastical to an extent far greater than that exercised by 
the Catholic Church or any other in any country of Europe. 
What is the aspiration of the churchmen who control 
Quebec as to its ultimate destiny, it is impossible to say. 
La Verile, an influential paper in the Province of Quebec, 
declares that it is the aspiration of the French Canadian peo- 
ple to establish a nation which shall perforin on this conti- 
nent the part France has played so long in Europe, and 


American Antiquarian Society. 


shall profess the Catholic faith and speak the French lan- 
guage, and that they never will lose sight of this national 
destiny. M. Mercier, the premier of Quebec, and in every 
way the foremost of her public men, is understood to favor 
annexation to the United States. Meantime the Church 
keeps her own counsel and maintains unimpaired the influ- 
ence which she has exerted under all forms of government 
since the days when Cotton Mather said, " Sir William 
Phipps had Canada as much written upon his heart as 
Calais was upon Queen Mary's. lie needed not one," con- 
tinues Mather, "to have been his daily monitor about 
Canada: it lay down with him, it rose up with him, it en- 
grossed almost all his thoughts." 

We must leave a sketch of what may be called the con- 
stitutional history of Quebec and a consideration of its 
relation to the rest of Canada to another paper, if we are to 
discuss the subject at all. 

By the terms of capitulation, signed September 8, 17(50, 
by which Canada passed under British control, Great Brit- 
ain bound herself to allow the French Canadians the free 
cxereise of their religion. Certain religious fraternities and 
all communities of religieux were guaranteed the possession 
of their goods, constitutions, and privileges. A similar 
favor, however, was denied to the Jesuits, until the King 
should be consulted. A like reservation was made with re- 
spect to the tithes of the parochial clergy. By the Treaty 
of Paris, September 10, 1763, Great Britain bound herself 
to allow the Canadians the free exercise of their religion. 
In 1774 the Quebec Act was passed. 

This statute is to the French Canadian of Quebec what 
Magna Charta is to England — a sacred and irrepealable 
bill of rights. There was bitter hostility to it in Great 
Britain on the part of the Opposition. It was earnestly 
denounced as the surrender of the rights of Protestants. 
With this hostility our ancestors in America deeply sympa- 
thized. Undoubtedly the knowledge of this sympathy had 

1891.] Government in Canada and (J. 8. compared. 199 

much to do with inducing the Church to give its great influ- 
ence toward preserving the loyalty of Canada and in de- 
feating the alliance which the insurgent colonies so eagerly 
desired. Under the Quebec Act the choice of bishops has 
been left to the Church without interference by the secular 
power — a liberty which it has never enjoyed in France or in 
England. The clergy have maintained with great skill 
their power over Quebec from that day to this. The influ- 
ence of the parish system of Quebec, its extension into the 
other provinces of Canada which lie to the westward, its 
control over the legislation of the Dominion, the effect of 
its claim for tithes, which constitute the first lien on all the 
real estate owned by Catholics, the discontent with the rule 
of" the Church introduced by the French Canadians who 
settle in the United States or go back after a brief sojourn 
here, the rapid increase of the race under the encourage- 
ment given by the Church authorities to early marriages 
and great families, the docile and thrifty character of the 
habitant — afford a most interesting and profitable held of 
study, which we cannot enter now. 

It is idle to speculate as to the destiny of Canada. The 
writer has never been one of those who believe that material 
interest will in the near future bring the people of Canada 
into a political union with the United States. While the 
strength of the interests which so incline her is very great, 
yet they do not seem to be greater in proportion to the 
resisting power than they have been always in the past. 
Under her Constitution, as has already been shown, annex- 
ation to this country can hardly be accomplished without 
the consent of Great Britain or without a violent revolution. 
A conquest of Canada by the United States would be as 
repugnant to us as to her. She already feels stirring in her 
veins the spirit of her rising nationality. Her people are 
coining to feel proud of the extent of her domain, of her 
vast material resources. They are forgetting the language 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the province, and are learning to speak the language of 
the empire. She already 

" Rises like the issue of a king-; 
AikI wears upon her baby brow the round 
And top of sovereignty." 

We will not undertake to foretell whether the destiny oi* 
Canada is to remain, as now, the most important dependency 
of the British Empire, self-governing in everything but 
name ; or whether she is to form a part of a great confeder- 
ation of all the English-speaking peoples on the globe; or 
whether she is to declare her independence, and repeat, 
with such changes as experience shall suggest to her, our 
own history ; or whether she is to come to us, and share the 
advantages of our Constitution, and develop the resources 
of the North American continent in a great partnership with 
us ; or whether, after some fashion that the imagination 
cannot now suggest, there are to rise on her soil in the future 


Phantoms of other forms of rule, 
New majesties of mighty states." 

But whatever may be her fate, it will be one to which the 
people of the United States cannot be indifferent, 


Report of the Treasurer. 



The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report of receipts and dis- 
bursements for the six months ending April 1, 1891. 

By direction »of the Finance Committee thero has been 
carried to each fund, from the income of the investments 
for the past six months, three per cent, on the amount of 
the several funds October 1, 1890. 

Owing to the unusually large number of newspapers it 
was considered necessary to have bound during the past six 
months, the ''Bookbinding Fund" shows a decrease of about 
two hundred dollars, and with the approval of the Commit- 
tee seventy-live dollars has been transferred to this Fund 
from the income of the Tenney Fund. By the accumula- 
tion of income the Lincoln Legacy Fund now amounts to 
$3,113.73, a gain of over $2,000 on the original amount ol 
the fund. The attention of the Society is called to this 
fact in the hope that some plan may be suggested by which 
a practical benefit may be derived from the income. 

A detailed statement of the investments is given as a 
part of this report, showing the par and market value of 
the various stocks and bonds. 

The reserved "Income Fund" now amounts to $1,743.98. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand April 1, 

1891, was $1 10,029.71, divided among the several funds 

as follows : 

The Librarian's and General Fund, $39,525.54 

The Collection unci Research Fund, 18,942.56 

The Bookbinding Fund, 0,2*0.01 

The Publishing Fund, 82,455.83 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund, l,li(i ( J.S0 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 3,113.73 

The lienj. F. Thonias Local History Fund 1,080.28 

The Salisbury Building Fund, 1,771 .02 

The AUlen Fund, 1,270.82 

The Tenney Fund, 5,000.00 

202 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Haven Fund, 1,314.87 

The George Chandler Fund, 522.08 

The Francis II. Dewey Fund 2,200.03 

Premium Account, 070.90 

Income Account, 1,743.98 


The cash on hand, included in the following statement, 
is $1,231.44. 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the past six months, ending April 1, 1891, is as 
follows : 


1890. Oct. 1. Balance of cash as per last report, $911.53 

1891. April 1. Received for interest to date, 3,294.2!) 

" " Received for annual assessments, 100.00 

" " Received from sale of books and pamphlets, 142.00 

Bank tax refunded, 411.09 

" " Drawn from Savings Banks, 3,520.05 


By salaries to April 1, 1891, $1,490.01 

By expense of repairs, 13.88 

By printing "Proceedings" 408.73 

Books purchased, 118.72 

For binding, 490.15 

Incidental expenses, 195.84 

For Insurance, •'.'■ 45.00 

Loans on Mortgage Notes, 4,000.00 

Deposited in Savings Banks, 385.85 

Balance in cash April 1,1891, 1,231.44 

$8,379.0 2 

Condition of the several Funds. 
The Librarian' 's and General Fund. 

Balance of Fund, October 1 , 1890, $39,4s5.09 

Income to April 1, 1891, 181.45 

Transferred from Tenney Fund, 75.00 


Paid for salaries, $1,013.01 

Incidental expenses 100.99 

For Insurance, 15.00 


1891, April 1. Amount of Fund, $39,525.51 

1891.] Report of the Treasurer. 203 

The Collection and Besearch Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $18,789.«0 

For books sold, 115.GG 

Income to April 1, 1891, 503.09 


Expenditure from this Fund for salaries and incidentals,.. 520.59 

1891, April 1. Amount of Fund, $18,942.50 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

lialanee October 1, 1891, $0,499.43 

Income to A pril 1 , 1891 , 195. 73 

Transferred from Tenney Fund, 75.00 

Paid for binding, 490.15 

1891, April 1. Amount of Fund, $0,280.01 

The Publishing Fund. 

lialanee October 1 , 1890, $22,178.10 

Income to April 1, 1891, 000.35 

Publications sold, 20.25 

Cost of printing " Proceedings," 409.73 

lialanee A pril 1 , 189 1 , $22,455.33 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $1,020.02 

Income to April 1, 1891, 48.78 

Paid for books, 5.00 

Balance April 1, 1891, ...} $1,009.80 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance October 1 , 1890, $3,023.02 

Income to April 1, 1891, 90.11 

Balance April 1, 1891, $3,113.73 

The Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance October 1 , 1890, $1 ,092.29 

Income to April 1, 1891, 32.77 

l'aid tor books, 44.78 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,080.28 

201 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The /Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $4,646.41 

Income to April 1, 1801, 139.39 

Paid for repairs, 13.88 

Balance April 1, 1891, $4,771.92 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $1 ,2113.81 

Income to April 1, 1891, 37.01 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,270.82 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $5,000.00 

Income to April 1, 1891 150.00 


Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund, $75.00 

" " Bookbinding " 75.00 150.00 

Balance April 1, 1891, $5,000.00 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $1,292.40 

Income to April 1, 1891, 38.77 

Paid for books, 10.30 

Balance April 1, 1891,.. $1,314.87 

The George Chandler Fund. 

Balance October 1, 1890, $515.32 

Income to April 1, 1S91, 15.40 

Books sold 6.00 

$536. 78 
Paid for books, '. ' 13.80 

Balance April 1, 1891, $522.9S 

The Francis II. Dewey Fund. 

Balance October 1,1890, $2,201.61 

Income to April 1, 1891, 00.04 

Paid for books, 6.75 

Balance April 1, 1891, $2,260.93 

Total of -the thirteen funds, $108,208.77 

Balance to the credit of Premium Account, 676.96 

Balance to the credit of Income Account, 1,743.98 

April 1, 1891, total, $110,629.71 

1891.] Report of the Treasurer. 205 
Statement of the Investments. 

No. of STOCKS. Par Market 

Shares. « Value. Value. 

G Central National Bank, Worcester. $ 000.00 $ 894.00 

22 City National Bank, Worcester, 2,200.00 3,234.00 

10 Citizens National Bank, Worcester, 1,000.00 1,350.00 

4 Boston National Bank, 400.00 472.00 

G Fitchburg National Bank, 000.00 900.00 

5 Massachusetts National Bank, Boston, 500.00 555.00 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston 3,200.00 4,541.00 

G National Bank of North America, Boston, 000.00 780.00 

5 North National Bank, Boston, 500.00 700.00 

21 Quinsigamond National Bank, Worcester, 2,400.00 2,880.00 

40 Shawmut National Bank, Boston, 4,000.00 G,018.00 

33 Webster National Bank, Boston, 3,300.00 3,200.00 

31 Worcester National Bank, 3,100.00 4,081.00 

Total of Bank Stock, $23,000.00 $30,274.00 

30 Northern (N. II.) B. R. Co $3,000.00 $4,005.00 

5 'Worcester Gas Light Co., . 500.00 750.00 


Boston & Albany 11. It. Bonds, 7s., $7,000.00 $7,140.00 

Central Pacific R. R. Bonds, 0,000.00 6,660.00 

Eastern ft. U. Bonds 1.000.00 1,210.00 

Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf 11. B., 4,300.00 1,988.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fc K. K. Co., 3,000.00 2,420.00 

Quiney Water Bonds, 6,000.00 0,000.00 

Notes secured by mortgage of real estate, 55,250.00 55,250.00 

Deposited in Worcester savings banks, 348.27 318.27 

Cash in National Bank on interest 1,231.44 1,231.41 

$110,029.71 $1-20,330.71 
Wokcisstkii, Mass., April 1, 1891. 

Bespectfully submitted. 



The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that we have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to April 
1, 1891, and lind the same, to be correct and properly vouched; that, the securi- 
ties held by him su"c as stated, and that the balance of cash, as stated to 
be on hand, is satisfactorily accounted for. 

April 20, 1S91. 

206 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


The many-sided work of the library has gone steadily 
forward sinee the last meeting. Good progress has been 
made upon the eard catalogue, a work which cannot wisely 
be hurried, while an unusual amount of personal and epis- 
tolary aid has been rendered to some of the leading histori- 
cal, literary and bibliographieal works of the day. It is 
also gratifying to be able to report that help has been 
sought by the historical departments of more than one of 
our leading colleges for women, and that in other ways we 
have quietly followed our mission as a soeiety for the diffu- 
sion of knowledge. The arrival from the bindery of a fresh 
invoice of the new series of the Society's Proceedings, 
reminds us that we make books as well as keep them, and 
that members can secure this series, or any .portion thereof, 
well bound and in good order at a very low cost. 

At the opening of the present month, your librarian was 
allowed the retrospect of twenty-five years of delightful 
and uninterrupted labor for the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety. While this panoramic view was to him full of interest 
and encouragement, it would perhaps be unprofitable to re- 
produce it here. As our library and its invested funds have 
greatly increased during this period, so also, we will hope, 
has its usefulness kept pace therewith. While but twenty- 
three of our present members were on the roll April 1, 18(}(>, 
it is pleasant to recall the fact that they still continue among 
the most active of our associates. A glance at our revised 
membership list of January 1, 181)0, shows that this small 
company includes the names of President Stephen Salisbury ; 
Vice-President George F. Hoar ; Councillors Edward K. 
Hale, Samuel A. Green and Andrew P. Peabody ; Secretary 


Report of the Librarian. 


for Foreign Correspondence J. Hammond Trumbull ; Sec- 
rotary for Domestic Correspondence George E. Ellis ; 
and Treasurer Nathaniel Paine. Such knowledge as they 
necessarily possess of our past, will insure a wise direction 
of the interests of the Society. 

The following paragraphs from the Report of the Coun- 
cil, April 28, 1852, are of interest as supplementary to the 
just tribute paid Doctor John Park by the Reverend Ed- 
ward II. Hall at our last meeting. Mr. Samuel E. Haven 
says for the Council : — 

"Dr. Park had accumulated a valuable and extensive 
classical and general library, of whieh, as will be seen by 
the report of the librarian, a useful and liberal portion has 
been presented by his representatives to the Society." 

\i\ his report as librarian, Mr. Haven, adds: — 

"In the distribution of the library of the late Dr. Park, 
this Society has become the recipient of a valuable share 
through the liberality of Hon. Benjamin E. Thomas. Many 
works that would have tempted most men to secure them 
for their own private use, have been generously transferred 
to the Society because appropriate to its objects. Some are 
elegant, many are rare, and nearly all are in good condi- 
tion. The whole number of volumes is live hundred and 
ninety-six, and the number of pamphlets, including unbound 
periodicals, is seven hundred and twenty-seven. This con- 
tribution, so liberal and beneficent in itself, may also serve 
as a pleasant memorial of a respected member of the Soci- 
ety, for a long time one of its Council and actively pro- 
moting its interests." 

The completion of what is practically the building of 
the Worcester Eree Public Library, may not only serve to 
remind us to congratulate its Librarian, Mr. Samuel S. Green 
of our Council, but to recall the words of Ex-President 
Salisbury as expressed to this Society's Council nearly forty 
years ago. In the communication referred to, he indicated 
his desire that the lirst home of the Public Library should 
be in our lower hall, adding that M The accommodation of 
a public library seems to be a use not only appropriate to 


American Antiquarian Society. 


the Antiquarian Hall but well calculated to add grace to 
the character of this venerable Society." Since the formal 
opening there has been, under the direction of the Worces- 
ter Art Soeiety, a month's educational exhibition of por- 
traits by American artists. To this we have contributed 
Alexander's Hannah Adams, Copley's Charles Paxton, (Uls- 
ter's Samuel Foster Haven, Huntington's Stephen Salisbury, 
Pelham's Cotton Mather, and Wight's Alexander von Hum- 
boldt. At this point I will take the liberty of adding, for the 
convenient reference and use of members, the names of such 
of our associates as are librarians. The untitled list which, 
arranged by seniority of election into this Society, represents 
various classes of libraries in widely separated library centres, 
would begin with the name of J. Hammond Trumbull but 
for his recent withdrawal from loog and distinguished ser- 
vice jn the Watkinson Library of Hartford, Conn. The 
names, both of the librarians and libraries, folio w : Sam- 
uel A. Green, Massachusetts Historical Society ; Reuben 
A. Guild, Brown University ; William F Poole, Newberry ; 
Robert A. Brock, Virginia Historical Society ; Edmund 
M. Barton j American Antiquarian Soeiety ; Franklin B. 
Dexter, Yale University ; George H. Moore, Lenox ; Sam- 
uel S. Green, Worcester Free Public ; Justin Winsor, Har- 
vard University ; Henry W. Haynes, American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; J. Fletcher Williams, Minnesota 
Historical Society ; William Harden, Georgia Historical 
Society ; and William E. Foster, Providence Public. We 
do not forget that private libraries of great value are repre- 
sented in the Society, notably the John Carter Brown and 
the Hubert Howe Bancroft. 

As a widely scattered society it is proper that we take an 
active and intelligent interest in the placing of monuments 
in honor of the up-builders of our respective cities, towns, 
institutions, etc., as well as in the proper nomenclature of 
parks, squares, and streets. This good work has in some 
cases been accomplished by the local historical society, in 


Report of the Librarian. 


others by a committee duly authorized by the town, and 
again by a few earnest, influential and well-organized citi- 
zens, like the Boston Memorial Association. The whole 
subject deserves not only our careful consideration but our 
hearty cooperation, in the interest of American history. 
A chapter of illustrations, more or less striking, of what has 
been done and what left undone in various sections of the 
country, will readily occur to you. One would for instance 
expect to lind in the city of our head-quarters, if not a tab- 
let at least an avenue, street, court or lane bearing the name 
of Daniel GrGCtdn, one of its earliest and best friends, but 
he will look for it in vain. It should be added, however, 
that the Worcester Society of Antiquity at its annual meet- 
ing of the current year appointed a committee to mark 
historic spots. This committee — who might well consider 
the other branch of the subject herein referred to — consists of 
four, one of whom is our Treasurer, Nathaniel Paine, Esq., 
an acknowledged authority on historic localities in the city 
of his birth. We may well remember that we owe a debt of 
gratitude to some of our members, living and dead, for long 
and faithful service in both these directions. Some thought 
has of late years been given to the naming of streets, but 
it has apparently not resulted, at least in our own country, 
in such wisdom of action as we could desire. One recalls 
Lord Bacon's saying that " A name though it seem but a 
superficial and outward matter, yet carrieth much impression 
and enchantment," and Salverte's remark, a century later, 
that "The history of the names of streets belongs to the 
history of a town." And such convincing paragraphs as 
the following from Rev. Dr. James Freeman Clarke's paper 
On Giving Names to Towns and Streets : " Ought we not 
to regard these names as historic monuments and choose 
such as will commemorate the events and persons belonging 
to the history of the place? We ought to consider that 
to give a name to a place is a very important act, involving 
no little responsibility ; and should therefore be confided 

210 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to judicious and enlightened persons. The qualities 
required tor a good name seem to he individuality, char- 
acter and agreeable associations. A name good in it- 
self is had when it means nothing. In naming the 
streets of a city, it is desirable to make the names historic 
monuments of the men and events of past history. We 
can preserve in our streets the memory of wise and good 
men whose feet have formerly walked in theiii." A short 
but suggestive report of the committee on naming the 
streets of Canton, Mass., was printed in 1881. This com- 
mittee dee ; Jed, and it would seem wisely, " That they will 
give to the streets, in all eases where it is possible, names 
historically connected with Canton. Also, that main roads 
leading from Canton direct to another town, shall be desig- 
nated by the name of the town towards which said road 
leads. That so far as a street extends in a straight line or 
nearly straight line, it shall have but one name, and that 
every ten years a committee ought to be chosen to name 
the new streets." While the serious side of this question 
is apparent, a cursory examination of our alcove of direc- 
tories has revealed its humorous aspects; but my present 
purpose is seriously to urge increased attention to the sub- 
ject thus briclly presented. 

Our library statistics follow : From two hundred and 
eighty-four sources, viz., from forty-one members, one 
hundred and twenty-four persons not members, and one 
hundred and nineteen societies and institutions, we have 
received as gifts six hundred and sixty-four books, three 
thousand and twenty-three pamphlets, one hundred and 
eighty-tive volumes of unbound newspapers, one hundred 
and ninety-eight war envelopes, one hundred and thirty- 
eight photographs, live volumes of manuscripts, three 
medals, three heliotypes, two coins, one specimen of Con- 
tinental money, a cannon ball, and tire fender. By ex- 
change four hundred and ninety-two books and iifty-one 
hundred and eighty pamphlets ; and from the bindery 


Report of lite Librarian, 


three hundred and twenty-one volumes of newspapers, 

and eighty-four volumes of* magazines; making the total 
receipts twelve hundred and forty books, eighty-two hun- 
dred and three pamphlets, three hundred and twenty-one 
volumes of bound and one hundred and eighty-live of un- 
bound newspapers, etc. 

While a complete list of givers and gifts forms an essen- 
tial part of this report, it seems desirable to make special 
mention oft be following : Hon. Henry S. Nourse's gift in- 
dicates his careful editing of the Birth, Marriage and Death 
Register of Lancaster, Mass., 1643 — 1850. Dr. George 
Chandler has added to our manuscript room, material relat- 
ing to the Chandler, Greene, Perrin and other families, and 
Mr. Robert N. Toppan has remembered our small collection 
of medals, lion. Samuel A. Green has made an important 
contribution to our War of the Rebellion envelope collec- 
tion made by Mr. Nathaniel Paine in 18(>1 ; who has at this 
time placed more than one hundred American and foreign 
portraits in our card photograph port-folios. President 
Salisbury's semi-annual offering includes a brass and wire 
fender, a safeguard much needed for the tireplace in the 

card catalogue room. Mr. Hamilton And 



on ac- 

cepting membership, has forwarded not only his exhaustive 
work upon the History of the Old South Church, Boston, 
but such others of his publications as were not already upon 
our shelves; while Mr. Henry Adams continues to send, as 
issued, his elaborate History of the United States of Amer- 
ica. Dr. William P. Poole presents a complete set of " The 
Owl," which he says % - 1 edited soon after I came to Chicago, 
and, after the second or third number, wrote all the critical 
notices of books and other matter in it. It began October 
1, 1874, and ended March, 1870. It has some historical 
articles in it. 1 do not believe any other library will have 
all the numbers." Dr. Poole has also completed for us 
"The Dial," — also published in Chicago, — to which he has 
made important historical and critical contributions. Mr. 

212 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

William A. Smith has, from time to time, recognized his 
membership by transferring library treasures from his own 
home to ours. The present transfer includes Dyce's rare 
eleven-volume edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, which was 
published in London, 1843-46 ; and Heeren's Ancient 
Greece, translated by George Bancroft, and printed in Bos- 
ton in 1842. The last offering of our late associate, the 
Reverend Henry M. Dexter, D.D., was his " English Ex- 
iles in Amsterdam, 1597-1625," which he placed upon the 
librarian's table at the October meeting. Amon»' the nam- 
phlets received from Prof. Franklin B. Dexter are numbers 
of the Connecticut Almanac for the current year, in which 
is reprinted his valuable " Estimates of Population in the 
New England Colonies." Our Recording Secretary, the Hon. 
John D. Washburn, Minister to Switzerland, forwards a 
beautiful and valuable gift with the following endorsement : 
"The Municipality of Zurich have just published a very 
handsome book to illustrate their Collection of Antiquities. 
Very few copies have been printed, and very few indeed 
will ever reach our country. I have fortunately been able 
to procure a copy which I send as a present to the So- 
ciety." Dr. Otto Keller of the German Empire, has 
placed his cabinet photograph in the album provided for 
members. The following paragraphs from a note addressed 
to the librarian Feb. 27, 1891, by Mrs. Charles Deane need 
no explanation : " My husband wished you to place a copy 
of Mr. Alexander Brown's Genesis of the United States, 
when it was published, in your library. It is now ready, 
and 1 am happy to fultil his wishes." In the preface to the 
Series of Historical Manuscripts thus collected and so ably 
edited by Mr. Brown, he makes due acknowledgment to 
"The late Charles Deane, LL.D., of Cambridge, Mass., 
who gave me his helping hand from the beginning to the 
end ; his last letter to me is expressive of his interest and 
great faith in my work." Surely Mr. Brown need not desire 
a better endorsement than that of our late Secretary for 
Domestic Correspondence. 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 213 

The Davis, Thomas, Haven, Chandler and Dewey book 
funds representing respeetively the departments of Spanish 
America, local history, American history in general, gene- 
alogy, and what perhaps may be called judicial biography, 
have as usual yielded not large but valuable returns. The 
semi-annual appearance of these names in our Treasurer's 
report reminds us, not only of the founders of these funds, 
but also that other fields, some of which have been suggested 
from time to time by your librarian, still remain unoccupied. 
The best possible returns are sought by a constant and care- 
ful examination of domestic and foreign catalogues, as the 
very limitation of our book funds makes it of the first im- 
portance. It is at least of secondary importance that the 
. librarian know and be able to state our pressing needs, while 
waiting patiently for them to be tilled; and moreover that 
he vigorously try to cultivate a spirit of gratitude for the 
treasures already in his keeping. 

Mention is here made of the report of Mr. John G. 
Ames, Superintendent of the Document Room at Washing- 
ton, that attention may* be drawn to his pica for an official 
indexes of the rapidly increasing mass of public documents. 
Hon. Ziba C. Keith has promptly answered a request for his 
Genealogy of the descendants of Benjamin Keith; Miss 
Gertrude Hakes has presented the Hakes Family through 
the kinduess of the author, Hon. Harry Hakes ; and Mr. 
flames J. Goodwin sends "The Goodwins of Hartford, 
Connecticut," whose title-page modestly states that the 
work was compiled for him. Mrs. Penelope Lincoln Can- 
field's contribution is as usual of elegant and useful books 
of to-day, supplemented at this time by an addition to our 
collection of medals. Dr. Alexander F. Chamberlain, of 
Clark University, has deposited nine of his brochures on 
the languages, customs, beliefs, etc., of the American In- 
dians, as an acknowledgment of service rendered. The 
books received from Mrs. Alonzo Hill are of peculiar inter- 
est, as they were from the library of the Hon. Charles II. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Atherton of Amherst, N. H., for many years a member of 
the Soeiety, and a brother-in-law of the giver. We are 
indebted to the Class of 1829 (II. U.) for their " Songs 
and Poems, Part III." received through the Rev. Samuel 
May, class secretary ; and to the late George W. Gale for 
relics of the Mexican War. Messrs. Drew, Allis & Com- 
pany have made another large contribution to our alcove of 
directories; and the Rev. Henry T. Cheever continues to 
add the Hawaiian Gazette to the early file, received for 
so many years from our late associate the Rev. Samuel C. 
Damon, B.J). We have received from the Michigan Pio- 
neer and Historical Association the last four volumes of 
their Collections, the first twelve volumes of which were 
placed upon our shelves by our late associate, Chief Justice 
James V. Campbell. A gift suggested by the reading at our 
last meeting of the Hon. Samuel A. Green's paper on the 
11 Northern Boundary of Massachusetts in its Relations to 
New Hampshire," has reached us from the Peabody Mu- 
seum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. Prof. 
Frederick W. Putnam says in his letter of gift, April 13, 
1891 : "I sent by express oil Saturday the cast of the 
Endicott rock, feeling that it is more appropriate in the 
Antiquarian Society than in this Museum. At the last an- 
nual meeting of the Soeiety I stated that I would send the 
cast. You will please credit it as received from the Pea- 
body Museum. On page (v2, of volume 3, of the Museum 
Reports, you will find all that I know about the specimen. 
It may be well to state on the label that this cast was given 
to the Peabody Museum by the Directors of the Winni- 
piseogee Lake Cotton and Woollen Manufacturing Company 
in 1871." Through the Portland (Me.) Public Library 
and the Oregon Emigration Board, we have received local 
material relating to the Portlands of the Atlantic and Pacitic 
coasts. Both the Library and the Board appear to be well 
fitted to act as agents for the distribution of their local his- 
tory. In acknowledging from the Historical Society of 


Report of the Librarian. 


Pennsylvania the Catalogue of the Tower Collection of 
Colonial Laws now in their possession, J wish to quote with 
approval the following paragraphs from the Library Jour- 
nal of January, 1891, relating thereto: " The collection 
cannot readily he duplicated, nor is there longer the neces- 
sity for it. The Colonial laws of this country are very rare 
and high-priced and are moreover a very difficult class to 
collect and to keep track of. One library is willing to do 
this, and it deserves aid and cooperation from other libra- 
ries and not rivalry and competition. Rare editions will 
come into the market in the future which will be of more 
use and value in this collection than any other. No library 
has more money to spend on books than it needs. Let 
them leave these then to this Society and buy something 
quite as much needed on their shelves. This is practical 
specialization and economy." 

We have recently received from Paris, through the Uni- 
ted States Department of State, the medal and diploma 
awarded this Society for its exhibit at the Exposition Uni- 
verselle of 1889. The medal is of bronze, about two and 
a half inches in diameter, and is from a design of Mr. 
Louis Botee, being one of a series submitted by leading 
French designers. One side represents the figure of 
Labor seated on an anvil and holding a hammer, with Wis- 
dom, a helmeted Minerva, seated beneath the tree of Peace 
and extending a wreath to crown the head of Labor, whose 
linger points downward to a view of the Exhibition build 
ings and the Eill'el tower. On the reverse side is Fame 
with her wings spread, embracing the Republic and sound- 
ing a blast on her trumpet. Beneath is the inscription 
Societe Amcricaine das Antiquaires. It will be remem- 
bered that our contribution was a set of the new series of 
our Proceedings and that it was presented, in the spirit of 
international courtesy, to La Socicte Am&ricalne tie France. 
The receipt, from an unknown source, of the rare Cincin- 
nati Directory of 1829 suggests the remark, that librarians 

216 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

desire to thank the giver speedily as well as gratefully, and 
henee object to anonymous contributions. The legible 
stamping of all post-office parcels as well as letters, might 
sometimes aid in the discovery of the modest but unknown 

A successful exchange of Japanese and Spanish-Ameri- 
can duplicates has recently been made with one of our 
London correspondents through whom the British Museum 
has thus been served. In return rare Americana have 
re-crossed the Atlantic to us, and two representative libra- 
ries of England and the United States have thereby been 
strengthened. Duplicates of less intrinsic value have been 
disposed of as heretofore by sales and exchanges in the 
United States. The following paragraphs refer to dupli- 
cate text-books bearing the imprint of towns in a neighbor- 
ing State to whose Historical Society they were sent : 
" Thank you for your kind remembrance of us and for 
the example of your thoroughly practical idea of what to 
do with certain duplicates. 1 hope to do the same thing 
some day if that longed for time ever comes to a busy 
librarian." Also this from the Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of one of our Massachusetts town libraries : 
" We beg to thank the Society you represent for the copy 
of Scott's Lessons which your thoughtfulness has directed 
hither, for it has the special and to us the very great inter- 
est of having been printed in this town." The unusually 
large receipts by exchange are accounted for by the fact 
that a mass of school books, periodicals, funeral sermons, 
railroad and benevolent society reports, book catalogues, 
etc., have reached us from the New England Historic- 
Genealogical Society as the result of the recent winnow- 
ing process in its library. It is a noteworthy fact that our 
most desirable exchanges have generally been etfected after 
personal interviews at the annual conferences of the Amer- 
ican Library Association. 

A possible source of library enrichment was mentioned 


Report of the Librarian. 


twenty-five years ago by Mr. Nathaniel Paine in the Coun- 
cil Report of April, 18(>(>, as follows: "The Committee 
from the Council appointed to examine the library desire 
to mention, that among the bound pamphlets they (ind 
several in which there are duplicates and in some; cases 
triplicates of rare publications which at some time may 
render it advisable to cause such volumes to be rebound 
and the extra pamphlets kept to exchange for others not in 
the library." This source has not only been kept constant- 
ly in mind but has been utilized to some extent in several 
departments. When the card catalogue of the library is 
completed we shall have more exact knowledge upon the 
subject and be better able to act advisedly. Inasmuch as 
we have no branch libraries to supply, have not thus far 
ordinarily attempted the furnishing of two or more depart- 
ments with the same work, nor kept extra copies to provide 
for wear and tear, our stock of duplicates has been both 
large and valuable* 

In connection with the many articles of interest in our 
library, your attention is called to the following which seem 
worthy of special notice. Inside our Hancock clock is 
found the following; in the handwriting of Dr. Samuel P. 
Haven : "This clock was the property of Governor John 
Hancock. Presented to the American Antiquarian Society 
July, 1838, by John Chandler, Esq., of Petersham, Mass. 
Py a mark on one of the wheels it appears to have been 
cleaned in December, 1754, and has now, February 17, 
1856, been cleaned again." This chiming English time- 
piece which has so faithfully served the Society for nearly 
lifty-three years, and which with the Hancock sofa and 
side-board, was one of Mr. Haven's first acquisitions, is 
now for the lirst time mentioned in our Proceedings. It is 
an excellent time-keeper over nine feet in height, probably 
a century and a half old, and was made by Bowley of 
London as indicated by a silver plate upon its face. In 
searching for facts as to its age and maker, I appealed with 

218 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

confidence to Irving W. Lyon, M.J)., of Hartford, Conn., 
one of the highest authorities in America on early furniture, 
for reciprocal service in the mutter. He 1ms kindly replied 
with the following information which I desire to place on 
record herewith. "1 iind the name of Devereux Bovvley 
admitted a member of the Clock makers Company of Lon- 
don in 1718. Next is the following from volume 1 of my 
notebooks of travel in Europe in 1880 : — The J)aily Post 
(London), April 1, 1731, 'Lost last week anew fashion'd 
gold minute watch made by Bowley, No. 380. It had ty'd to 
it, etc., whoever will bring the said watch and seal to Deve- 
reux Bowley watchmaker, in Lombard-street shall receive 
seven Guineas Reward for the Watch and one Guinea for 
the Seal, and no questions asked.' I did not run on his 
name again in my search of old London newspapers from 
1000-1760. Kent's Directory (the first) of London begins 
in 1754. In the first number (1754) appears the following : 
* Bowley Devereux, watchmaker, Lombard Street.' In 1708 
his name appears with No. 54 Lombard Street, and again 
with the same in 1700. It does not appear at all in tin; 
Directory for 1771, so that Devereux Bowley is here traced 
from 1718 to 1770. No other watchmaker named How- 
ley is. found in the list of the members of the Clockmakers 
Company, and no other Bowley I believe in Kent's Direc- 
tory, or I should have noted it. The number (380) on the 
watch advertised in the Daily Post in 1731 shows that lie 
had been a maker then for some time, and serves to iden- 
tify the Devereux Bowley of the Clockmakers Company 
with Devereux Bowley, watchmaker, in Lombard Street in 
1731. As the name is peculiar and we have it 1718, 1731, 
1754, 1700 and 1770, 1 should say that there was no rea- 
sonable doubt that we have traced the maker of your clock 
from his early manhood to his ripe old age." In a later 
communication Dr. Lyon says: "I have examined the 
inventory of John Hancock dated 1794 lor clocks, with 
this result: i Great entry, 1 clock walnut cased lineer'd, 


Report of the Librarian, 

21 a 

£(>.' This is the only clock mentioned in the inventory, 
and, as yon will see, describes your old cloek accurately." 
In the Critic of October 11, 1890, Mr. C. Howard Shinn 
in his " Plea for a Pamphlet Age " says : " The care taken 
to collect and preserve pamphlets in all great libraries and 
the way in which important matters are so often settled by 
the evidence of obscure pamphlets, prove that thoughtful 
men who wish to have their articles printed exactly as they 
write them, can do worse than rely on the pamphlet. A 
single copy sent to the Astor or Peabody, to Yale or Har- 
vard, may have to wait a hundred years for its interpreter, 
but if it contains the ( seed of power' its growth season will 
certainly come." Following the remarks upon the office 
clock, I desire to call your attention brietly to a unique 
pamphlet of the "single copy " class referred to by Mr. 
Shinn, though it may well be doubted whether it has within 
it that " seed of power" to which he refers ! It is a pam- 
phlet deposited in our library nearly fifty years ago, prob- 
ably by our fourth President, the lion. John Davis, and 
entered by Mr. Haven in our interleaved catalogue as 
"Dickens, Charles, Phrenological Development of, as given 
by L. N. Fowler." Its title-page gives the following in- 
formation : "Synopsis of Phrenology ; and the Phreno- 
logical Developments together with the Character and 
Talents of C. Dickens, Esq., as given by L. N. Fowler, 
February 5, 1842. With references to those pages of 
Phrenology Proved, Illustrated and Applied in which will 
be found a full and correct delineation of the intellectual 
and moral character and manifestations of the above-named 
individual." Then follows the " Explanation. The pro- 
portionate size of the phrenological organs of the individ- 
ual examined and consequently the relative power and 
energy of his primary mental powers; that is his moral 
and intellectual character and manifestations, will be indi- 
cated by the written figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, b', 7: iigure 1 
signifying very small, 2 small, 3 moderate, 4 average, 5 full, 

220 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

G large, 7 very large." There is added, apparently in the 
handwriting of the examiner: "Taken by L. N. Fowler 
at the Residence of the Hon. John Davis in Worcester, 
while Mr. Dickens was visiting there." The result of the 
examination follows : " Size of the Brain 0, Strength of 
the System (>, Degree of Activity 6. Temperament: Lym- 
phatick 3, Sanguine (), Bilious 4, Nervous 5 ; Amativeness 
5, Philoprogenitiveness 5, Adhesiveness 6, Inhahitiveness (>, 
Concentrativeness 4, Combativeness 5, Destructiveness 6, 
Alimentiveness 0, Acquisitiveness 5, Secretiveness 7, Cau- 
tiousness G, Approbativeness 6, Self Esteem 6 to 7, Firm- 
ness (>, Conscientiousness (5, Hope (5, Marvel lousness 4, 
Veneration 3, Benevolence (>, Construct veness 5, Ideality 
G, Sublimity 7, Imitation 5, Mirthful ness 7, Individuality 
(i, Form G, Size (>, Weight 5, Colour 5, Order (], Calcula- 
tion 5, Locality (), Eventuality 5, Time 4, Tune 4, Lan- 
guage 7, Causality 7, Comparison 5, Suavitiveness 5, an 
unusual faculty by which is perceived as if by intuition the 
character and motives of men from their physiognomy, 
conversation, &c, is suspicious and seldom deceived, natu- 
rally understands human nature 7." 

The Massachusetts Spy of February 9, 1842, says: 
"Charles Dickens (Boz) the celebrated author with his 
lady, arrived in town on the evening of the 5th, and left for 
Hartford, via Springfield, on the morning of the 7th. While 
here, many of our inhabitants called on them at the mansion 
of Governor Davis, where they staid during their tarry in 
town." The same issue of the Spy mentions the fact that 
"Lorenzo N. Fowler has just finished a course of phrenolog- 
ical lectures in this town the latter part of which was well 
attended," adding, " We believe that many persons hereto- 
fore skeptical have become converts to the Science, under 
his ministrations." Ten years after, interest therein had 
greatly decreased, and twenty years later, had nearly 
ceased. Evidence of an early attention to the subject by 
some of our scholarly members appears in the following 


Report of the Librarian. 


extracts from Mr. Christopher C. Baldwin's Diary May 14, 
1834: "1 attended a meeting this evening at Bonney's 
public house, of gentlemen who wished to form a Phreno- 
logieal Soeiety. The following gentlemen were present : 
Dr. John Green, Dr. Benjamin F. Ileywood, Dr. John S. 
Butler, Dr. Samuel B. Woodward, Dr. George Chandler, 
Stephen Salisbury, Anthony Chase, John Milton Karle, 
lion. Joseph G. Kendall, Maturin L. Fisher, Benjamin W. 
Thomas, Daniel Waldo Lincoln, Frederick VV. Paine and 
myself. Dr. Woodward was made president, Mr. 
Salisbury, viee-president ; Mr. Thomas, secretary; and 
Mr. Paine, treasurer; and Dr. Green, Dr. Blood and my- 
self, directors. We are, hereafter, to meet monthly, and 
the first meeting will be on the second Wednesday of June. 
Our object is to investigate the science of Phrenology and 
ascertain its nature and the foundation there may be lor it 
in truth. Like all converts, we are full of fury and enthu- 
siasm, and we may think ourselves fortunate if we escape 
beinji' rank pagans." I find no further reference to the 
Society, an indication, at least, that interest therein was 

The third reference is suggested by the recent death 
of General William Tecumseh Sherman, — happily termed 
by a soldier member of our Council "The most interesting 
among the leaders of the war." It is to a manuscript which 
Mr. Haven thus acknowledges — with its companion — in 
his library report of October 21, 1872 : "From Mrs. C. J. 
Bo wen, of Cambridge, a cannon-ball thrown from Fort 
Sumter, in April, 1 861, which lodged in the attic of the 
house of her mother, Mrs. Caroline II. Oilman of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina; al«o, an interesting autograph letter 
to her from General Sherman, relating to his own principles 
of action during the war." While there is evidence that 
this truly characteristic letter was hastily written, there are 
in it no erasures and but three slight interlineations. Its 
national interest twenty-six years after the close of the war, 

222 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

will be a sufficient excuse for giving it a place in our Pro- 
ceedings. A copy of the letter, the original of which i.s in 
a double-glazed frame in the Salisbury Annex, follows : — 

Head Quakteus Military Division of the Mississippi. 
In the Field, near Marietta, Ga., June 30; 1864. 
Mrs. Annie Gilman Bowen, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Madam : 

Your welcome letter of June 18, came to 
me here amid the sound of battle, and, as you say, little did 
I dream when I knew you playing as a school girl on Sulli- 
van's Island beach, that I should control a vast army pointing 
like the swarm of Alaric towards the plains of the South. 
Why, oh why is this? If I know my own heart, it beats 
as warmly as ever towards those kind and generous families 
that greeted us with such warm hospitality in days long 
past but still present in memory ; and to-day weie Frank 
and Mrs. Porcher, or Eliza Gilman, or Mary Lamb, or 
Margaret Blake, the Barksdales, the Quashes, the Poyas, 
indeed, any and all of our cherished circle, their children, 
or even their children's children, to come to me as of old, 
the stern feelings of duty would melt, as snow before the 
genial sun, and I believe I would strip my own children 
that they might be sheltered ; and yet they call me barba- 
rian, vandal, a monster, and all the epithets that language 
can invent that are significant of malignity and hate. All 
I pretend to say, on Farth as in Heaven man must submit 
to some arbiter. He must not throw oil' his allegiance to 
his Government or his God without just reason and cause. 
The South had no cause, not even a pretext. Indeed by 
her unjustifiable course she lias thrown away the proud 
history of the Past and laid open her fair country to the; 
tread of devastating war. She bantered and bullied us to 
the conflict. Had we declined Battle, America would have 
sunk back coward and craven, meriting the contempt of all 
mankind. As a nation we were forced to accept Battle, 
and that once begun it has gone on till the war has assumed 
proportions at which even we in the hurly-burly sometimes 
stand aghast. I would not subjugate the South in the sense 
so offensively assumed, but 1 would make every citizen of 
the land obey the Common Law, submit to the same that we 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 223 

do — no worse, no belter — our equals and not our superi- 
ors. 1 know and you know that there were young men in 
our day, men no longer young but who control their 
fellows, who assumed to the Gentlemen of the South a 
superiority of courage, and boastingly defied us of Northern 
birth to arms. God only knows how reluctantly we ac- 
cepted the issue, but once the issue joined, like in other 
ages, the Northern Races though slow to anger, once 
aroused are more terrible than the more inflammable of the 
South. Even yet my heart bleeds when 1 see the carnage 
of Battle, the desolation of homes, the bitter anguish of 
families, but the very moment the men of the South say 
that instead of appealing to War, they should have appealed 
to Reason, to our Congress, to our Courts, to Religion and 
to the experience of History, then will I say Peace, Peace. 
Go back to your points of error and resume your places as 
American citizens with all their proud heritages. Whether 
I shall live to see this period is problematical but you may, 
and may tell your mother and sisters that I never forgot 
one kind look or greeting, or ever wished to eil'ace its re- 
membrance, but in putting on the armor of war, I did it 
that our common country should not perish in infamy and 
dishonor. 1 am married — have a wife and six children 
living in Lancaster, Ohio — my career has been an eventful 
one, but I hope when the clouds of anger and passion are 
dispersed and Truth emerges bright and clear, you and all 
who knew me in early years will not blush that we were 
once close friends. Tell Eliza for me that 1 hope she may 
live to realize that the Doctrine of Secession is as monstrous 
in our Civil Code as disobedience was in the Divine Law. 
And should the Fortunes of War ever bring your mother 
or sisters, or any of our old clique under the shelter of my 
authority 1 do not believe they will have cause to regret it. 
Give my love to your children and the assurances of my 
respect to your honored husband. 


W. T. Sherman, 

Maj. Gen'L 

We may well consider the pressure under which this 
letter of the 30th, was written. Sherman's dear friend 
and law-partner, General Daniel McCook, was desperately 

224 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

wounded — from the effects of which he afterward died — in 
an unsuccessful assault of the 27th, and the whole month 
had been one of grout anxiety. In point of faet, according 
to the chapter on the Atlanta campaign in Sherman's me- 
moirs : "The losses from June 1st to July 3d (7500) 
were all substantially sustained about Kenesaw and Marietta 
and it was really a continuous battle lasting from the 10th 
day of June till the 3d of July." 

Dr. Samuel P. Haven — my predecessor in office — after 
twenty-tive years in your service, said : k ' During this time 
the growth of the Society's Collections, if gradual, has been 
constant. There have been periods of special abundance, 
but none of absolute famine, and none in which the indica- 
tions of progress have been otherwise than favorable. * * 
Economy has indeed been a necessity as well as a principle of 
the Society in the management of its finances. Regarding its 
vested funds as the only reliable guaranty of permanent and 
active vitality, its literary w r ealth has been left dependent 
upon the free contributions of its members, and the interest 
in its objects which it could create in the community at 
large. This has been a safe and thrifty, if not a brilliant 
policy ; and, moreover, is one which public institutions 
have not always the self-denial or prudence to adopt. But 
the Society has deemed it wise to be liberal, or even lavish, 
in the use of its literary and historical wealth. Acting 
upon the rule of taking a cordial interest in every enquiry 
for information, it has laid open its stores freely to every 
applicant, and when these have proved insullicent has en- 
deavored to point out other and more productive channels 
of research. The opportunity of appreciating the utility of 
our Collections thus afforded to all classes of people, has 
been a fruitful source of increase. Most persons are dis- 
posed to aid in extending those advantages whose practical 
convenience they have experienced, especially when enabled 
to perceive how this could be done with little cash or 

1801.] Report of the Librarian. 225 

trouble; to themselves." These words are, almost without 
exception, as fitting to-day as when uttered in 1862. Jn 
making them my own, I will only add an expression of my 
deep and abiding gratitude tor the privilege of service 
under the master who wrote them. 

Respectfully submitted. 




American Antiquarian jSocielt/. 


fibers ant> (Sifts. 


Adams, Henry, Esq., Washington, D. C— His v ' History of the United .States 
of America during the Second Administration of James Madison." 3 vols. 

Akdhich, Hon. 1*. EMORY, Worcester.— The English " Antiquary/' in con- 
tinuation; one hundred and twenty pamphlets; and two tiles of newspapers. 

BARTON, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.-— Eighteen pamphlets; "St. Andrew's 
Cross"; and " St, John's Echo," in continuation. 

Biunton, Daniel C, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— Three of his brochures. 

BROCK, Mr. ROBERT A., Richmond, Va.— Slaughter's "History of St. Ceorge's 
Parish in the County of Spottsylvania and Diocese of Virginia," edited by 
Mr. Brock. 

Chandler,, M.D., Worcester.— His "Chandler Family," tirst edition 
with manuscript additions; four bound volumes and other manuscript mate- 
rial relating to the Chandler, Greene, Benin and other families; two books; 
and eight pamphlets. 

Chase, Charles A., Esq., Treasurer, Worcester.— The Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Financial Reports of the Worcester Memorial Hospital; ami 
two newspapers. 

pAVlS, Andrew McF., Esq., Cambridge.— His " Early College Buildings at 
Cambridge"; and one book. 

Davis, lion. Edward L., Worcester. -Five books; one hundred pamphlets; 
ami three heliotypos. 

Dexter, I'rol. Franklin B., New Haven, Conn.— Numbers of the Connecti- 
cut Almanac for 1891, containing l'rof. Dexter's " Estimates of population in 
the American Colonies"; and Williams's " Our Dictionaries and other Eng- 
lish Language Topics." 

Dkxtku, Rev. Henry M., I). I)., New Bedford, Mass, — His " English Exiles 
in Amsterdam, 1597-ltfeia." 

Edks, Mr, Uknhy H., Charlestown.— " Boll of Resident Members of the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society, lSH-FSiHh" 

Cn. man, Daniel C, LE.D., Baltimore, Md. — His Fifteenth Annual Report 
as President of Johns Hopkins University. 

Green, Hon. ANDREW H., Hew York.— His " New York of the Future: a 
Municipal Consolidation Inquiry"; and one newspaper. 

Greene, J. Evarts, Esq., Worcester. --Two biographical sketches of Hun. 
(Jeorge Bancroft. 

Green, lion. Samuel A., Boston.— Two of his historical brochures; four 
b oks; one hundred and eight pamphlets; and one hundred and ninety-eight 
War of the Rebellion envelopes. 

1891.] Givers and Gifts. 227 

Guild, Reuben A., LL.D., Providence, B. I.— Catalogue of Brown Univer- 
siLy, 1800-1891. 

Harden, William, Esq., Savannah, Ga.— Savannah .School Report of lSi)o. 

Hill, Mr. Hamii^on Andrews, Boston.— ffi® "History of the. Old South 
Church, Boston, lti(>9-1SSt," two vols. 8vo; twenty-seven of his other pub- 
lications; and live selected pamphlets. 

HOAR, IJon. GEORGE P., Worcester.— His Speech on the Election Bill; thirty- 
four hooks; three hundred and twenty-one pamphlets; ten files of newspa- 
pers: three manuscripts; and two photographs. 

Keller, Otto, Ph.D., Stuttgart, Germany.^— A cabinet photograph of himself. 

Mekuiman, Bev. DANIEL, DA)., Worcester.— Two hooks; and one hundred 
and four pamphlets. 

Mooke, GEORGE H., LL.1l, New York.— His Circular relating to the Origin 
of the name •' Puritan." 

Nourse, Hon. Henry S., Lancaster.— The u Birth, Marriage and Death Reg- 
ister of Lancaster, Mass., 1643-1850." 

PAINE, Bev. GEORGE S., Worcester. — The " Spirit of Missions," in continua- 
nt ion. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester.— Two hooks; three hundred ami thirty- 
six pamphlets; one hundred and thirty-four card photographs; and four tiles 
of newspapers. 

Peet, Bev. Stephen D., Ph.D., Mendon, 111.— His -'American Antiquarian 
and Oriental Journal," as issued. 

Perky, Bt. Bev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Iowa.— His "Christian 
Character of George Washington"; and the " Iowa Churchman," as issued. 

Poole, William P., LL.D., Ofcieago, 111.— A complete tile of " The Owl," 
and numbers to complete our tile of "The Dial." 

SALISBURY, Stephen, Esq., Worcester. — Three hooks; four hundred and 
forty-three pamphlets; eight files of periodicals, in continuation; arid a 
fire lender. 

Smith, Mr. Charles C, Boston. — Two of his brochures. 

Smith, William A., Esq., Worcester.— DyceVs edition of the Works of 
Beaumont and Fletcher. 4 vols., 8vo. London, iM.'3-4(i; and Bancroft's 
translation of Heeren's " Ancient Greece." 8vo., Boston, 1842. 

Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, Ohio.— Eight Ohio pamphlets. 

Toppan, Mr. Bohert N., Cambridge.— Medal struck for the marriage of 
Napoleon III. 

Walker, (Jen. FRANCIS A., President, Boston.— The '•Twenty-tilth Anni- 
versary of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology," and his Beport of 

WASHBURN, Hon. John D., Worcester.— "Zurich Und das Schweizorische 
Landcs Museum." 

Weeden, Mr. William B., Providence, B. L— His " Morality of Prohibitory 
Liquor Laws" ; and his "Social Law of Labor." 

Wheatland, Henry, H.D., Salem.— The " Peahody Press," in continua- 

228 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Winsok, Justin, LL.D., Librarian, Cambridge— Uis "Thirteenth lieport 
on the Library of Harvard University." 

Winthrop, lion. Uorert C, Boston.— Proceedings of the Trustees of the 
I'eabody Education Fund, 1N00. 


Allen, Mr. Charles A., City Engineer, Worcester.— His Annual lieport, 

Ames, Mr. John G., Washington, 1). C. — His lieport regarding the receipt, 
distribution and sale of United States Public Documents. 

ANDREWS, Cutler and Company, Messrs., Woburn.— Numbers of their 

Baldwin, Prof. Simeon E., New Haven, Conn.— His " Brief Memorial of 
Philip Morel." 

Barton, Mr. Francis A., San Francisco, Cal. — ''California in ISOO." 

Blanoiiard and Company, Messrs. Frank S., Worcester.— Their "Prac- 
tical Mechanic and Electrician," as issued. 

BOOTH, ALFRED, M.D., Springfield. — His article on the "Boston Massacre, 
including a letter showing that Crispus Attacks was known by the name of 

Bosari, Signor Ferdinando, Naples, Italy.— Three of his brochures. 

Bowen, Clarence \V., Ph.D., Brooklyn, N. V.— Dr. John E. Bowcn's 
•' Conflict of the East and West in Egypt"; and a memorial of Dr. Bowen. 

Bowes, Mr. James L., Liverpool, Eng.— His " Handbook to Bowes's Mu- 
seum of Japanese Art Work." 

Brooks, Rev. William II., D.D., Secretwy.— Journal of the 105th Annual 
Meeting of the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Dio- 
cese of Massachusetts. 

Burgess, liev. Francis G., Worcester.— Six pamphlets; and the "Spirit 
of Missions," in continuation. 

BUTLER j Nicholas M., Ph.D., Editor, New York.— Numbers of the " Edu- 
cational lieview." 

Byington, Kev. Ezra II., D.D., Boston.— The " Centennial Celebration of 
the First Congregational Church of Christ, Hinesborough, Vt., Sept. 10, 
1800," containing his historical address. 

Canfield, Mrs. Penelope L., Worcester.— Six books; four bronze medals; 
and twenty-two pamphlets. 

Carter, James C, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. — His " Ideal and Actual in the 

Ceuleneer, M. Ad., De, Brussels, Belgium.— His "Type dTndien du 
Nouveau Monde represents sur uu bronze Antique du Louvre." 

Ciiamrerlain, Alexander F., M.D., Worcester.— Nine of his brochures 
relating to the language, customs, beliefs, etc., of the Indians. 

Cheevlr, Kev. Henry T., Worcester. — The "Hawaiian Gazette," in con- 

Chase, George B., Esq., Boston.— His " Memoir of George Tyler Bigelow." 


Givers and Gifts. 


Chittenden, Mr. J. Brace, Cambridge.— "Repprfc of the First Reunion of 

the Class of '88 Worcester Polytechnic Institute. " 
Clarke, Mr. Robert, Cincinnati, Ohio.— Shepherd's " Antiquities of the 

State of Ohio." 
Ci.arkson, Mr. JSamuel, Philadelphia, Pa.— His "Memoirs of Matthew 

Cliirkson, and of his brother Gerardus Clarkson." 
Cole, Mr. Thomas L., Portland, Oregon.—" Trinity Parish," as issued. 
Conaty, Rev. Thomas J., D.D.. Worcester.— ''Monthly Calendar of the 

Church of the Sacred Heart," as issued. 
Cook, Mr. Henry II., Barre.— His Gazette, as issued. 

Culin, Mr. Stewart, Philadelphia, Pa.— His "I Hing, or Patriotic Rising." 
Currier, Mr. Frederick A., Fitchburg.— His " History of the Post-office, 

'Fitchburg, Mass." 
Cyr, Rev. Narcisse, Boston.— Nineteen books; ten pamphlets; and "The 

Inquirer," 1888-91. 
Davis, Walter A., Esq., City Clerk, Fitchburg.— The City Document for 

Day, Rev. John W., Hingham.— One pamphlet. 
Deane, Mrs. Charles, Cambridge.— Alexander Brown's "Genesis of the 

United States." 2 vols., 8vo. Cambridge, 1891. 
Dexter, Rev. Morton, Boston.— Notices of the late Rev. Henry M. Dexter, 

Dodd, Mead and Company, Messrs., New York.— Their " New Publica- 
tions," as issued. 
Do« and Company, Messrs. Charles H., Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Gazette, as issued. 
Drew, Allis and Company, Messrs., Worcester.— Fifty-eight American 

Eakle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— Two periodicals, in continuation; and 

eighteen pamphlets. 
Eliot, Mr. Charles, Secretary.— Circulars relating to "The Preservation 

of Beautiful and Historical Places." 
Flskk, Mr. Edward R., Worcester.— His "Library Record," as issued. 
Fletcher, Mr. William 1., Amherst.— One pamphlet. 
Folsom, Capt. Albert A., Boston.— Annual Record of the Ancient and 

Honorable Artillery Company, 1889-90. 
Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York.— Their " Voice," as issued. 
Galiiraitii, Rev. John, Worcester.— The "Christian Advocate" 1877-90; 

and " Our Youth," 1885-88. 
Gale, Lieut. George II. G., U. S. A.— Twenty "Official Army and United 

States Military Academy Registers." 
Gale, Mr. George W m Worcester.— Cannon-ball from the battlefield of 

Contreras, Mexico; and thirty-eight reports of Overseers of the Poor. 
GARRISON, Mr. Wendell P., Orange, N. J.— His "Preludes of Harper's 

Ferry"; a photograph of the Ostensorium presented in 1080 to the Green 

Bay Mission. 

230 American Antiquarian Society. [A 


Goodrich, Mr. W. B., Brattleboro, Vt.— Numbers of his " Literature and 

Goodwin, Mr. James J., Hartford, Conn.— His "Goodwins of Hartford, 

Green, Mis.'Meltiah IL, Worcester.— Ninety-seven books; three hundred 

and twenty-live numbers of magazines; and sixteen unbound volumes of 

" The Churchman." 
Griffis. Kev. William E., D.D., Boston.— His "Japanese Fairy World." 
Hakes, Miss Gertrude, Worcester.— " The Hakes Family." 
Hall, Mr. A. Wilford, New York.— His "Microcosm," as issued. 
Harrington, Hon. Francis A.\, Mayor, Worcester.— His "Second Inaug- 
ural Address." 
Hassam, John T., Esq., Boston.— Suffolk Deeds, Volume V. 
Havkn, Mrs. Eliza A., Portsmouth, 3S. H.— One pamphlet. 
Hawks, Miss Zilla, Holden.— Three books; and two newspapers. 
Hill, Mrs. Alonzo, Worcester.— Thirty-five books; and three pamphlets. 
Holt, Messrs. Henry and Company, New York.— Numbers of the" Edu- 
cational Review." 
Horsford, Prof. En fn N., Cambridge.— Two of his brochures. 
Horton and Son, Messrs. Nathaniel, Salem.— Their Gazette, as issm d. 
Jillson, Hon. Clark, Worcester.— "Reunion of the Sons and Daughters 

of Wilmington, Vt.," containing Remarks by Judge Jillson. 
Johnson, Mr. Tiieophilus B., Worcester.— -One newspaper. 
Jones, Rev. Henry L., Wilkes Rarre, Pa.— Hotchkin's " County Clergy uf 

Pennsylvania"; and the "Parish Guest," as issued. 
Keith, Hon. Zira C, Campello.— His "Genealogy of the desoendants of 

Benjamin Keith." 
KELLOGG, J. H., M.D., Battle Creek, Mich.— His "Good Health," as issue. I. 
Kellogg and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg. — Tl^ejr Sentinel, as issued. 
Kimrall, Mr. John 10., Oxford.— The Town Import of Oxford, 1806-91. 
Kimpton, Mr. Henry, London, England.— His " International Book Finder," 

as issued. 
Knowlton. Miss Helen M., Boston.— " Taverner's" Paper on Thomas 

Kyes and Wooduury, Messrs., Worcester.— One book; one bundled and 

fifty-seven pamphlets; and their monthly calendar, as issued. 
Lansing, Rev. Isaac J., Worcester. — His "Pulpit Personalities Rebuked." 
Lawton, Mrs. Christopher P., Worcester.— Worcester Directory for 1889. 
Lewis, Prof. Theodore IL, St. Raul, Minn.— Five of his Archaeological 

Librie, Messrs. Charles F. and Company, Boston.— One book. 
Lippincott, Messrs. J. IL. and Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— Their " Rul- 

letin of New Publications," as issued. 
Logan, Mr. David, Leicester.— Three pamphlets; and a New Granada silver 


1891.] Givers and Gifts. 231 

McAlkek, George, M.D., Worcester.— "Souvenir Volume of the Centen- 
nial Celebration and Catholic Congress, 1789-188!)." 
Makble, ALBERT P., Ph.D., Worcester.— His "'Studies in Literature." 
May, Rev. Samuel, Secretary, Leicester.—" Songs and Poems of the Class 

of 1S29," Part III., 1882-1889, Harvard University; and Leicester Town 
x Library Report, 1891. 

Middleton, Key. Edmund S., New York.— One pamphlet. 
MOODY, Miss M. ELIZABETH, Brooklyn, N. Y.— Five pamphlets. 
Moreno, Sefior Francisco P., La Plata, B. A.— -His " Rapide Coup d'(Lil 

Sur Sa Fondation et Son Developpment du Musee de La Plata." 
Moseley's Sons, Mr. David B., Hartford, Conn:— Their "Religious Herald." 

as issued. 
Opdyke, Mr. Charles M., New York.— "A leaf of additional facts to the 

Op Dyck Genealogy." 
Pkarody, Charles A., M.D., Superintendent, Worcester.— Report of the 

City Hospital of Worcester for 1890. 
Phillips, Mr. Calvin T., Hanover.— His reprint of Rev. Gad Hitchcock's 

Artillery Election Sermon of May 25, 1774. 
PHILLIPS, Rev. George W., Rutland, Vt.— Wild's ''Hundred Years of 

Congregationalism in the (Jhamplain Valley." 

Putnam's Sons, GEORGE P., New York.— Their "Notes on New Rooks," 
as issued. 

Reinwald, M. C, Paris, France.— His Bulletin, as issued. 

Kich, Mr. Marshall N., Editor, Portland, Me.— The ''Portland Board of 
Trade Journal," as issued. 

Rorinson, Miss Mary, Worcester.— Five files of Magazines, in continua- 
tion; and seven pamphlets. 

Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— His Index to vol. I. of "Light"; ten 
numbers to complete our tile; and one pamphlet. 

Sanhorn, Mrs. Ellen IL, Cincinnati, Ohio.— ''The Hound Table," as issued. 

Scott, Mr. J. Winfield, Editor, Boston.— His "Living Issues," as issued. 

Scripture, Mr. E. W., Worcester.— Two of his brochures. 

Slafter, Rev. Edmund P., D.D., Boston.- His " Discovery of America by 
the Northmen, 985-1015." 

Sleeper, Rev. William T., Worcester.— The "Head-Light," as issued. 

Smiley, Mr. C. W., Washington, D. C— His "American Monthly Micro- 
scopical Journal," as issued. 

STAPLES, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— Various poems from his pen; and 
newspapers in numbers. 

Steiner, Hon. Lkwis IL, Librarian, Baltimore, Md.— His Fifth Annual 
Report on the Enoch Pratt Free Library. 

Stevens, Charles E., Esq., Worcester.— His " Church and Parish: a Club 

Swan, Mr. Robert T., Commissioner, Boston.— The first three reports on 
the ''Custody and Condition of Public Records of Parishes, Towns and 
Counties in Massachusetts." 

232 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Tenney, Mrs. HARRIET A., Lansing, Mich.— A sketch of her life. 
Thompson, Mr. Peter (L, Cincinnati, Ohio.— One pamphlet. 
Trumrle, Mr. Alfred, New York.— His "Collector," us issued. 
Turner, Mr. John II., Aycr.— His "Oroton Landmark," as issued. 
Tyler, Uev. Alrert, Oxford.— One pamphlet. 
Verduzco, Senor Ignaoio Ojeua, Morelia, Mexico.— His " Gazeta Olieial," 

as issued. 
Vinton, Rev. Alexander 11., D.D., Worcester.— The Year-Book and 

Register of the Parish of All Saints Church for the year 18U0-91 ; and 

"The Parish," as issued. 
VVaites, Mr. Alfked, Worcester.— His " Baconian Facts, an Epilogue to 

the Farce of Bacon vs. Shakespeare." 
Walker, Hon. Joseph H., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 
Wall, Mr. Caler A., Worcester.— His " Eastern Worcester." 
Werr, Dr. William S., President, New York.— Hall's "Year-Book of the 

Societies composed of the Descendants of the Men of the Revolution." 
Wesry and Sons, Messrs. JOSEPH S., Worcester.— Ten books; and two 

hundred and fifty-seven pamphlets, 
Whitmore, Mr. William IL, Boston.— His "Bibliographical Sketch of the 

Laws of the Massachusetts Colony, from 1030 to IG86." 
Whiting, William, Esq., Iiolyokc— Frink's "Address Commemorative of 

Richard H. Mather, June 15th, lsj!)0." 
Wilkinson, Mr. A. T., Milford.— A Persian copper coin of the year PJSi). 
Willakd, Mr. FRANKLIN B., West Boylston.— A Specimen of Pennsylvania 

Continental Currency. 
Williams, Col. Geokge W., Worcester.— Three of his brochures upon the 

Oon^o State and Country. 
Wilstoch, Mr. John A., New York,— His " Battle Forest," a poem. 
Wood, Mr. Amasa, Webster.— Manuscript Notes to his "Brief History of 

the Descendants of Thomas Wood." 
Woodward, Patrick If., Secretary, Hartford, Conn.— *' Report of the 

Hartford Board of Trade, January 13, IS01." 
WRIGHT, Hon. Isaac 11., New York.— His "Shoe and Leather Reporter," 

as issued; and Annual for 181)1. 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their Proceedings, 
as issued. 

Academy of Science of St. Louis.— Their publications, as issued. 

AMERICAN Acadfmyof Akts and Sciences.— Their publications, as Issued. 

Ameuican Bankers Association.— Two of their Reports. 

AMERICAN Baptist Missionary Union.— Their Baptist Missionary Maga- 
zine, as issued. 

American Geographical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

American Oriental Society.— Their puhlioations, as issued. 

American Philosophical Society. — Their publications, as issued. 


Givers and Gifts. 


American Seamen's Friend Society.— Their "Sailor's Magazine," as 

American Society of Church History.— One pamphlet. 
American Society of Microsoopists.— General Index to their Proceedings. 
Amkrican Statistical Association.— Their publications, as issued. 
Andover Theological Seminary.— Tts Catalogue for 1800-91. 
Astor LIBRARY. — Its Forty-second Annual Report. 
Bookmaut Publishing Company.— Their " Bookmart," as issued. 
Boston Board of Health.— Their "Statements of Mortality," as issued. 
Boston, City of.— The Twenty-iirst and Tvvcnty-seeond Reports of the 

Record Commissioners. 
Boston Public Library.— Its puhlieations, as issued. 
Bowdoin College.— Its College Catalogue, 1890-91. 
Brooklyn Library.— Its puhlieations, as issued. 

Cambridge (Eng.) Antiquarian Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Canadian Institute.— Its Transactions, Vol. I., No. 1. New Series. 
Central National Library ok Florence.— Tts Bulletin, as issued. 
Chicago Historical Society.— Their puhlieations, as issued. 
Cincinnati Public Library.— its Annual Report for 1890; and Bulletin, 

as issued. 
Civil Service Reform Association.— Their Record, as issued. 
Cobden Club.— Lyon Rlayfuir's "Tariffs of the United States in relation 

to Free Trade." 
Columbia College.— Its puhlieations, as issued. 
Connecticut Academy ok Arts and Sciences.— Their Transactions, Vol. 

VIII., Part 1. 
Connecticut, State of.— Fast Day Proclamation, 1891. 
Dedham Historical Society.— Their puhlieations, as issued; and one 

town document. 
Essex Institute.— Its puhlieations, as issued. 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1889.— Its Medal and Diploma for the 

Society's Exhibit. 
Grand Rapids Board ok Trade.— "Grand Rapids as it is, 1890 91." 
HARTFORD Theological Seminary.— Its "Record," as issued. 
Harvard University.- Its University puhlieations, as issued. 
Highland Cadet, Editors ok.— "■ The Cadet," as issued. 
Historical Society ok Pennsylvania.— Their puhlieations, as issued. 
Illinois State Historical Society.— Their Report of 1890. 
Index Publishing Company, New Haven, Conn.— Numbers of their 

" American Periodical Index." 
International American Conference.— Minutes of their Conference in 

International Tract and Missionary Society.— Their "Signs of the 

Times," as issued. 

234 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Interstate Commerce Commission.— Their Second Annual Report on the 
Statistics of Railways in tbe United States. 

Iowa Historical Society.— Their "Historical Record," as issued. 

Johns Hopkins University.— Its University publications, as issued. 

Kansas City Academy ok Sciences.— Their "Naturalist," as issued. 

Kansas State Historical Society.— Their Transactions, as issued. 

Lancaster Town Library. — Its Twenty-eighth Annual Report. 

Library Bureau, Boston.— One pamphlet. 

Library Company of Philadelphia.— Its Bulletin, as issued. 

Los Angeles Public Library.— Its Annual Report for 1890. 

Maine Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Maryland Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Massachusetts Board ok Health.— Their "Weekly Returns of Mortal- 
ity"; and Annual Report for 1890. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth ok.— Sixteen State documents; and one 

Massachusetts Grand Lodge ok Free and Accepted Masons.— Their 
Proceedings, as issued. 

Massachusetts Historical Society.— Their Collections, Volume IV., Gib 

Massachusetts Hospital and McLean Asylum.— Its Seventy-seventh 

Annual Report. 
Massachusetts Institute op Technology.— Its Catalogue for 1890-91. 
Massachusetts School for the Feeble Minded.— Its Fifty-third Annual 

Massachusetts Society ok the Cincinnati.— Their "Memorials," 1890. 
Mkridkn Scientific Association.— Their Transactions, Volume IV. 
Messenger, Editor ok the.— His paper, as issued. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society.— Their Collections and Re- 
searches, Volumes 13-10. 
Minneapolis Public Library.— Its publications, as issued. 
Minnesota Historical Society.— The Minnesota Blue-Book for 1891. 
MUSKO Miciioacano, Morelia, Yucatan.— Its "Auales," as issued. 
National Central Library ok Rome.— Its Bulletin, as issued. 
National Executive Silver Committee.— "Silver in the 51st Congress." 
Nkw England Historic (Genealogical Society.— Their publications, as 

New England Magazine Corporation.— Their Magazine for November, 

New Haven Colony Historical Society.— " Story of the Memorial in 

honor of the founders of the town of Mil ford, Connecticut." 
Newark Free 1'ublic Library.— Its First and Second Annual Reports. 
New Jersey Historical Society.— New Jersey Archives, Volumes 13 and 

It; sixteen books; forty-six pamphlets; and their publications, as issued. 

1891.] Givers and Gifts. 235 

New York Academy ok Sciences.— Their publications, as issued. 

New York Evening Post Printing Company.— Their -Nation," as issued. 

New Youk, Protestant Episcopal Diocese of.— Its Centennial History, 

J 785-1885. 
New York State Library.— Seven New York State documents. 
Oneida Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Open Court Publishing Company.— Their "Open Court," as issued. 
Oregon IMMIGRATION Hoard.— A description of Portland, Oregon. 
Peabody Reporter Company.— Their paper, as issued. 

Perkins* Institution and Massachusetts School eor the Blind.— 

Its Fifty-ninth Annual Report. 

Phillips Exeter Academy.— Its Catalogue for 1800-01. 
Poet Lore Company.— Their " Poet-Lore," for November, 1800. 
Portland Public Library.— Two books and two pamphlets relating to 

Providence Athen.eum.— Its Fifty-fifth Annual Report. 

Redwood Library and Athen.eum.— Its One Hundred and Sixtieth 

Annual Report. 
Rhode Island Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Rochester Academy op Science.— Their Proceedings, Vol. 1, No. 1. 
Royal Society op Antiquaries of Ireland.— Their publications, as 

Russian American National Lkaguk.— Their "Free Russia," as issued. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library Association.— Their Forty-fifth Annual 

Salem Prkss Publishing and Printing Company.— Numbers of their 

" Historical and Genealogical Register." 
Salem Public Library.— Its Second Annual Report. 
San Francisco Public Library.- Its Report for 1800. 
Smithsonian Institution.— Its publications, as issued. 
Societe de Geographic. — Their publications, as issued. 
Societe Nation ale des Antkjuaires de France. — Their publications, 

as issued. 
Spy Publishing Company.— Fifty-two numbers of magazines; and the 

Worcester Daily and Weekly Spy, as issued. 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin.— An account of their Annual 

Meeting, 18!) 1. 
Travelers' Insurance Company.— Their " Record," as issued. 
United States Department of the Interior.- Two hundred and thirty 

books; and fifty-two pamphlets. 
United States Department ok State.— The United States Consular Re- 
ports, as issued; and Reports of the International American Conference. 
United States Observers of the Boston Signal Office.— Their 

"New England Weather, " for November, 18!)<>. 

236 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

United States Treasury Department.— Annual Report of the Director 
of the Mint, 1890. 

United States War Department. —Index Catalogue of the Library of 
Surgeon-General's Onice, United States Army, Vol. XL; and " Official 
Records of the War of the Rebellion," as issued. 

Virginia Historical Society.— Their Collections, as issued. 

W P I, Editors of the.— Their Paper, as issued. 

Watchman Publishing Company.— Their " Vermont Watchman," as 

Wenham, Town of.— Its town documents, 1890-91. 

WORCESTER Board of Health.— Their " Mortality Reports," as issued. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Twenty-three liles of 
newspapers, in continuation. 

Worcester Employment Society.— Their Sixteenth Annual Report. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Thirty-six books; two hundred and 
forty-two pamphlets; and eighty-live tiles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Worcester National Bank. — Two directories; and three liles of news- 
papers, in continuation. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity.— Their Proceedings for 1890. 

Yale University.— Its Annual Catalogue, 1890-91. 

Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester.— Their "Young 
Men's Work," as issued. 

1891.] George JJuncroft. 237 



GEORGE Bancroft, the historian of the United States, was 
chosen a member of the Ameriean Antiquarian Society in 
October, 1838. With that of Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 
elected to membership at the same date, his name has for 
several years stood at the head of our list of living mem- 
bers. From 1877 to 1880, Mr. Bancroft was Secretary of 
Domestic Correspondence, and, since 1880, has been a 
Vice-President of the Society. At the time of his death, 
he was our First Vice-President. It seems fitting that the 
death of Mr. Bancroft should be commemorated in our 
Proceedings by a somewhat extended notice. 

George Bancroft was a son of llev. Aaron Bancroft, D.D. 
(b. 1755, d. 1839), the first pastor of the Second Parish in 
the town of Worcester, Massachusetts, a position held by 
the latter until he died, and for a period of more than fifty 
years. George Bancroft's -mother was Lucretia (Chandler) 
Bancroft (b. 1705, d. 1839), a daughter of the last Judge 
John Chandler, of Worcester. Aaron Bancroft was a man 
of vigorous mind, excellent scholarship and earnest spirit. 
He was one of the six persons who joined in a petition for 
the Act of Incorporation of this Society and became one of 
its earliest members. He was a Councillor of the Society 
from the date of its organization in 1812 to 181G, a Vice- 
President from 1816 to 1831, and a member of its Publica- 
tion Committee from 1815 to 1831. In 1807 he published 
a life of Washington, which had a large circulation and was 
reprinted in England. 

George Bancroft was born in Worcester, October 3, 
1800, in a house still standing on Salisbury street, which 

238 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

was the second residence of his parents in Worcester. The 
house lias been occupied for man}' years by Mr. John B. 

Very little, naturally, is to be said about Bancroft's life 
in Worcester as he left the town to go to Phillips Academy, 
Exeter, N. II., when in his eleventh year and never re- 
turned there to live. It may not be beneath the dignity 
of this occasion, however, to repeat an anecdote which Mr. 
Bancroft, with modest self-depreciation, told to Hon. C. K. 
Tuckerman during a call which that gentleman made upon 
him towards the close of October, 188D. Mr. Tuckerman 
writes : "Taking it for granted that" Air. Bancroft "nikfht 
not after the lapse of so many years distinctly recall my 
identity, I began by reminding him as to who I was and 
when we had last met. He interrupted me with a vigorous 
* * * exclamation, that he not only remembered me per- 
fectly but that he rather thought he knew more of my fam- 
ily and their antecedents than I did myself. Thereupon he 
went back to the days of his boyhood in the town of Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts, and informed me that a certain cousin of 
mine, now some years deceased — who then dwelt there — 
had been his schoolmate and playmate. He, Mr. Bancroft, 
had greatly stood in awe of his schoolmate's mother, my 
aunt, who was a lady of great dignity, and most precise in 
her manners and ways of life. • I was a wild boy,' con- 
tinued Bancroft, k and your aunt did not like me. She was 
always fearful that 1 would get her son into bad ways, and 
still more alarmed lest I should some day be the cause of 
his being brought home dead. There was a river, or piece 
of water, near Worcester, where I used to beguile young- 
Salisbury, and having constructed a rough sort of raft he 
and I would pass a good deal of our playtime in aquatic 
amusements, not by any means unattended with danger. 
Madam's remonstrances were all in vain, and she was more 
and more continued in the opinion that I was a "wild, bad 
boy." However, nothing serious, beyond an occasional 

1891.] Georye Bancroft. 239 

wetting, ever occurred, yet 1 never rose in her estimation, 
and a " wild boy" I continued to he up to manhood.' " 1 

I presume that it is unnecessary to say that the compan- 
ion to whom Mr. Bancroft refers is our late President, the 
father of the gentleman who now presides over this Society. 

Young Bancroft was regarded as a promising scholar 
when lie went to the academy at Exeter, where he was a 
heneticiary pupil. He remained there, without going home 
to spend his vacations, until he entered Harvard College in 
1813. He graduated from the latter institution, with the 
rank of second in his class, in 1817, when not yet seventeen 
years old. The late Stephen Salisbury was one of his 
classmates. Mr. Bancroft, at the time of his death, had 
been for some time the oldest living graduate of Harvard 

As a promising scholar, Bancroft was sent abroad to 
study in 1818. It is said to have been a purpose of the 
gentlemen who provided the means to enable him to go to 
Europe, to give him such an education that he would be 
prepared to occupy the chair of a professor in Harvard 
College when it might become necessary to seek somebody 
to till one. Mr. Bancroft entered the University of Gottin- 
geii and received from that institution the decree of Ph.D. 
at the remarkably early age of less than twenty years. 
While at (jrottingen, he studied German literature under 
Beneeke ; French and Italian literature under Artaud and 
Bunsen ; Arabic, Hebrew and Scripture interpretation 
under Eichhorn ; Natural History under Bhunenbach ; the 
antiquities and literature of Greece and Rome, and Greek 
philosophy under D is sen, an enthusiastic admirer of Plato ; 
and history under Planck and Heeren. Soon after receiving 
his degree at Gottingen, Mr. Bancroft went to Berlin where 
he was kindly received by Wilhelm von Humboldt, 
Varnhagen von Ense, Lappenberg and other distinguished 
scholars. He was a constant visitor at the house of 

1 Magazine ol ! American History, March, 1891, page 280. 

240 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Schleiermacher, and was also very kindly received by 
Savigny, chief of the law department of the university and 
one of the ahlest jurists of Germany. At Berlin, Bancroft 
attended the lectures of W&lft\ Schleiermacher and Hegel. 
Passing on to Heidelberg in the spring of 1821, Mr. 
Bancroft spent several hours a day there studying with the 
historian Schlosscr. 

Before returning to America, he travelled on the conti- 
nent of Europe, making the acquaintance of Manzoni at 
Milan, of Niebuhr at Rome, and of Benjamin Constant, 
Cousin, Alexander von Humboldt, and Lafayette at Paris. 
During his stay in Rome, he formed intimate relations with 
Chevalier Bunsen. These continued until the death of the 
latter. J While a student at Gottingen, Bancroft made the 
acquaintance of Goethe at Jena, and subsequently met him 
atWeimtir, In May, 1822, he met Byron at Leghorn, and 
the next day, by invitation, visited him at Monte Nero, the 
residence of the poet at that time. 

Mr. Bancroft must have been very attractive as a young- 
man to have secured the attentions which were shown to 
him by distinguished scholars and literary men in Europe. 
Dr. Cogswell, in a letter to Mrs. Prescott, of Boston, dated 
August 28, 1819, in speaking of his sorrow at parting with 
him, writes, k 'IIe is a most interesting youth and is to 
make one of our great men." 

Mr. Bancroft returned to the United States in 1822. He 
had prepared himself to enter the Christian ministry, and 
soon after coming home actually preached in his father's 
pulpit. The tradition in Worcester is that his manner on 
that occasion was regarded as somewhat artificial and as so 
different from that which was usual at the time in the pulpit 
as to prevent religious services as conducted by him from 
being wholly acceptable either to his father or his father's 

1 July 20, 1S49, Bunseu writes: " For refreshment after this long day's work, 
I visited, at six o'clock, my truly esteemed colleague, Bancroft."— Memoirs, 
Vol. II., p. 150. 

1891.] George Bancroft. 241 

congregation. The sermon given in Worcester is said to 
have been an essay on love. 

In 1822, Mr. Bancroft became tutor of Greek in Harvard 
College, but withdrew from that position in 1823. Towards 
the close of the latter year, he joined Dr. Joseph (J. Cogs- 
well in establishing a private school for boys, at Round Hill, 
Northampton. That school was meant to embody ideas 
which had been awakened by observation of institutions 
abroad. The aim of its projectors was to found a school in 
which instruction should be thorough and united with an 
abundance of exercise and recreation. It was intended, 
also, to maintain intimate relations between teachers and 
pupils, 1 The school was for a time very successful. An 
excellent corps of teachers gave instruction and the boys 
were healthy and happy. The enterprise proved financially 
unsuccessful in a few years, however.- Mr. Bancroft with- 
drew from the school in 1830. Dr. Cogswell continued 
the undertaking for two years longer and then abandoned it 
with Impaired health and a loss in money of $20,000. 

Before going to Round Hill, Mr. Bancroft published in 
Cambridge, in September, 1823, a small volume of poems. 
These were marked by smoothness of versification and 
felicity of expression rather than by the higher qualities of 
poetry, and it is understood that later in life the author did 
what he could to withdraw the volume containing them 
from circulation. Our venerable and accomplished associate, 

1 "• The school may be described as aiming, above all, to make gentlemevi" 
* * -'There was great attention paid to modern languages in the school, and 
of course, under Beck and Bode, * * there was no neglect of the classics, 
indeed, there was nothing connected with the culture of the mind, or the care 
aid development of the body, or the elevation of the character, that was not 
contemplated by the founders of the Bound Hill School" * * * * " The 
scheme of the school was too comprehensive to he thorough in the elementary 
training." — Harvard lle<jister, Vol. III., pp. ;) 5. 

2 For an account of the School at Hound Jlill, see Memoir of Joseph (i. 
Cogswell, by Miss Anna 11. Ticknor (privately printed) ; "A Sheaf of Tapers," 
by Thomas G. Appleton; The Hound Hill School, by Rev. Henry VV. Bellows, 
I).l).,New York, in the llarourd Ile<jisler, Vol. 111. (1SS1), p. 3; and Recol- 
lections of Bound Hill School, by CieorgeE. Ellis, in the Kdncali<jital Hecicto, 
April, 1WI. 

242 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Rev. Dr. 101 lis, was a pupil of Mr. Bancroft at Hound Hill, 
and remembers his teacher as a " somewhat dreamy and 
absent-minded scholar" and as showing the impulsiveness 
and effusiveness of manner which he retained throughout 
his life. lie also recalls the fact that he read the manu- 
script while Mr. Bancroft corrected proof of his translation, 
published in 1824, of Heeren's Politics of Ancient Greece 
Mr. Bancroft published in 1825, Jacobs's Latin Header. 
Several editions of that work appeared. He early became 
a contributor to the North American Review, his first article 
in that periodical having come out in the number bearing 
the date of October, 1823. From that time on, for many 
years, he wrote papers for that Review, on literary, histori- 
cal and financial subjects. 

Mr. Bancroft, as early as 1818, while a student at 
Gottingcn, determined to devote himself to historical pur- 
suits, lie "began his great work on the history of the 
.United States, at Northampton, and while there issued the 
first volume. The other nine volumes appeared at intervals 
until the publication of volume 10, in 1874. In 1 S 7 (> , the 
work was revised and issued as a centenary edition (G vols., 
Boston). Volumes 11 and 12 were published first under 
the title of " History of the Formation of the Constitution of 
the United States" (New York, 1882). The last revised 
edition of the; whole work appeared in six volumes (New 
York) in 1883-5. A variety of essays were written by 
Mr. Bancroft. Some of these were collected in a volume 
of Literary and Historical Miscellanies in 1855. 

During most of his life, Mr. Bancroft belonged to the 
Democratic party. In 1830, he was elected to the legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts but declined to take his seat, and the 
next year, although it was certain that he could be elected, 
declined a nomination to the Senate. 

In 1835, Mr. Bancroft moved to Springfield. While 
living there, he worked on his history and took part in 
political movements. In l83fi, he was the Democratic 

1891.] George Bancroft. 243 

candidate for Congress from the Springfield district, but 
was defeated at the polls. In 1838, he was appointed by 
President Van Huron, Collector of the Port of Boston, and 
remained in that position until 1841. The Democratic 
party in Massachusetts was small during Van Huron's 
administration, hut it had among its adherents such well- 
known persons as Orestes A. Brownson, "then in the gall 
of radicalism and the bitterness of general dissatisfaction," 
Robert Rantoul, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Mr. Bancroft. 
Brownson, Rantoul and Bancroft were doctrinaires. A 
Whig contemporary, in writing of the last-named, says : 

i4 I do not think that he much cared to deliver stump 
speeches ; hut he had no choice. Every Democratic oilice- 
holder who could speak and would not speak, was made to 
speak. Mr. Hawthorne, who could no more speak than 
jump over a wide river, was of course excused. Mr. 
Bancroft brought the rhetoric of his history to the platform, 
lie was ornate, gilded and occasionally flaming. Whatever 
he might be discussing, — and people did not discuss much 
save the sub-treasury in those times, — he seldom deigned 
to descend from his stilts. He had a favorite way of begin- 
ning these election harangues. He would look with an 
expression of astonishment at the audience, and exclaim, 
with the gesture of Hamlet at the iirst sight of the ghost, 
'This vast assemblage might well appall rue!.' This im- 
pressed those who had never heard it more than twice 
before, and it had the further effect of giving the audience 
aforesaid a good conceit of its own proportions. J have 
said that Mr. Bancroft could never get oil' his stilts, hut 
occasionally he relaxed a little his stately dignity. He was 
speaking one night of the great Whig procession in Boston 
in 1840. It undoubtedly did rain while the Whig army was 
marching to Bunker Hill, and Mr. Bancroft improved the 
circumstance with a surprising mixture of attitudinousness 
and familiarity. ' We appeal to Heaven,' he said, ' was writ- 
ten upon the impious banner. Heaven heard the appeal and 
sent down upon the throng the na&tiext shower of the sea- 
son !' Mr. Bancroft's audience could understand this better 
than his long dissertations upon the progress of the Demo- 
cratic principle during the Eighteenth century in Europe 

244 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and America ; and as lie was not averse to applause, he 
went hack to his Custom House contented, as he had good 
reason to he." J 

Mr. Bancroft performed the duties of Collector satisfacto- 
rily. In 1844, he was Democratic candidate for Governor 
of Massachusetts, but although polling an unusually large 
vote was defeated by George N". Brigffs. 

In 1845, Mr. Bancroft became Secretary of the Navy 
under President Polk. Our venerable associate, Rev. Dr. 
Peabody, informs me that the late Robert Rantoul told him 
that Mr. Pblk lirst appointed Bancroft Attorney-General, 
supposing him to be a lawyer. He had to tell the Presi- 
dent that he had been educated for the Church and not for 
the bar, whereupon he received the appointment of Secre- 
tary of the Navy. 

Our associate, Rev. Dr. Edward Everett Hale, has kindly 
put into my hands a record in manuscript of a conversation 
which he had with Ml 1 ! Bancroft, January 14, 1888. An 
extract will show that Mr. Bancroft believed that he had 
much to do in securing the nomination of Polk for the 
presidency'. Dr. Hale writes: "He," Mr. Bancroft, 
"showed me the various details in the Democratic conven- 
tion. The first day, Van Buren led a little in the ballot. 
The Massachusetts delegation voted for him ; but gradually 
Van Buren lost and Cass gained. Still it was perfectly 
clear that Cass could not carry the State of New York," 
owing to Van Buren's opposition. "At the end of the 
day, Mr. Bancroft said this privately to the New York 
delegation. They said it was so, — that the whole thing 
would be lost before the people if Cass were to be nominated. 
Mr. Bancroft then went around and made arrangements 
with the different delegations which resulted in the unani- 
mous nomination of Polk. He prided himself very much 
on this. lie said Polk had by far the greatest executive 
capacity of any man he had ever known. He showed me 

1 Conyclon, Charles T. liemiiiiscencea of a Journalist, p. Go. 

1891.] Geon/e Bancroft. 215 

in typewriter, Polk's diary of the lour years of his presi- 
dency. He made entries every day." 

I make another interesting extract from Dr. Hale's 
record. Mr. Bancroft "said himself that he always hated 
slavery, that when he was nominated as the candidate "for 
Secretary of the Navy, Senator Archer wrote to ask if he 
were an anti-slavery man, and he said he was ; — that if he 
were to go through the Senate he would go erect, and not 
on his knees. He said that in the discussion, he was con- 
sistent in his view that he was a man who disliked slavery, 
but was honest in his dislike of it." 

While Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Bancroft's administra- 
tion of affairs was marked by rigid economy. It was ren- 
dered memorable by the establishment, mainly through his 
efforts, of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. Mr. Bancroft 
gave the order to the commander of our squadron oil' Cali- 
fornia to take possession of that State in the event of war 
between the United States and Mexico. The order was 
executed while he was still Secretary. While acting for a 
month as Secretary of War, Mr. Bancroft gave the order to 
General Taylor to march into Texas. In September, 1$4(>, 
he was transferred from the Cabinet of Mr. Polk to the 
position of Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain. 
While in London, he negotiated a postal treaty between 
England and the United States which was duly ratified by 
both governments. Of his social position in England, our 
distinguished associate, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, writes, 
in speaking of a visit of his own to that country, "Many 
letters from Webster and Everett had given me access to 
all that was highest and best in the London life of that 
period, but 1 met him" (Bancroft) "everywhere, and wit- 
nessed the high estimation in which he was held by literary 
men like Rogers and Hallam and Alison and Milman and 
Lord Mahon, and by statesmen like Peel, Palmerston and 
Russell." 1 

1 Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society (meeting held February 
12, lS ( Jl),p. 302. 


24() American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mr. Bancroft availed himself during his stay abroad of 
the opportunity afforded him to add largely to his collection 
of manuscripts, by making liberal extracts from the public 
archives of both England and France, which were freely 
thrown open to him for that purpose, as were also the pri- 
vate collections of many persons. The fruits of such labors 
are visible in his library in two hundred handsomely bound 
folio and quarto volumes of manuscripts. Upon his return 
to the United States in 1849,. Mr. Bancroft took up his 
residence in New York, thus severing his connection for 
the rest of his life with his native State of Massachusetts. 1 
Dr. Ellis, in an address before the Massachusetts Historical 
Society made in Boston after Mr. Bancroft's death, says : 
"The elders here will remember the social and professional 
alienations and the political animosities which led him to 
change his residence to New York."- 

In considering the severe strictures passed upon Mr. 
Bancroft during the years of active political life of which 
we have spoken, it is but fair to presume that a large por- 
tion of them at least were merely the expression of strong 
political feeling on the part of opponents, and of the impa- 
tience which is often shown by persons of social position 
and wealth with views such as those put forth by Mr. 
Bancroft and his associates in the earlier portion of his 
political life. One thing is certain, namely, that using the 
term democrat in a large and not a party sense, Mr. 
Bancroft was a hearty democrat. The fact that he really 
believed in the wisdom of the people as opposed to classes 
was one of his leading qualifications for writing sympatheti- 
cally the history of the popular movement which led to the 
foundation of the United States, and which is now at the 
bottom of the administration of its affairs. 

After his return from Great Britain, Mr. Bancroft spent 
most of his time for many years in working on his history 

1 He died while ;i resident of tin* State of Rhode Island. 

2 Proeeedings (February 12, 181)1), p. 298. 

1891.] George Bancroft. 247 

of the United States. During the Civil War, he was a warm. 
supporter of the cause of the Union and acted with the 
Republican party. In February, 1866, he was selected by 
Congress to pronounce a eulogy on President Lincoln, in 
18G7, he was appointed Minister to Prussia, being after- 
wards successively accredited to the North-German confed- 
eration and the German Empire. While in Berlin, he 
rendered valuable service in securing for Germans who had 
become naturalized citizens of the United States a recogni- 
tion of their right to change their allegiance from their own 
country to that of their adoption. Indirectly the action 
obtained by Mr. Bancroft from Prussia and the other Ger- 
man States led to similar action on the part of Great 
Britain respecting British subjects who had become natur- 
alized citizens of this country. Mr. Bancroft, while in 
Germany, also rendered very powerful aid in seconding the 
efforts of our government in the negotiations with Great 
Britain which ended successfully in the establishment of 
our position regarding the Northwestern boundary of the 
United States, which had been defined while he was a 
member of Mr. Polk's cabinet. Mr. Bancroft's mission to 
the German Empire ended at his own request in 1874. At 
that date, he returned home, and has since resided in 
Washington in winter and in Newport, R. I., in summer. 

A few years ago, Mr. Bancroft printed a pamphlet which 
contained a review and searching criticism of the decision 
of the Supreme Court of the United States in the celebrated 
legal-tender case. Still more recently, he published a life 
of Martin Van Buren, which had been prepared during the 
life of the subject of the biography, but kept in manuscript. 
The work is laudatory rather than critical, and has been 
regarded in the light of a campaign document instead of a 
serious biography. For a list of the minor works of Mr. 
Bancroft reference is made to the sketch of his life by the 
late S. Austin Allibone, in Appleton's Cyclopedia of Amer- 
ican Biography. 

248 American' Antiquarian /Society. [April, 

Mr. Bancroft's health has evidently been failing for 
several years. He has enjoyed what Mr. Higginsori has 
happily termed an "inexhaustible old age." la May, 1882, 
when still very vigorous, he wrote to Mr. Allibone "1 was 
trained to look upon life here as a season for labor. Being- 
more than fourseore years old I know the time for my re- 
lease will soon eome. Conseious of being near the shore 
of eternity, I await without impatience and without dread 
the beekoning of the hand Avhieh will summon me to rest." 1 

Four years after writing that letter, Mr. Bancroft pre- 
sided at the meetings of the American Historical Associa- 
tion in Washington. All the members present were 
impressed with the belief that at that time, the spring of 
1886, he was in full possession of his mental powers, and 
that his manner and action as President of the Association 
showed his accustomed vigor and force of character. 

During September of the same year, Mr. Bancroft visited 
Worcester after an absence of forty years. At that time, 
also, he displayed mental and bodily activity such as usu- 
ally belong only to a young man. It fell to the lot of the 
writer of the present notice to act as his guide while in 
Worcester. During the afternoon, he appeared unexpect- 
edly at the Free Public Library, accompanied by his 
faithful German man-servant. 1 recognized him and 
greeted him heartily. He asked to be shown over the 
building. Thinking to spare him fatigue I went with 
him through the lower rooms, but soon finding that lie 
wished to see everything conducted him from attic to base- 
ment. There was a meeting of the Council of this Society 
on the day chosen by Mr. Bancroft for his visit to Worces- 
ter. He had selected the day with reference to attending 
that meeting. Before he had finished examining the library 
building and its contents, the time had come for the meet- 
ing and he invited me to go to it with him in his carriage. 

1 Appleton.s' Cyelopaxlia of American Biography, article "Bancroft, George." 
volume I., p. 154. 

1891.] George Bancroft. 249 

As we passed along Main Street 1 pointed out to him the 
house in which his father last lived and died, and other old 
landmarks. He showed great interest. Reaching the hall 
of this Society he was greeted most cordially by the other 
members of the Council and remained during the meeting. 
On coming out I asked his servant where his carriage was. 
He said that Mr. Bancroft preferred to walk, and so two or 
three members of the Council and the Librarian walked 
with him to the Bay State House where he was staying. 
As soon as he got out of the door of the hall lie assumed an 
attitude, and pointing to a spot on Court Hill directly in 
front, exclaimed, "I saw a man in the pillory there when I 
was a boy. He had uttered some blasphemous words and 
was punished in that way." He was in a cheerful, playful 
mood and showed much enthusiasm as the houses of Isaiah 
Thomas and other old residents, and the site of the second 
church occupied by his f'Jhcr were passed, and recalled 
reminiscences of his boyhood. He had accepted an invi- 
tation of mine to attend in the evening a session of the 
Worcester County Musical Association which is held in 
Worcester every autumn. Promptly at the time set for 
going he was ready and we went to Mechanics Hall together. 
Seats in the centre of the front row in the west gallery had 
been assigned to us. The oratorio of the evening was Ar- 
minius. Mr. Bancroft listened to it with attention and enjoy- 
ment. At the close of one of the parts, in accordance with an 
arrangement previously made, our associate, Hon. Edward 
L. Davis, went upon the platform and announced to the au- 
dience that Mr. Bancroft was in the building. Anxious to 
do him honor everybody rose and turned around. Mr. 
Bancroft acknowledged the attention by rising and bowing. 
It is interesting to note that although he had stayed away 
from Worcester for forty years, nevertheless he never lost an 
opportunity to inquire about the place and its old residents, 
and showed interest in the city by giving to it $10,000 for 
the establishment of the Aaron and Lucrctia Bancroft 

250 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

scholarship in the name of his father and mother, for the 
education in college or elsewhere of some young person, 1 
and also by selecting it as the place of burial for his second 
wife, a child and himself. An incident occurred in Mechan- 
ics Hall which does not seem too trivial to mention because 
it illustrates admirably the manner of Mr. Bancroft. Mr. 
Davis wished to have his elder daughter introduced to the 
distinguished guest. I introduced her as Miss Lillie Davis. 
" Ah, "said Mr. Bancroft instantly, "Lilly! So called be- 
cause straight as a lily, and I have no doubt, because pure 
as a lily." 

Before leaving Mr. Bancroft for the night, I arranged to 
meet him the next morning at 7 o'clock and act as his guide 
in a drive about Worcester. Punctually at the hour 
appointed we started. lie was much impressed by the 
beauty of the city, and expressed himself enthusiastically 
about it. lie was reminded continually of incidents of his 
life here in childhood." In passing the iirst building occu- 
pied by the religious society to which his father minis- 
tered, still standing on Summer street, or Back street as 
it was formerly called, he spoke of his father's old horse 
which on coining down Salisbury street after reaching 
Lincoln square, on week days would invariably turn up 
Main street, but on Sunday as invariably turn up Back 
street. He was reminded, too, of a scene in church one 
Sunday. A boy -who was a servant of Dr. Bancroft sat in 
one of the galleries. There was considerable noise in the 
gallery on the occasion referred to, and Dr. Bancroft looked 
up sternly tow; 'ds the quarter where the disturbance 
seemed to be, an his servant thought that he was looking 
reprovingly at bin He was so frightened that oblivious of 
the proprieties of ; mes of worship he cried out aloud, "It. 
wasn't I, it was another boy." Mr. Bancroft wished to call 
on Senator Hoar and in going to his house while riding 

i Sec Proceedings of the American Autiquarian Society for April, 1883, pp. 
317 and 318, for the letter of Mr. Bancroft, in which he proposed to establish 
the scholarship. 

1891.] George Bancroft. 251 

along Lincoln street, just as we reached the site of the old 
Lincoln mansion, I remember that he repeated an anecdote 
of Levi Lincoln, Senior, who had been Attorney-General 
of the United States during the presidency of Thomas 
Jclferson. It must be remembered that Mr. Lincoln be- 
came nearly blind in the latter portion of his life. "Riding 
along Lincoln street one day," said Mr. Bancroft, "Mr. 

Lincoln met a man driving a Large Hock of geese. In con- 
es o c 

sequence of the dimness of his sight he mistook the geese 
for children and threw out of the carriage a handful of small 
coin, saying, 'Bless you, my children."' We continued 
our drive until it was time for Mr. Bancroft to take the cars 
to return to Newport, and then drove to the railway station. 
I expressed the hope, in parting, that he would soon re-visit 
Worcester, but he spoke of his age and gave me to under- 
stand that it was unlikely that he should be able to do so. 
Soon after his visit to Worcester, Mr. Bancroft began to 
fail and during the last few years of his life he was able to 
do but little work. Our honored and loved associate, Mr. 
Hoar, visited Mr. Bancroft in the evening of the last 
Sunday in December, 1890. " lie was sitting," writes Mr. 
Hoar, "in his library up-stairs. He received me in his 
usual emphatic manner, taking both my hands and saying 
i My dear friend, how glad I am to see you.' He was alone. 
He evidently knew me when 1 went in, and inquired about 
Worcester, as he commonly did, and expressed his amaze- 
ment at its remarkable growth. I stayed with him twenty 
or thirty minutes. The topics of our conversation were, I 
believe, suggested by me, and the whole conversation was 
one which gr*~/e evidence of full understanding on his part 
of what he \ s talking about. It was not merely an old 
man's memor of the past, hut fresh and vigorous thought 
on new topics vhich were suggested to him in the course 
of the conversaion. 1 think he exhibited a quickness and 
vigor of thought and intelligence, and spoke with a beauty 
of diction that no man I know could have surpassed. * * * 

252 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I told his son about this conversation the day after Mr. 
Bancroft's death. He said that the presence of a visitor 
acted in this way as a stimulant, but that he had not lately 
shown such intelligence in the family, but seemed lost and 

In the course of his conversation with Mr. Hoar he said 
"that his own inclination towards history, he thought, was 
due very much to the example of his father. He said his 
father would have been a very eminent historian, if he had 
had material at his command, and that he had a remarkably 
judicial mind." "He spoke of the clergymen, especially of 
the Unitarian clergymen, so many of whom belonged to 
Harvard in his time. He said he had little sympathy for 
the Unitarianism of his day, for its theology no, for its 
spiritualism yes." " He asked about the Election Bill pend- 
ing in the Senate." Before the close of the conversation, 
Mr. Bancroft seemed to lose the control of his faculties 
which he showed in the beginning, and relapsed into forget- 
ful ness. The remark made by Mr. Bancroft about the 
Unitarianism of his day, and the curiosity which I had heard 
expressed by several persons to know what his denomina- 
tional preferences were, led me to write to Kev. Rush K. 
Shippen, of Washington, to learn what he knew about the 
matter. There is of course comparatively little significance 
to-day in the denominational connections of men, those 
connections are so commonly determined by social consid- 
erations and questions of policy, and so many thinkers, 
to-day, while retaining a connection with churches have 
come to believe *hat little can be found out about the theo- 
logical and plh >sophical questions which have caused 
divisions among r en. Still it is proper enough to satisfy 
curiosity which is \atural and not obtrusive. Mr. Shippen 
writes, "At the de lication of All Souls Church" (a Unita- 
rian Church), "January, 1878, Mrs. Bancroft took a pew. 
The trustees, by a custom then adopted, placed upon the 
end arm of the pew, by the aisle, a silvered plate with her 


1891.] Geehje Banwoft. 253 

name inscribed on it. Ifpon seeing Ihk, Mr. B&neroft Lad 
il removed and his own imme substituted) and it has so re- 
mained till the present time, lie has held the pew, paying 
rent, though he rarely occupied it. Mr. Bancroft has been 
in his pew in our church a few times, but not often. I have 
not supposed that he went elsewhere. lie has always re- 
ceived me graciously, but my calls have not been frequent or 
intimate. On one occasion he said to me with his quick, 
emphatic way, 'I am not an Episcopalian ! 1 am a Congre- 
gationalist !' He repeated it as if to give emphasis, 'I am 
not an Episcopalian.' However, we never talked theology, 
and my impression is that Mr. Bancroft cared little about 
it." It has been thought by many persons that twenty or 
thirty years ago Mr. Bancroft expressed in a public address 
a belief in the doctrine of the Trinity. Whether this was 
so or not I judge from what I bear of conversations had 
with him during the later years of his mental vigor that he 
probably held what would be regarded generally as very 
broad and radical views in respect to questions of theology. 

Mr. Bancroft died January 17, 181)1, and his remains 
were at once brought to Worcester and buried in his lot in 
the Rural Cemetery. Mr. Bancroft married in 1827, Miss 
Sarah II. D wight. She died June 26, 18^7. In the fol- 
lowing year, he married Mrs. Elizabeth (Davis) Bliss, who 
died a few years ago. Two sons by the first marriage sur- 
vive their father, namely, John Chandler (H. C, 1851), 
and George (II. C, 1856). The latter has lived for a long- 
time in Europe. Mr. Bancroft was a member of numerous 
learned societies. It is only necessary to state here that he 
was a correspondent of the Erench Institute, and of the 
Royal Academy of Berlin. Besides receiving other degrees 
he was made a D.C.L., at Oxford in 1849, and a Doctor 
Juris by the I liversity of Bonn in 1868. In September, 
1870, he celeb >ted at Berlin the fiftieth anniversary of re- 
ceiving the deg ?e of Ph.D., at Gottingen. 

George Banci )ft was a remarkable man and his career 

254 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

was long, eventful and brilliant. It has fallen to the lot of 
few men to he so successful. Early in life he began a great 
work and he lived long enough to finish it and to enjoy the 
consciousness of large accomplishment and the satisfaction 
of having his fellow-men regard the work he had done as 
of great importance. A man of unusual mental powers 
he made the most of very exeoptional opportunities of 
aequiring knowledge. He chose his life-work when a 
young man and earried it on almost to the end of life 
with perfect system and great laboriousness. Seeing early 
in life the value of exercise and recreation, and being 
naturally very social, while he worked hard for many hours 
every day he never allowed anything to interfere with daily 
exercise and social intercourse. His success in life was 
largely owing to these practices. 

Beginning early in life to make acquaintances we have 
found him associating in his student days with the principal 
scholars of Germany, France and Italy, and with such men 
of literary distinction as Goethe and Byron. From the time 
that he entered Polk's cabinet to the end of his life, he 
appears as the companion of the great men of the world. 
J have quoted the words of Mr. Winthrop to show how he 
was received by the statesmen and historians of Great 
Britain when he represented this country at the Court 
of St. James. We learn, too, that, while in England lie 
used to have long conversations with Albert, the Prince 
Consort, in the German language, on literary and public 
questions. 1 Later, in Germany, he enjoyed rare social 
distinction. He was intimate with Bismarck, who wel- 
comed him (a rare event in his intercourse with men) to 
familiar conversation in his own home. The emperor 
Wilhelm I. was strongly drawn towards him. So, too, was 
Friedrich ; and the present emperor had a wreath placed 
upon the casket vhich contained his remains at the funeral 
services in Wash lgton. For many years both in Washing- 

1 Magazine of Anient in History, March, 1891, p. 229. 

1891.] George Bancroft. 255 

ton arid Newport, he has been the central figure in society. 
No man, American or foreigner, seemed to feel that lie had 
seen either place it he had not been introduced to Mr. 
Bancroft, or at least seen liim. Surely it the knowledge 
that he has performed a well-appreciated and great work 
and the undoubted assurance of being the cynosure of great 
men and of women of social eminence on both continents can 
make a man happy, Mr. Bancroft should have been happy. 
Whether he was so or not, he was one of the most success- 
ful of men, judging things from a worldly point of view. 
lie had decided peculiarities in society ; was regarded as 
artificial, and not only as playful but as frivolous. Still, in 
England, Germany and America his eccentricities were 
overlooked, for they were overshadowed by the conviction 
that he was distinguished by intellectuality and great attain- 

Mr. Bancroft was a successful and highly honored diplo- 
matist ; he was also a great social success. What shall be 
said of his monumental work, the History of the United 
States? Our associate, Mr. Robert C Winthrop, has lately 
said that "in all its varied editions" it "will always be re- 
ceived and recognized as the leading authority in American 
History for the period which it includes." As the different 
volumes of the work appeared, while many of his state- 
ments and estimates of men were criticised, often severely, 
the results of his labors received the highest commendation 
from many of the best critical journals in this country and 
abroad, and unstinted praise from such men as Edward 
Everett, William II. Prescott and George Ripley in this 
country, and Professor lieeren, Baron Bun sen and Freder- 
ick von Rauiner in Germany. The methods of writing- 
history have changed somewhat in late years, and while 
Mr. Bancroft's work seems likely to remain as of standard 
importance : t is open to criticism. I presume that J should 
not differ n ch from the estimate of it given by our associ- 
ate, Mr. T omas Wentworth Higginson, in the account 

250 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

which he gave of it in the Mew York Evening Post of 
January 11), 181)1, and in the Motion of a few days later. 
Mr. Higginson speaks with large knowledge of the subject 
and evidently aims to be fair. The criticism has struck 
somewhat harshly upon the ears of some of Mr. Bancroft's 
friends, coming as it did so soon after the great man's 
death, and following the adoration which had latterly been 
bestowed upon him. But it has long been known that 
while the history possesses remarkable excellencies, it has, 
like most great creations, defects which it is important 
should receive careful consideration. I wish only to add 
that in view of the facts that Mr. Bancroft made very large 
use of manuscript sources and rare books in the preparation 
of his history, and that his quotations were made freely 
rather than with verbal exactness and completeness, it is 
very important that large portions if not the whole of his 
very valuable private library should become the property 
of the United States government, or of some public institu- 
tion in one of our large cities where the great collection 
of manuscripts and other material used in the composition 
of his history may be easily consulted for purposes of 
verification and additional information. 

1891.] Dr. Schliemann and hfc Discoveries. ■ 2.07 



The nineteenth century, and especially the latter half of 
it, will be memorable in all time fur its archaeological dis- 
coveries. It may boast no single achievement equal to the 
unveiling of the buried cities of Campania, whieh gave us 
as in an instantaneous photograph, the very life of the 
aneients, moulds waiting only, to be filled with plaster to 
repeat the forms and features of old inhabitants, the 
chicken broiling on the grill and the loaf baking in the 
oven, as well as breathing statues which adorned the houses 
and paintings on the walls with colors fresh as of yesterday. 
But even Ilerculaneum and Pompeii afforded only fuller 
details in the knowledge of a civilization whieh we knew 
fairly well already : the discoveries of our age, while they 
have in like manner increased our former knowledge, have 
also revealed new epochs and widened the annals of time. 
They have been made in all those regions whieh were the 
famous seats of ancient civilization; each of them has 
thrown additional light on the results of all the others : 
they have made immortal the names of many great explor- 
ers ; but none are connected with more fascinating legends 
of epic and dramatic song, none are more important in 
their historical signilicanee, and none have added greater 
lustre to the name of the explorer, than those eonducted 
by our late associate, Dr. Heinrjch Sehliemann. 

In one of the most racy and romantic of autobiographies, 
Dr. Sehliemann has himself recounted the very various 
experiences of his life, some of the salient points in whieh 
I will briefly mention. Born on the 6th January, 1S22, in 

258 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

a little town in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the son of a 
Protesbnt clergyman, he spent eight years of his early life 
in another village in the same duehy whither his father 
removed in 1828. The village had its old eastle and 
romantic legends of buried treasures and robber knights, 
which made a deep impression on the boy's mind, and he 
wondered that his father did not dig up the silver bowl or 
the golden cradle reputed to be concealed in his neighbor- 
hood, to relieve himself of the poverty of which he some- 
times complained. His father told him of the wonders 
unearthed at Hereulaneum and Pompeii, and found him an 
eager listener ; but nothing else so delighted him as to be 
told the story of the Trojan war. In 1829, Ileinrieh re- 
ceived as a Christmas gift a Universal History which con- 
tained an engraving representing "Troy in ilames, with 
its (mge walls and the Setean gate," and .Eneas escaping 
bearing his father and leading his son. - Young Schlicmanu 


had hoped that he should sometime visit the scene of so 
interesting legends, or rather, of so wonderful a history, 
but his father had told him that not a vestige of the city 
was left. But as he looked upon this picture the boy said, 
"Such walls cannot possibly have been completely de- 
stroyed," and both father and son at last agreed that one 
day Fleinrich should excavate Troy. "Thanks to God," 
says the enthusiastic autobiographer, "my firm belief in 
the existence of that Troy has never forsaken me." Troy 
was in all his dreams. He tells us a romantic story of his 
childish attachment for a little girl of his own age, with 
whom he " exchanged vows of eternal love." They agreed 
that as soon as they grew up they would marry, when he 
would immediately proceed to dig{ up the wonderful treas- 
ures buried in their neighborhood, and then excavate Troy ; 
she heard him with confiding faith and gave him her warm- 
est sympathy in all these plans. 

His father knew no Greek, but taught him Latin. Dur- 
ing his leventh year, he had an excellent classical tutor, 

1801.] Dr. Schliemann and fits Discoveries. -259 

and in 1883 ho spent throe months in a gymnasium, ox- 
changing it for the Iteahcliule in consequence of family 
misfortunes. At the age of fourteen, he left the Itealschule 
to become an apprentice in a grocer's shop ; and his educa- 
tion, though in fact hardly begun, was ended so far as il 
depended upon the training of the schools. 

The story of the hardships and severe struggles of his 
youth, and the various ventures and vicissitudes through 
which he amassed at last a large fortune, is not the least 
romantic part of his history. It is the old story that the 
hand of the diligent, guided by quick intelligence, makcth 
rich. But I will speak here only of his intellectual devel- 
opment and the influences which shaped his career as an 
excavator and discoverer. If in his great commercial 
career he loved money, it was solely — he tells us — as a 
means of realizing the great idea of his life, the excavation 
of Troy. 

While he was working from tfve in the morning; till eleven 
at night in the little grocer's shop in which he spent the first 
live and a half years after lie left school, one evening a 
drunken miller, who had a few years before nearly com- 
pleted the course of study at a gymnasium, entered the 
shop and gave him at once the keenest pleasure and the 
bitterest pain by reciting about a hundred lines of Homer, 
observing the rhythmic cadence of the verses. Young 
Schliemann made the reciter repeat the verses three times : 
and while he wept at the hard fate which prevented him 
from studying Greek, he was charmed with the 5 melody of 
the words, although he did not understand their meaning. 
In a few years he began to study the modern languages of 
Europe, becoming able to read, write and speak in no less 
than ten of them in an incredibly short time. To these 
he soon added Ancient Greek and Arabic, and a review of 
his Latin. His methods of study were novel and ingen- 
ious, and have received, as (hey deserve, the attention of 
teachers. One fallacy in some of our new and so-called 

260 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"natural" methods is absent from them; they make no 
promise that any language can be acquired without a deal 
of diligent labor. The power and willingness to do hard 
work, undeterred by any obstacles, however formidable, 
is the key to Schliemann's marvellous success as a linguist, 
as well as in everything else he undertook. 

At length at the end of the year 1803, Schliemann had 
acquired a fortune and was ready to devote the rest of 
his life to travel, study, and above all, to the realization 
of his dreams. In 18(M he visited the site of Carthage, 
and travelled in India, China and Japan. On his voyage 
thence to San Francisco, he wrote his first book, "La 
Chine ct le Japon," which was published the next year in 
Paris. In the French capital he made a long sojourn, 
devoting himself to archaeological studies, now pursued 
regularly for the first time in his life. His first visit to the 
classical lands was in 18(>8, and its fruit appeared in a 
book with the title, " Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troja." 
The year 1869 was spent chielly in the United States. In 
April, 1870, he began his excavations at Hissarlik for the 
discovery of ancient Troy, which were continued, with 
intermissions in the winter seasons, till the 17th June, 
1873. Among the earliest and most intelligent apprecia- 
tions of the significance of the discoveries made in these 
excavations, is the admirable paper by the late President 
of our Society, the Hon. Stephen Salisbury, which formed 
a part of the Report of the Council in April, 1875, and 
was republished with the title "Troy and Homer." Per- 
mit me to congratulate the Society that its present Presi- 
dent, bearing the same honored name as his predecessor, 
has distinguished himself as the patron and conductor of 
excavations in Central America, which in the fruitful n ess 
and historical importance of their results are worthy of 
comparison with the most successful explorations in the 
other hemisphere. The excavations at Mycenie, so rich in 
the treasures they revealed, — whose value in gold was 

1891.] Dr. Sciiliemann and his Discoveries. 2iU 

almost as wonderful as their far higher value as witnesses 
of a prehistoric culture and civilization, — began in Febru- 
ary, 1874, and continued till the end of 1876. In 1878 
Schlieinann explored Ithaca, not without valuable results, 
but none of them comparable to those at Troy, Myce.nai 
and Tiryns. Wn September of the same year, he resumed 
his explorations at Troy, continuing' his explorations the 
next year also, on that site and in the Troad, with (he 
valuable aid of Kudolf Virchow and Eniile Burnout". In 
1880 and 1881 Schliemunn was excavating in the dome- 
shaped grave at Orchomenos, long known as the "Treas- 
ury of Minyas." The finding of the stone roof, with its 
beautiful seulptures of spirals, palm-leaves and rosettes 
in delicate relief, like an out-spread carpet, was the most 
important result of this exploration, unless we give the 
same place to the discovery thai the inner square chamber 
adjoining the dome-shaped chamber was sunk from the 
surface above like the pit-graves at Myceme. The inner 
chamber appears to be the tomb, the round chamber a 
.sanctuary adjoining it. 

Two winters were spent by Dr. Schlieinann in Egypt, in 
the latter of which he had the company of Virchow. 
Many objects of archaeological value were collected, and 
forwarded to the Ethnological museum in Berlin. In tin; 
last three or four years of his life, Schlieinann was unsuc- 
cessfully engaged in attempts to secure the ground in order 
to make excavations at Gnossos, one of the great seats of 
royal power in Crete. He also discovered a very ancient 
temple of Urania Aphrodite in Cythera, and made explora- 
tions at Pylos and in Sphactcria. 

In November or" last year, Dr. Schlieinann went to 
llalle to consult a surgeon on his increasing deafness. An 
operation was performed which seemed to la; successful. 
On his return through Berlin, Leipzig, Paris and Italy, he 
caught a severe cold and stopped at Naples for treatment, 
and there he died on the 2Gth of December, 1890. 

■< \ 

262 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The discovery of the remains of the palace in the citadel 
of Tiryns, and the skilful reconstruction of its plan by 
Dr. Dorpfeld, made in 1884 and 1885, are regarded by 
many archaeologists as the most important of the services 
Schliemann rendered to archaeological science, and are so 
pronounced by Dr. Ernst Curtius in a letter which I have 
had the honor of receiving from him. 1 Besides adding to 
our knowledge of prehistoric walls and fortifications, they 
revealed for the first time in any satisfactory completeness 
the structure of a royal palace in the heroic days. "The 
nearest approach to a knowledge of an ancient royal palace 
previously made," says Dr. Dorpfeld, "was at the excava- 
tion two years before, of the dwelling of the ancient ruler 
of Troy ; but its rooms were so destroyed that no clue to 
their connection could be found. But now we can easily 
picture in our minds the home of a prehistoric king." 
"We see," says Dr. Adler, "its mighty walls, with their 
towers and gates ; we enter by the pillar-decked propyhea 
the great court of the men, surrounded by porticos, and 
with its great altar to Zeus Herkeios as the centre point of 
the house ; we pass into the stately hall, with its anteroom 
and vestibule ; we even visit the bath-room, and finally pass 
into the women's dwelling, with its separate court and nu- 
merous chambers." The rooms most used face to the south, 
securing warmth in winter, while the summer heat was 
kept off by the national method of building with thick 
walls of sun-dried bricks and roofs of wood covered with 
clay. Systematic and effectual provision is made for drain- 
age. The rooms are lighted through the doors, and also, 
it is probable, by elevated apertures in the sides. The 
walls are adorned with colored decorations, not confined to 

1 As connected with my whole: .subject, I beg leave to call attention to the .skil- 
ful summary of the results of recent excavations, given in the Nachtnuj to 
the sixth edition of the first volume of C'urtius's GrlcchUche Gesc/uchte, pp. 
(.107-701. It should be added that as regards Greek art and culture in their 
highest period of bloom, no other explorations have been so fruitful in instruc- 
tion as those so successfully conducted by Curtius himself at Olympia. 

1891.] Dr. Schliemaun and his Discoveries. 2G3 

geometrical ornaments, but including tigure painting. 
Some of the painted designs are similar to those which are 
chiselled on the stone-roof at Orchornenos, and have been 
attributed to Egyptian sources. A frieze of alabaster was 
found, adorned with designs in blue glass paste ; which 
paste, it is argued, may be the kyanos in Homer's descrip- 
tion of the palace of Alcinoiis. The whole plan gives a 
favorable idea of the talent and skill of the architect. "The 
plan and construction secure," says Dr. Adler, "proud 
seclusion towards those without; suitable accommodation 
for guards and domestics about roomy courts ; and dignified 
approaches up to the reception rooms ; and all well lighted 
and yet shady and cool." The great success of the investi- 
gations at Tiryns have made the remains of the palace at 
Troy as well as that at Mycen.e intelligible ; and on many 
other points the discoveries made at one place have shed 
a ilood of light upon the remains found at other places. 
Classical archaeology has become a comparative science. 

I have alluded only cursorily, when I have alluded at all, 
to the incidents and general results of Dr. Schlicmami's 
excavations, assuming at least a general knowledge of 
them on the part of my hearers. It may be serviceable, 
however, to consider their historical importance as judged 
in the light of the best archaeological scholarship. 

In sum, the prevailing voice of the best archaeologists of 
our time gives Schliemanu the great credit of having re T 
vealed a whole prehistoric epoch of civilization, of which 
we had, before, but faint and uncertain glimpses. Those 
glimpses — almost eontined to the three localities, Tiryns, 
Myeeme and Orchornenos — were indeed impressive. Al- 
though it would be .more instructive to visit these places as 
they have now been laid bare, I am glad J saw them when 
they had been hardly touched by the shovel. Even then 
I believed that those mighty walls and mysterious galleries, 
those subterranean tombs or treasure-houses, and that 
impressive sculpture, the oldest in Europe, which gave its 

264 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

mime to the Lions' Gate, were monuments of an age ante- 
rior to any recorded in the authentic history of Greece, and 
I said to myself "There was an Agamemnon." Not that 
all the legends connected with that name were true, not 
necessarily that that name was ever borne by any mortal 
chieftain ; but I was convinced that Mycenae must have 
been in some far distant age the seat of wealth and power 
and, perhaps, dominion; that its princes, " ruling" as 
Thucydides says of Agamemnon, "over many islands and 
all of Argos," might well bo prominent in that period 
which, as depicted in Homer and the tragedians, we call 
the heroic age; and that the heroic age itself, however 
much has been added to our picture of it by fiction, has 
a background of historic reality. And yet neither I nor 
the most accomplished archaeologist could have brought up 
any valid argument to refute the assertion that these cities 
were founded and nourished centuries later than the objects 
revealed by Schliemann's excavations give us sufficient 
reason to suppose, or to prove that we were not led astray 
by imagination and sentiment when we assumed even the 
slightest historic foundation for the fabrics poets had woven 
out of "astronomical myths" and unsubstantial fancies. 

I beg leave to say at this point that in my opinion the 
theory of the origin of poetical and historical legends in 
solar myths and the like — while often ingenious, and in 
some cases not improbable, has been pressed much too far. 
1 quite agree with the brothers Grimm and Miillenhoif — 
cited by Curtius in his speech at -the meeting held in 
Berlin, in March of this year, in commemoration of Dr. 
Schliemaun — that at the foundation of all great epic 
poems, which assume io relate historical facts, lie mighty 
events and great movements of the people. They were 
thinking partieularly of the great German epics ; but with 
the light we now have on the heroic or preheroie age of 
Greece, 1 should unhesitatingly say the same thing of the 

1891.] Dr. SMiemann and his Discoveries. 265 

We have good grounds for the supposition that the 
nourishing period of the civilization of Myceme was ap- 
proximately during the four centuries from 1400 to 1000 
B. C, and that a similar civilization prevailed in that 
period along the whole eastern ceftst of Greece, from 
Lacedamion to Thessaly, in the islands of the Archipelago, 
and in Crete and Rhodes, and has left its traces, also, in 
Caria and Egypt. These archaeological inferences are 
drawn in good part from the style and workmanship of the 
vases and various works of art which have been discovered 
in the graves and ruins. In the grave of the mother of 
Ab-Mose, the deliverer from the Hyksos (about 1600 B. 
C), a sword has been found exactly in the style of the 
swords found at Myceme, with relievos of four grass- 
hoppers, and a lion pursuing a steer. "As pattern and 
copy are seldom far separated, we should infer," says 
Schuchhardt, 1 "the fifteenth or the sixteenth century as the 
earliest beginning for Mycemean work of this kind." 
Mycemean vases were found lately at Fayuni in company 
with cartouches of Khuenaten and Kameses II. (1500-1300 
B. C). In Rhodes, a scarabaeus of Amen Hotep III. was 
found among objects of Mycemean workmanship, A scara- 
baeus found in the palace at Myceme with the name of the 
Egyptian queen Ti proves only that the palace was there, 
and probably still oecupied, after the thirteenth century r 
But perhaps the best argument for this chronology is that 
it makes the end of the Mycemean period correspond with 
the traditional date of the Dorian invasion and settlement 
of the Peloponnesus, 3 which mastered the old strongholds 
and introduced a .diilerent civilization. The date of the 
end being approximately established, four centuries is not 
too long a time to allow for the gradual development of the 
Mycemean power and culture, of which there are many in- 

M>r. Carl Schuchlianlt, iSchluiiHaiin's Aysgmbanyen in Tmja, Tiryrts, 
Mtykenft, Orc/tomeuos, Ilhiika, im Lic/Ue der heuUf/en Wlsseuscha/t, \\. oiJT. 
-: Ibid. ;i Hud. 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

dictations in t lie monuments. The walls of Tiryns tire older 
tlian those of Myccnie, and a long time must have elapsed 
between the first rude fortifications on the hill at Tiryns 
aud the Cyclopean masonry with which, after the subjuga- 
tion of the whole plain, they were gradually replaced. The 
walls of Myccme are of three distinct periods: Tirynthian 
or Cyclopean, rectangular, and well-joined polygonal. 
The pit-graves are of d liferent ages, and the most recent of 
them is older than the golden goblets and rings found in 
other parts of the citadel. These pit-graves represent the 
founders of the stronghold, whom we may call, if we please, 
the Perseidai ; the underground and vaulted tombs are 
more recent, and we may recognize in them, as did the 
ancients, the tombs of the Pelopida;. The shreds of vases 
found at the greatest depths are older than those found 
above, and even the oldest burnt colorings must have re- 
quired generations for the perfection of so well-developed 
and conventional a style in the representation of flowers 
and marine animals. 

What was the origin of this civilization? It was evi- 
dently derived from many sources, and it bears witness to 
a free and long-continued intercourse between the dwellers 
in eastern Greece and the various other peoples who dwelt 
on the islands and along the coast of Asia Minor, Syria and 
Egypt. It is a mixture of insular, Phrygian, Lydian, 
Carian, Egyptian and even Babylonian elements, yet in no 
accidental kaleidoscopic combination ; it has informed all 
that it has borrowed with its own life, and has made all 
things new. We have not yet the true Greek art, which, 
in its perfection, is thu- despair of all subsequent ages, and 
which is very dillerent from the Mycenaean as well as very 
much higher, but the promise of that perfect art already 
appears. We trace the suggestions or the motif* of the 
wailed strongholds, palaces and tombs of the Myceniean 
epoch to Oriental iniluenees, but they surpassed their 
models, and took on a new artistic perfection. The special 

1891.] Dr. Schliemann and his Discoveries. 267 

endowment of the Greek race for scientific plan and artistic 
form has already displayed itself. 1 

The remains found in the islands are particularly notice- 
able for their Mycemean characteristics. It is greatly to 
he regretted that Dr. Schliemann did not live to carry 
out the explorations in Crete, which he had projected. 
Prom what has already been found there, we have reason 
to expect very important results from further excavations. 
A t'vAV pregnant lines in Thucydides- would indicate that 
Crete held the first thalassocracy in the history of man, and 
£- was the England of that period when human civilization 

was centred on the coasts and in the islands of the ilOgean 
and in the lands bordering on the southeastern and eastern 
shores of the Mediterranean. The bearers of the Myceiucan 
civilization were not all — so far as our evidence goes — of 
one name. We think first of the Achaians, who are espec- 
ially spoken of as holding Argolis, and are found, also, in 
Crete and in Thessaly ; then we find as possessing the 
same civilization, the Minyiins in Bieotia, the Ionians in 
Attica, the Carians on the islands. It has been suggested, 
with much plausibility, that there may have been a period 
of political union among these various peoples under the 
sway of Minos. Thucydides says that he subdued the 
Carians. The legend of the annual tribute paid him by 
Athens from which she was delivered by Theseus, may 
point to a similar rule of Crete for a time over Attica. 
There are many indications in old names and legends of 
, the early importance of Crete. 3 A long, broad island, fenc- 

ing in the archipelago from the southern sea, its snowy 
mountains visible on the west from the mountains of Laco- 
nia, on the east from the coast of Caria, its Alpine heights 
enclosing rich and fertile valleys, and its northern coast 
abounding in excellent harbors, it could support a large 
population, and make its inlluence felt in every direction. 

i Cuitius, (Jr. Gcsch. 1°, 701. 

- Thucyd. J., -i. 

a Cuitius, Gr. Gesch. 1°, \>p. G2-G5. 

2(58 American Antiquarian Society. ' [April, 

Hero the Pelasgic Zeus was born : a fact to which testimony 
was borne twenty or thirty years ago, when the leaders of 
the unfortunately unsuccessful rebellion against the Turks 
.sent a petition for aid to the government and people of 
the United Slates beginning with the words, "We, the 
descendants of Minos and of Zeus": for "still the old 
instinct brings back the old names." Here, too, Artemis 
was born, hence Dionysos and Ariadne took their way to 
Naxos ; here Demeter was married to lasios; the son of 
Minos built the sacred way from Athens to Delphi for 
Apollo, and established for the same god, pre-eminently 
the god of Grecian culture, his stated service at Delphi. 
Crete, too, was the abode of Diedalus, the father of Greek 
artificers, the founder of Grecian art. Semitic settlers 
came from Syria and Egypt, but never overbore the Greek 
element of the population. In the earliest records, Crete 
is called the island of a hundred cities. It won the Carians 
whom it subdued, to its dominion. Its mariners doubled 
the southern promontory of Hellas and landed at Crisa 
at the foot of Parnassus ; they named the gulf of Tarentum 
and changed to Minoa the name of one of the chief cities 
of Sicily. 

The centre of power in the Mycen;ean period may have 
been sometimes in Crete, sometimes at Myceine. As for 
the population embraced in this dominion, archaeology and 
tradition alike ascribe its origin in part to Caria, but prob- 
ably in a larger degree to Lydia and Phrygia. 

It is noticeable that the world these explorations have 
revealed corresponds in many particulars with the world of 
Homer. Myceme;ind Orchomcnos appear in the Homeric 
poems as great and wealthy towns, such as their remains 
prove them to have been. There are characteristics, too, 
of the Homeric world which mark, also, the Myceniean 
age, but which disappear in subsequent ages, both in 
Greece and Asia Minor. 1 One of these is the well- walled 

1 St'Uuchhardt, 352 J'g. 

1891.] Dr. Schliemann and his Discoveries, 209 

cities, with their towers and gates; whereas, the Dorians, 
as in Sparta, dwelt in unwalled towns, as did the Greeks 
of Asia Minor before the incursions of the Persians. So 
with the inside of the citadel or castle : the great court 
surrounded with colonnades, with the altar of Zen- in \i> 
midst, and the chief hall with its columns, described in the 
Odyssey, are found at Tiryns, Mycenae and Troy. The 
wealth of metals in the Homeric palaces has been deemed 
a pure invention of fancy, but the brazen plates in the 
dome-shaped tombs remind us of the brazen walls in the 
palace of A lei nous, and the profusion of golden treasures 
at Myceiue and Troy, represent to us the embossed goblets 
of Nestor, and the golden hounds that held watch before 
the gate of Alcinoiis. "The most striking coincidence be- 
tween the objects of art discovered at Mycenae and those 
described in Homer," says Schuchhardt, 1 "is in the inlaid 
work on the dagger-blades and the recently found goblet-. 
Nowhere else up to this time on Grecian ground have 
works of this kind come to light, — whole pictures made of 
different metals, — but they are exactly such as Homer de- 
scribes, as when he represents on the shield of Achilles 
vineyards of blue grapes on golden vines surrounded by 
hedges of tin, and young men wearing golden swords on 
silver swordbelts." 

•There arc points, on the other hand, in which the world 
of Homer is not that of Myeenaj. These are accounted for, 
however, by the composite origin of the poems, in which, 
with greater or less limitations, most scholars believe, and 
the interpolations they may have received. 

The objects discovered in the ruins which Schliemann 
ascribes, with the consent of most scholars, to ancient 
Troy, mark a civilization different from the Mycenaean ami 
evidently older; but before the destruction of the city the 
Myeemean style begins to appear in the objects excavated, 
indicating a time, as we may infer, at which both cities 

1 pp. &j2, '£)'■'>. 

270 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

were existing. This Mycemcan culture marks the great 
period in all the cities which Schliemann excavated : in 
Myceme and Tiryns nothing of consequence succeeds it ; in 
Troy it is followed only by the scanty culture of a succes- 
sion of insignificant villages, built on the ruins of the old 
city, and nothing striking or important presents itself after- 
wards till we come to the Hellenic settlement. 

We have something more, then, than pure conjecture to 
go upon, if we assume that the Greeks of the Mycemean pe- 
riod were the conquerors ana destroyers of Troy, and that 
there is a large and substantial historical basis for "the; tale 
of Troy divine" notwithstanding the great amount of myth- 
ological and other legends with which it has been overlaid. 
Minos put down the piracy which was practised by the in- 
habitants of the Cyclades. It may be, as Dr. Schnchhardt 
suggests, that Troy, the greatest city of Asia Minor at that 
time, preyed upon the commerce of the Greeks, or sent 
marauding expeditions to her shores, and the carrying 
"away of women may have been an occasional accompani- 
ment of such raids. We must remember that piracy was 
not, as yet, against the law of nations. Thucydides ' 
points us to the "old poets" as representing the people of 
that day, while giving hospitable reception to strangers 
touching at their shores, asking them the question "are you 
pirates, gentlemen," on the ground that if they had this 
occupation they would not disclaim it, neither would those 
who asked the question reproach them for it. At the same 
time we may well believe that any people who were suffer- 
ing from the piracy of another nation would be likely to 
attack and crush that nation if they had the power. Ami 
so we may imagine that the Greeks banded together in a 
great expedition to the Troad and crushed the most for in id- 
able enemy to their growth and wealth. 

There is another theory, put forward by that accomp- 

i Tlmcyd. 1., §, 2. Of. Iloin. Odys., 111., 71-74. 

1891.] Dr. ScJiliemann and Ids Discoveries. 271 

lished scholar and man of genius, Dr. Ernst Curtius, 1 
which tinds the origin of the Homeric poems in the time oi" 
the JKolian-Achaian migration to the northwest coast and 
mainland of Asia Minor. Resisted by the inhabitants, and 
forced to maintain a long, laborious warfare with the people 
whom they would conquer or dispossess, they kept up their 
spirits by songs in praise of their heroic ancestors, whom 
they feigned to have fought of old in the self-same lands. 
" Jt is a peculiarity of the Hellenes," says Curtius, "which 
recurs in all their expeditions of conquest, that they 
claimed not only the right of the stronger, but strove to 
make out a sort of hereditary right." Me instances the 
"return of the Heracleidaj, the expedition of the Armeans 
into Boeotia, which was represented as a return of the 
Theban descendants of Cadmus, the claim of the Athenians 
lighting in Ionia, that Theseus had also been in Asia Minor 
and fought with the Amazons," and other examples. He 
proceeds, "Everywhere the new-comers make claims to 
right, which are clothed in mythological forms, everywhere 
they know how to speak of by-gone generations which had 
already been victorious in the new won lands. With the 
invented exploits of their ancestors the actual events of the 
present are blended, and so a full picture takes shape in 
the imagination of a poetical people." Such legends and 
lays must also have arisen in the yEolian colonization of the 
Trojan country, says Curtius : we could safely assume their 
existence even if jt had not left a trace of itself; and we 
may regard them as a mirror in which the actual conquest 
of the land in the JEolian migration is reflected. But 
jsurely it is all the better if these .Eolians and Achaians 
could recall the actual exploits of their ancestors in these 
lands, and invoke the muse of history as well as the in- 
ventive muse. 

Schuchhardt thinks the unsettled period of a resisted col- 
onization is unfavorable for the production of lays and epics, 

iGr.Gesefc. I«, IV&im, 

272 American Antiquarian Society. ' [April, 

while on the other hand we can hardly imagine the rich 
courts of the monarchs of the Mycenaean period as wanting 
the ornament of song. It is certainly a possibility — nay, 
more, a not improbable supposition — that Greece and 
northwestern Asia were engaged in conllict in those early 
days. At the same time the .jjjolian migration may have 
had an important part to play among the sources, of the 
Homeric legends, modifying, perhaps, the legends of an 
older contest. The poeim u tell us of a long-con tinucd 
struggle, the; conquest of other cities besides Troy, the 
division of the Greek hosts in various quarters, the tillage 
of the lands across the Propontis : all tokens of a coloniza- 

There is an interesting problem on which I have not yel 
touched, as regards the authenticity of Ilissarlik as the 
site of Homer's Troy. I may say at the outset that the 
archaeological value of Dr. Sohliemann's discoveries is little 
all'ected whether we decide that Ilissarlik or Bunarbasehi 
was the site of the capital of the Troad. The walls and 
towers, the ornaments and articles of domestic and mili- 
tary use, testify to the same civilization to which any 
similar relics concealed under the rival hill would bear wit- 
ness should they ever be revealed. That two so wealthy 
towns should be so near together would be somewhat sur- 
prising ; but perhaps there was\a considerable number in 
the Troad. I have often thought that scholars have hardly 
paid enough importance to the casual remark of Achilles, 
that the largest share of the booty always falls to Agamem- 
non k< whenever we sack a well-placed city of Tfoia." 
It may be remarked that the larger part of the eminent 
scholars who have preferred Bunarbasehi announced their 
preference before Dr. Schliemann had made his excava- 
tions, and that most of the prominent European archaeolo- 
gists have accepted what he calls the ''second city" in his 
excavations as the veritable Ilium of all time; though there 

1891.] Dr. jSehliemann and his Piscoverlea. 273 

are some most respectable dissenters, as Curtius himself, 
Dr. Jebl), and our countryman, Mr. Stillman. 

Dr. Schiiemann's discoveries were looked upon at iirst 
by arclueologists — I will not say with jealousy, but with 
some distrust, because he was not a trained specialist in 
their science. It was not unnatural that very learned 
scholars in Germany who had studied ancient art, monu- 
ments and relics with the most exhaustive thoroughness 
and minuteness, and compared them with everything in 
ancient literature which could throw upon them any light, 
were little prepared to find any good coining from an 
untjebildet&F luiiifmatm, a:i umjeleltrter Pkilister. But 
you cannot mistrust the testimony of ancient walls and 
towers and palaces, of ancient graves and treasures, and 
various objects of art. They mean something — and if you 
dislike; one interpretation of their language, you must pro- 
pose another. Again, in all cases the excavations and the 
objects they revealed have been studied and judged by 
learned specialists of good repute, and it is on their testi- 
mony that we accept the great results which 1 have 
sketched in outline, and which will' give the name of 
Dr. Schliemann a well-deserved immortality. And of 
Soldi emu un himself we may say that he had been learning- 
all Ihese vears, so that if at first his judgments were those 
of an uninformed enthusiast, they grew more and more 
well-founded and consequently respected. His name is 
imperishably associated with discoveries which the; world 
can never forget. His career will be an inspiration to all 
who struggle against what seem invincible obstacles to 
realize their great ideals. He will be honored as a dreamer 
who dared to remain loyal to the dreams of his youth ; as 
a man of splendid energy and will, which triumphed over 
even Turkish obstinacy and inertia, over danger, fever, 
heat and cold; as a man of faith — the faith which removes 
mountains and discloses the buried cities they conceal. 

274 American Antiquarian Society. [April. 





Charles Stephen Brasseur i>k Bourbqurg, the historian, 
arciueologist , philologist and ethnographer, was horn at 
Bourbourg, in the north of France, on the 8th of Septem- 
ber, 1814, and died at Nice, January 8, 1874. He was 
descended, on his mother's side, from the viscounts of 
Rourbourg. He studied at the College of Saint Omer and 
first appeared in literature as a writer of romances and 
moral tales. This period of his activity was from 1835 to 
1840. He afterwards devoted himself in Ghent to philo- 
sophical and theological studies and continued the same in 
Rome, after travelling through Germany, Italy and Sicily. 
In 1845, after two years at the Sapienza and the College 
of Rome, he took priestly orders and came to America 
with letters from the congregation of the Propaganda, lie 
tarried tor a time in Boston and then went to Quebec where 
he served for one year as Professor of Church History in 
the Catholic Seminary, to which he had been called before 
leaving Rome. His first contribution to American history 
was a sketch of the life of Monsignor de Laval, the first 
bishop of Quebec, published, with a portrait, in that city in 
the winter of 1845—4$. During this sojourn, Brasseur 
collected materials for two volumes, published in 1852, on 
the History of Canada, its Church and its Missions from 
the discovery of America to our own times. In the spring of 
184t>, he returned to Boston and remained there until the 
end of that year, perfecting his knowledge of English. 

1891.] The Abbe Brasseur de JJourboury. 275 

" In this city," said the Abbe, "a Frenchman always hears 
with pleasure the praises of an illustrious compatriot, Car- 
dinal Cheverus, the first bishop. As lor »my self, Boston 
will never cease to be especially dear to my memory, on 
account of the generous hospitality which I received from 
Monsignor Fitzpatrick and from his worthy predecessor, 
Monsignor Fenwick, whose memory is eherished by all 
who knew him. It was in Boston that I first became ac- 
quainted with the American Indians, and first read the 
History of the Conquest of Mexico, by Mr. William 
Prescott. The reading of this delightful and instructive 
work helped to persuade me that my scientific calling was 
in the American field." 

Fifteen } ears before this, when Brasseur was a mere 
youth, he had read, with juvenile credulity, in the Gazette 
de France, of the discovery in Brazil of a tomb containing 
arms and a helmet of Macedonian origin, with an inscription 
in the Greek language. "From that time," he says, "he 
began to feel a lively interest in all new geographical facts 
relating to America." In the Journal des Savants, he had 
read an account of Kio's description of the ruins of the 
ancient city of Palenque, in Guatemala. Brasseur says 
this account decided for him his archaeological calling. 
These early inlluences together with the faun 1 of Champol- 
lion's researches hi Egypt, gave the young man a strong- 
bias towards American arclneology ; but it was the reading 
of our own Prescott, in the city of Boston, in the year 1 84 (>, 
that finally and definitely turned the mind of the young 
ecclesiastic towards Mexico and Central America. 

Appointed Vicar-General by the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Boston, Brasseur first returned to Koine to represent the 
Catholic Church of North America at the Papal court of 
Pius IX. Brasseur spent two winters in Pome devoting 
himself seriously to the study of American history. The 
library of the Vatican ottered him its rich sources of in- 
formation. There he examined the great work of Lord 

276 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Kings borough, in nine folio volumes, on the Antiquities of 
Mexico. Ho also consulted the famous Mexican Codex, 
and a great number of rare documents preserved in the 
library of the Propaganda. Most interesting to him was 
the Codex Borgia, which he had found mentioned in the 
writings of Humboldt. 

The revolution of 1848 was the occasion of Brasscur's 
leaving Rome and France for a second voyage to America. 
He visited New York, Niagara, and some of our interior 
cities. By way of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, follow- 
ing the grand route of the old French voyageurs and men- 
tally criticizing the fanciful descriptions of Chateaubriand, 
he went to New Orleans, whence he soon took passage for 
Mexico. He met on shipboard M. le Vasseur, the French 
Minister, and went with him from Vera Cruz to the city of 
Mexico, where the young archaeologist became the almoner 
of the French Legation. This position gave him a fine 
opportunity to study the history, manners and customs of 
the native Indian population, in which labors he was 
assisted by the director of the national museum, by the 
custodians of the vice-royal archives, and by the librarian 
of the University of Mexico. 

In 1850 he travelled extensively in the interior provinces 
and devoted himself 'to a study of native dialects under the 
guidance of a professor in the College of San Gregorio, who 
professed to be a descendant of a brother of Montezuma. 
During these studies and travels in Mexico, Brasseur de 
Bourbourg made a tine collection of books, manuscripts and 
works of art and arclneology. He became well versed in 
American antiquities, on which he was to become one of 
the chief European authorities. Feeling himself sufficiently 
master of his subject, he published in 1851, in the city of 
Mexico, in both French and Spanish, a work entitled 
"Letters Introductory to the Primitive History of the Civil- 
ized Nations of North America." He called this work the 
first fruit of his labors in Mexican history and arclneology. 

1801.] The Abb6 Bras&eur de Bourbourg. . 277 

This hook is now very rare, but a copy of it, presented by 
himself, is preserved in the library of Harvard College. 
This valuable contribution to American antiquities first 
gave Brasscur de Bourbourg an honored place among 
American archaeologists, and made him known to Mr. E. G. 
.Squier of New York, and M. Aubin of Paris, at that time 
the leading French authority upon Mexican antiquities. 

In 1851 the Abbe returned to Europe and worked for 
two winters at Rome, in the Vatican library, prosecuting 
his archaeological studies. In 1854, he crossed the Atlantic 
ocean for the third time. He visited Washington and there 
met Schoolcraft and Peter Force, who showed him the texts 
of Las Casas and Father Duran, copies of whose writings 
had been obtained from Madrid. The Abbe sailed in Octo- 
ber from New York for Central America. Crossing the 
States of Nicaragua and San Salvador, he came in Febru- 
ary, 1855, to Guatemala. The archbishop of that State, 
desiring to favor Brasseur's arclneoloiiical and linguistic 
studies, appointed him ecclesiastical administrator of a 
great Indian village, Rabinal, where he lived for over a 
year, and enjoyed singular opportunities for a study of 
the natives. Here it was, he says, amid a population of 
seven thousand people speaking the Quiche language, that, 
he learned not only to speak and write it, but to translate 
the most difficult documents. He gained the confidence of 
the Indians and in-- talking with them about their history, 
gradually learned their early traditions. 

He took numerous excursions into diiferent parts of the 
country for the purpose of learning local dialects and ex- 
ploring the archaeological remains of early civilizations. In 
the course of his travels in Central America he discovered 
many rare old manuscripts. The fruit of all these discov- 
eries and original studies he began to publish in Paris, in 
1857, in four Volumes, completed in 1858, entitled The 
History of Civilized Nations of Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica during the Centuries before Christopher Columbus. 

278 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"This work," he said, "was written from original and un- 
published documents, drawn from ancient and native 

Mr. Winsor calls this the most important work of 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. Winsor says, " This was the first 
orderly and extensive effort to combine out of all available 
material, native and Spanish, a divisionary and consecutive 
history of ante-Columbian times in these regions, to which 
he added from the native sources a new account of the 
conquest by the Spaniards. His purpose to separate the 
historic from the mythical may incite criticism, but his 
views are the result of more labor and more knowledge 
tlian any one before him had brought to the subject. In 
his later publications there is less reason to be satisfied with 
his results, and Brinton even thinks that 'he had a weak- 
ness to throw designedly considerable obscurity about his 
authorities and the source of his knowledge.' 1 His fellow- 
students almost invariably yield praise to his successful 
research and to his great learning, surpassing, perhaps, 
that of any of them, but they are one and all chary of 
adopting his later theories." ^ 

In 1859, the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg was sent by 
the French government to Central America for the purpose 
of investigating its history, geography and antiquities. He 
visited, among other regions, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, 
Guatemala, Clnapas and Mexico. He returned to France 
in October,. 1860, after an absence of eighteen months, 
bringing with him valuable manuscripts and many things 
of interest. In 1861, he began to publish a great collection 
of original documents in the native languages of Central 
America for the illustration of their history and philology. 
This collection, in three volumes, octavo, was completed in 
1864. Most important was the Popol Vuh, the sacred or 
national book of the Quiches, with their myths, traditions 

i lirinton. Aboriginal American Authors, p. 57. 

2 Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. L, p. 17J. 

1891.] The Abb? Brasseur de Bourbouw/. 271) 

and heroic literature. In his preface to this work, the 
editor said that it was the iirst native American book to 
enter the paths of science, which had been open so long to 
similar works having their origin in the Orient. Brinton, 
in his Myths of the New World (p. 41), says, "Internal 
evidence proves that these legends [which compose the 
Poyol Vuh~\ were written down by a converted native 
sometime in the seventeenth century^ They carry the 
national history back about two centuries beyond what is 
professedly mythical." The sacred book of the Quiches 
was originally and imperfectly translated by a Dominican 
monk, Father Francisco Ximenes, about 1725. The Abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg made a fresh translation, and says 
that his critical work was the result of original studies 
among the Quiches and other tribes in the year 1860. His 
work embraces the Quiche text, with a French trans- 
lation, accompanied by commentaries and philological 
notes. In the same series with the Popol Vuh, Brasseur 
de Bourbourg published a grammar of the Quiche language 
in French and Spanish, with illustrations of local dialects ; 
also the Spanish text and French translation of the now 
famous History of Yucatan by Diego de Landa. A manu- 
script copy of this work, written by the first Spanish 
bishop in Central America, Brasseur discovered at Madrid, 
in the library of the Koyal Academy of History. Landa's 
description of the ancient phonetic alphabet of the Maya 
language Brasseur found useful in interpreting the Troano 
manuscript, and both works were used by him for the de- 
decipherment of the hieroglyphic inscriptions upon the 
temples of Palcnque, CGy m and other famous monuments. 
In connection with this history by Lauda were published 
various historical documents with a grammar and vocabu- 
lary of the Maya language, and also an essay on the sources 
of the ancient history of Mexico and Central America. 

in September, 18(54, the Abbe was appointed member of 
a scicntilic commission for the historical and arclueological 

280 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

exploration of Mexico and Central America. At this time 
the French government was endeavoring to establish politi- 
cal ascendency in that region. From the days of the Alexan- 
drine Conquest of the Orient to the English conquest of 
India, men of science have profited by military expeditions. 
The Abbe had carefully planned in advance the lines of ex- 
ploration, for in the meantime he had visited Central Amer- 
ica again in 18(12. He and his artist companion, M. Henri 
Bourgeois, went now to Yucatan. The explorers devoted 
several months to the study of the wonderful monuments 
and splendid ruins of that early seat of native civilization. 
The illness of the artist prevented the perfect execution of 
the Abbe's project, but he was able to visit many of the 
most interesting historic sites, pyramids and ruins of Cen- 
tral America and Mexico. He remained in those regions 
for about a year, encountering many difficulties on account 
of the political complications of France with the New 
World. The Emperor Maximilian endeavored to persuade 
Brasseur to remain in Mexico, and become the gene-nil 
superintendent of museums and libraries and the minister 
of public instruction, but the Abbe declined. 

Although the French expedition was a political failure, 
the scientific results were of great value and are largely due 
to the intelligent labors of the man who was already master 
of the field. The archives of the commission contain sev- 
eral articles from his pen, among others his Sketches of 
History, Arclncology, Ethnography and Linguistics, de- 
signed for the general instruction of the Mexican expedi- 
tion ; Letters upon the peninsula of Yucatan ; Report 
on Yucatan and the liui. s of Ti-hoo and Izamal ; and a 
report on the Ruins of AJayapan and Uxmal. Another 
interesting result of the French expedition was an illus- 
trated work on the Ancient Monuments of Mexico, which 
was published in parts from 18(>4 to 1866. The text was 
furnished by Brasseur de Bourbourg and the designs by M« 
de Waldeek. 

1891.] The Abbe Brasseur de Boiirbourg. - 281 

The Abbo Brasseur returned home by way of Cadiz and 
Madrid. There he found a native American mauuscript, 
now known as the manuscript Troano from the name of its 
owner, Don Juan de Tro y Ortolano, Professor of Paleog- 
raphy in the Madrid University, who allowed the Abbe to 
copy and publish the text. Jt was issued in two volumes, 
quarto, in 18G9 and 1870, by order of the Emperor Louis 
Napoleon and under the direction of M. Duruy, minister of 
public instruction. The first volume contains an explana- 
tion of the graphical system of the Maya language, with a 
vast number of facsimile reproductions of their pictorial 
art. The second volume contains a grammar, vocabulary 
and choice selections from the Maya language. In his 
prefatory letter to M. Duruy, the Abbe explains the lin- 
guistic relation of this manuscript Troano to the Maya 
alphabet described in Landa's History of Yucatan. The 
Abbe's somewhat fanciful interpretations have exposed him 
to many attacks from critics, but he published a final expla- 
nation and defence of his work in the Revue ArcJimolotj Ique 
for March, 1870, and October, 1871, and in the preface to 
his catalogue, published that }'ear. Dr. D. G. Brinton con- 
demns the tendency of Brasseur to make American mythol- 
ogy the apotheosis of history, but while regretting the use 
made of good materials, he says, "all interested in Ameri- 
can antiquities cannot too much thank this indefatigable 
explorer for the priceless materials he has unearthed in the 
neglected libraries of Spain and Central America and laid 
before the public." 1 

In December, 1872, the Abbe was commissioned to col- 
lect in Spain and South America a list of all the documents 
which concerned American antiquities, but in consequence 
of political events in Spain, he was not able to complete 
this work and returned to France in May, 1873. From 
this time his health, already somewhat impaired, became 
more feeble. He continued, however, his literary labors 

i Brinton, Myths of the New World, p. 41. 

282 American Antiquarian Society. - [April, 

and occupied the last year of his life in putting into perfect 
order the various parts of a catalogue, which was to de- 
scribe all the collections of documents relating to the 
ancient history of America and preserved in the libraries 
of Spain. Notes for this catalogue had been furnished the 
Abbe by a Spanish scholar, Don Tomas Mufioz. The 
Abbe visited Home for the last time in December, 1873, 
only about three weeks before he died at Nice. 


My acquaintance with the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg 
was formed in 1873 at the Hotel della Minerva, close by the 
Pantheon. One evening in the reading-room I mot an 
English Catholic priest, who had come to Rome to defend 
the property of certain English Catholics, resident in Italy, 
from encroachment or confiscation by the Italian govern- 
ment. I asked him some questions about Roman Catholic 
doctrines, in which J was historically interested, and he not 
only answered my queries with great kindness and intelli- 
gence, but introduced me to certain other ecclesiastics, who 
were either staying or visiting at our hotel. They could 
all talk French or a little English, and I used to play chess 
with some of them after dinner. In the daytime 1 visited 
Roman churches under their instructive guidance, and of 
course received by the way many intelligent explanations 
of Catholic institutions and ceremonies. I was invited to 
dine with the president of the College of the Propaganda, 
and was on the way to a blessing from the Pope, when I 
suddenly determined to leave Rome. I was taken, the 
night before my departure, to the Pantheon, which was 
dimly lighted with tapers, while the moonlight struggled 
in through the round opening in the roof of that old pagan 
temple now converted into a Christian church. There to 
and fro with me walked my friendly priest, who had gone 

1891.] The ALU Bra&smr tie Bourbourcj. ' 283 

over from the Church of England to the Church of Rome, 
and he talked Roman Christianity by the hour. At last he 
held me firmly by the hand and made me promise that at 
least I would always cultivate the society of good Catholics 
in Germany and America, even if I would not stay in 
Rome and study history at the college of the Propaganda. 

Amon<j- the regular quests at the hotel, to whom I had 
been introduced by my English friend, was M. l'Abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. At his right hand, I had the 
honor of sitting every day at table tVJtnte. I found him 
the most interesting man I had ever met, for up to that 
time I had never encountered a true cosmopolitan. The 
Abbe told me that he spoke twelve different languages and 
had a reading acquaintance with more than twenty. Judging 
from his perfect command of English, German and Italian, 
I thought him a master of tongues. 1 heard him converse 
with persons of different nationality and apparently with as 
much ease and facility of expression as when he talked 
English with me. He said he had visited New England in 
his earlier years and knew Boston well. He recalled in a 
humorous way his dreary experience in that once Puritani- 
cal city of a Sunday afternoon, when he endeavored in vain 
to hire a carriage to visit some ecclesiastic in the suburbs. 

lie talked a great deal about his travels and archaeological 
studies in Mexico and Central America. The point which 
impressed me most was that, in his opinion, many of the 
truths of modern science had been anticipated by the learn- 
ing of those early peoples. He also impressed me with the 
fact that he never should have been able to obtain access to 
the rare collections of manuscripts and antiquities in Span- 
ish America unless he had been a good Catholic. lie said 
this with a kind of merry twinkle in his eye, which made 
me think he was something of a diplomatist and man of the 
world as well as a man of science and religion, lie tried 
to persuade me to stay in Rome to study history, art and 
archaeology. lie said one could have as much intellectual 

284 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

liberty in Italy as in Germany. It was only necessary, he 
thought, to have one's feet upon the rock of the historic 
church ; one could then he as liberal and progressive as he 
pleased; the Church had room enough for scholars and 
scientific men ; it was not necessary for a man educated at 
a Catholic institution in Rome to become a priest, or to de- 
vote himself to ecclesiastical interests. "For example," he 
remarked, "I am an Abbe in the Church but my ecclesias- 
tical duties have always rested very lightly upon me." This 
too he said with a pleasant and rather amused expression. 

He was a strikingly handsome man, with a good head, 
keen eyes, a very intelligent and attractive face, tall stat- 
ure and courtly manners. He seemed to me a kind of 
scientific Talleyrand. You may imagine the personal influ- 
ence which this most fascinating, scholarly Abbe exerted 
upon me, a young and inexperienced Puritan, fresh from 
jMassachusetts and Amherst College. Every day after my 
return from walks in and about Rome he would renew his 
charming conversation and tell me of his own travels in 
America. He never failed to lead the conversation back to 
Rome and the historic attractions of the eternal city. He 
gave me many valuable suggestions concerning objects of 
historic interest and places that I ought to visit. Some- 
times we breakfasted together and I started out upon my 
morning rambles with words of helpful direction from the 
learned Abbe. 

I stayed in Rome several weeks and it has sometimes 
been a source of wonder to me whether 1 should not have 
stayed there always, if I had been less of a New England 
Puritan. One of my classmates, Wyman, who went from 
Amherst College to Brown University in 1870, became a 
Roman Catholic priest under the influence of the historical 
lectures of that most catholic of all Americans vhom I have 
ever seen or heard, the late Professor J. L. Diman, who 
in 1879, gave a remarkable course of twenty lectures in our 
Johns Hopkins University upon the Thirty Years' War, 

1891.] The AbU Brasseur de Bourbourg. 285 

to the delight of Roman Catholics and the edification of 
Protestants. I believe it was said of Professor Dim an that 
he was a Congregational minister, who married a Unitarian 
wife, had a pew in an Episcopal church, and taught Roman 
Catholic doctrines in a Baptist university ! lie was un- 
doubtedly a broader Catholic than my cosmopolitan friend, 
the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. I have never thought of 
the two men before in the same connection, but surviving 
memories of our well-known American scholar may perhaps 
give his countrymen some approximate idea of the genial 
character of the accomplished Frenchman, whom I was 
probably the last American to see. 



The following bibliography of the writings of the Abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg was prepared from sources of infor- 
mation in the Peabody Library of Baltimore, and the 
American Antiquarian Society Library in Worcester. The 
titles to his early romantic writings are given in an article 
on " Brasseur de Bourbourg" in the sixteenth volume, 
Supplement, of Pierre Larousse's Grand Dictionnaire Uni- 
versel du XIX 1 ' Siecle. A good list of his scientific writ- 
ings may be found in Brasseur's " Bibliotheque Mexico- 
Guateinalienne." A more complete account, but with some 
errors and duplications, was published in Sabin's "Diction- 
ary of Books relating to America," vol. II., under the head 
of "Brasseur de Bourbourg." Bandelier's "Notes on the 
Bibliography of Yucatan and Central America" may be 
seen in vol. I., new series, American Antiquarian Society 
Proceedings, pp. 82-128. Many references to the writings 
of Brasseur de Bourbourg and critical notices of his work 
are sriveii in Mr. Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History 
of America," see Index to Vol. I. In tills volume, page 
170, there is a portrait of the Abbe, from an etching origi- 
nally published in the Annual re de la Socieie Americaine 

286 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

de France, 1875. Suggestive materials for a biographical 
sketch of Brasseur de Bourbourg have been (bund in the 
prefaces to his own writings, particularly in the first volume 
ot : his "llistoire des Nations Civilisees du Mexique et de 
l'Amerique-Ccntrale" and his " Bibliotheque Mexico-Gua- 
temalienne." An article on "The Abbe Brasseur and his 
Labors" by Dr. Daniel 0. Brinton, appeared in Lippincott's 
Magazine, January, 1868. Frequent mention, both critical 
and appreciative, is made of the Abbe by Dr. Brinton in 
his "Myths of the New World" and his "Aboriginal 
American Authors." Susr^estive reviews of Brasseur's scr- 
vices to science maybe found in Dr. Brinton's "Critical 
Remarks on the Editions of LanuVs AVritings," Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society XXIV. (Philadel- 
phia, 1887), and "A Study of the Manuscript Troano by 
Cyrus Thomas, with an introduction by D. G. Brinton" 
(Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. V., 
Washington, 1882). Less skeptical of the scientific value 
of the Abbe's labors is the report made upon them by Dr. 
Samuel F. Haven to the American Antiquarian Society, 
October 21, 1870. 

Early Writings [Romances and Moral Tales] : 

Les Epreuves de la fortune et de l'adversitc; Eugenic de Revel; Auguste 
Fauvcl; l'Exilc de Tailnior; Jerusalem, tableau de l'bistoire des vicissi- 
tudes de cette villc; les Paysans norvegiens; lc Martyr de la Croix; les 
Pecheurs de la eotf ; Saint-Pierre de Rome et lc Vatican ; SYlim oil lc Pacha 
do Salonique, etc. [1835-1810.] 
llistoire de Mgr. de Laval, premier eveque de Quebec. Quebec, 1845. 8vo. 
Portrait. [Sabin, Title from Morgan's " Hib. Canadensis."] 

" Mou premier essai d'bistoire americaine fut uu recit de la Vie de Mgr. 
de Laval, premier eveque de Quebec, public, avee portrait, dans cette ville, 
durant l'biver de 1815-46 et dont je lie possede aucun exemplaire." — 
Rrasseur de Rourbourg, Ribliolhcquc Mexico-CuatOmalieiine, p. 'li>. 

Cartas para servir de introduccion a la Historia Primitiva de las Naciones 
Civilizadas de la America setentrional. Par Don E. Carlos Rrasseur de 
Rourbourg. Mexico: M. Murguia. 1851. 4to. pp.75. 

Lettres pour servir d'introduction a l'histoire primitive des nations civilisees 
dc l'Amerique septentriouale, adressces a M. lc due de Valmy. Mexico, im- 
preuta de M. Murguia, 1851. in-4°. 

Antiquites Mexicaihes. A propos d'uu memoire sur la peinture didaclique et 
l'ecriture ligurative des anciens Mexicains, par M. J. M. A. Aubin, public 
dans la Revue Archeologique. Paris, 1852. „ 

1891.] The Abbe. Brassmir de Bourbourg. 287 

Histoire du Canada, de son Eglise et de ses Missions, depuis la decouverte de 1' 
Anierique jusqu' a. nos jours, eerite sur des documents incdits compulses dans 
les archives de l'arebevcchc et de la ville de Quebec, etc. Paris, Saguier et 
Bray et Plancy, Socictc de Saint Victor, 1852. 2 vol. in-is°, relies en un seul. 

Resunien bistorieo y cronologico de los Reyes de Guatemala, antes de la con- 
quista. Extractado de los documentos originates y compilado por el abate 
E. C. Brasseur de Bourbourg'. 

Arcbives des indigens. Tar M. L'Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. Paris: A. 
Bertrand. 1857. 2 1., pp. xeii, 410, 2 1., pp. CO. 

Noeiones de un viaje a los estados de San Salvador y Guatemala, leidas en la 
sesion publica anual (de la soeiedad geografica de Paris), del 17 de abril de 
1857, por el inismo (extravtos del Museo Guatenmlteco, n° 29-41 y 42. Guate- 
mala, imprenta de Luna, 1857.) in-4°. 

Histoire des nations civilisees du Mexique et de l'Amerique centrale, durant les 
siecles anterieurs a Cbristopbe Colomb, eerite sur des documents original! x 
et eutierement iuedits, puises aux ancienues arebives des indigenes. Paris, 
Artbus Bertrand, 1857-0. 1vol. in-8° jesus. 

Histoire du commerce et "de 1'industrie chez les nations azteques avant la 
decouverte de PAmSrique par Cbristopbe Colomb, etc. Ex trait des Nouvelles 
Annates des Voyages, juin et jail let 1858. Paris, 1858. in-8°. 

De Guatemala it Rabinal, Episode d'un voyage dans l'Amerique Centrale, exe- 
cute dans les annoes 1854, 1855. Public dans la Revue Europeenne, numcros 
du 1 et du 15 fevrier, 1859. 

Essai bistorique sur les sources de la pbilologie mexicaine et sur l'etbnograpbie 
de l'Amerique centrale. (Paris, 1859.) 2 pts. 8vo. 

Monuments anciens du Mexique. Paleuque, Ococingo et autres mines de I'an- 
cienne civilisation mexicaine, collection de vacs, bas-reliefs, morceaux 
d'arcbitecture, coupes, vases, etc., dessines d'apres nature et releves par de 
Wakleck,avec texte explicatil' redige par M. I'abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. 
Livr. l n Paris: A. Bertrand. 18(!0. 4to. 

Voyage sur Pistil me de Tebuantepec, dans l'etat de Cbiapas et la republique de 
Guatemala, execute dans les annees 1859 et liSGO. Paris, Artbus Bertrand, 
18<;i. in-8°. 

Coup d'(Eil sur la Nation et la Langue des Wabis, population maritime de la 
cote de Tebuantepec, public dans la Revue Orientale et Americaine, tome v. 
Paris, 1861. 

Collection de documents dans les langues indigenes pour servir a l'etude de 
l'bistoire et de la pbilologie de l'Ainc>rique anciennc. (Paris: A. Bertrand.) 
18(11-08. 4 vols. rl. 8vo. 

Tbe following are the special titles of the four volumes :— 

— [I.] Popol Vub. Be Livre Sacre et les mytbes de I'antiquitC americaine 
avec les livres heroiques et bistori<iues des Quiches. Ouvrage original des 
indigenes de Guatemala, texte quiche et traduction franchise en regard, ac- 
compagnee de notes philologiques et d'un commentaire sur la mytbologic et 
les migrations des peuples anciens de l'Amerique, etc., compost'' sur des 
documents originaux et inedits. Paris, Artbus Bertrand, 1861. in-8°. 
Cartes et ligures. 

— [II.] Gramatica de la lengua quiche. Grammaire de la langue quichee, 
espagnole-francaise, raise en parallele avec ses deux dialectes, Cakcbiquel 

288 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

et Tzutobil, tiree des manuscrits des meilleurs auteurs guatemalieiis. 
Ouvrage aecompagne de notes pbilologiques, avec uu vocabulaire, coiupre- 
naut les sources principales du quiche companies aux langues germaniques. 
Et suivi d'un essai sur la poesie, la musiquc, la dause et Part drainalique 
cbez les Mexicaius et les CuatomaltOques avaut la conqucte, servant d'in- 
troduction an Rabinal Acbi, drame indigene avee sa musique originate, 
texte quiche et traduction fraucatee en regard. Paris, Artlius Bertrand, 
1KG2. in-S° jesus, avec 12 pp. de musique du Rabinal Acbi. 

— [III.] Relation des choses de Yucatan de Diego de Landa. Texte espa- 
gnol et traduction franeaise en regard, compreuant les signes du caleudricr 
et de l'alphabet hiiiroglyphique de la langue inaya, aecompagne de docu- 
ments divers historiques et chronologiques, avec, une grammairo et un 
vocabulaire abreges maya-f rancais ; precedes d'un essai sur les sources de 
I'bistoire primitive du Mexique et de I'Ainerique centrale, etc., d'apres les 
monuments egyptiens et de I'bistoire primitive de l'Egypte d'apres les mon- 
uments aniericains, Paris, Artbus Bertrand; Maisonneuve et O'. 1864. 

— [IV.] Quatre Letlres sur le Mexique. Exposition absoluc du systeme 
bieroglypbique mexicain; la tin de Page de pierre. Epoque glaciaire tem- 
poraire. Commencement de Page de bronze. Origines de la civilisation 
et des religions de l'antiquitic. D'apres le Teo-Amoxtli et autres documents 
Mexicains. Paris, Maisonneuve et C'°. 18G8. iu-8°. Nombreuses grav- 
ures sur bois dans le texte. 

S'il existe des sources de I'bistoire primitive du Mexique dans les monuments 

. egyptiens et de I'bistoire primitive tie Paneien monde dans les monuments 
anu'ricains? Extrait du volume intitule: Relation des choses de Yucatan. 
Paris, Augusts Durand ; Maisonneuve et C te . 1SG4. in-S°. 

Extraits de deux lettres; Rapport sur les ruines de Mayapan et d'Uxinal au 
Yucatan (Mexique); Rapport sur le Yucatan et sur les ruines de Ti-boo et 
d'Izamal. 116 pp. (Arcbiv. com mis. sci. du Mex. v.. 2.) 

Esquisses d'bistoire, d'archeologie, d'etbuograpbie et de linguistique, pouvaut 
servir d'instructions generales. Redigces pour le Comite des seances histor- 
iques (Commission Scientifique du Mexique.) Paris, Imprimerie Impcrialc, 
1S64. in-4°, 4;} pp. 

Itap ports divers tsur le Yucatan, adresses a S. E. le Ministre de ^Instruction 
publiquc en 1864 et 1865, et extraits des Archives de la Commission scientif- 
ique du Mexique. Paris, Imprimerie Impcriale, 18G5. in-8°. Cartes et 
gravures sur bois. 

Monuments auciens du Mexique. Palenque et autres ruines de l'ancienne civili- 
sation du Mexique. Collection de Vues, Has- Reliefs, Moreeaux d' Architect- 
ure, Coupes, Vases, Torres cuites, Cartes et Plans dessincs d'apres nature et 
relevc-s par M. de VValdeck, texte redigc par M. Brasseur de Bourbourg. 
Paris: Artbus Bertrand. 1866. Folio, Title, pp. xxiii, 83, (I), viii. Map and 
Plates, 3-56. 

Catalogue des caraeteres mayas (fondus a I'imprimerie impcriale pour la publi- 
cation du Manuscrit Troano. Etudes sur le systeme grapbique et la langue 
des Mayas). (Paris, Imprimerie Impcriale, 186!).) gr. in-4°. 

Lettre a M. Leon de Rosny sur la decouverte de ck uments relatifs a la baute 
antiquite amcricaiuc, et sur le decbitlrement tie 1'ecriture pbonetique et ligur- 
atiye de la langue maya. Paris, Ainyot, 1SGS. in-8°. 2 plauches. 

1891.] The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. 281.) 

Manuscrit Troano. Etudes sur le systeine graphique et la langue des Mayas. 

Paris, Iniprinieric Impcriale, 1809-70. 2 vol. in-4°. 
Opuscules divers n'unis, comprenant: 

— 1° Apercus d'un voyage dans les Etats dc San Salvador et de Guatemala, 
lus dans la seance publiquc annuelle (de la Societe de Geographic de Paris) 
du 17 avril 1S57. 24 pp. 

—2° Notes d'un voyage dans l'Amerique Centrale, left res a M. Alfred 
Maury, Bibliothecaire de l'Institut. Extrait des Nouvelles Annales des 
Voyages, aofit 1855. 31 pp. 

— 3° Voyage de M. l'abbc Brasseur de Bourbourg a Tebuantepee, dans 
l'Etat de Chiapas, el sou arrivee a Guatemala. Une lettre adressee a M. 
Brasseur par M. Vandegehuchte, ingenieur a Guatemala, avee une deserip- 
tion topograplii<iue decet Etat. Extrait des Nouvelles Annales des Voy- 
ages, annec 1800. 24 pp. earte. 

—4° Quelques traces d'un emigration de l'Europe Scptentrionale en Amer- 
ique dans les traditions et les langues dc l'Amerique Centrale, lettre adres- 
see a M. C C. Rati), secretaire de la Soeiete Koyale des Antiquaires du 
Nord a Copenhague. Extrait des Nouvelles Annales des Voyages. Decem- 
bre 1858. 32 pp. 

— 5° Le mysterc de 1'ile de PAques, communication de M. V. A. Malic Bruu 
a M. Brasseur de Bourbourg et 'reponse y relative, du 12 Janvier 1870. 
Extrait des Nouvelles Annales des Voyages. 

—0° Arcbeologie Americaine. (Jours de M. l'abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg 
(Soirees litteraires de la Sorbonne). Autiquites du Mexiquc et de l'Ainer- 
i<|iie Centrale, etc. Extrait de la Bevue des Cours Litteraires de la France 
et de l'Etranger. Mai 1804. 10 pp. a deux colonnes. 

—7° Lettre de M. E. G. Squier a propos de la lettre de M. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg. inserce an eahier des Annales d'aout 1855. 15 pp. 
Bibliotheque Mexico-Guatemalienne precedee d'un coup d'oeil sur. les etudes 

Amcrieaines dans leurs rapports avec les etudes classiques et suivie du tableau 

par ordre alphabetique des ouvrages de linguistique Americaine contcnus 

dans le meine volume, redigee et mise en ordre d'apres les documents de sa 

collection Americaine par M. Brasseur de Bourbourg. Paris, Maisonneuve 

&(>'., 1871. 

In tbe introduction to tbis catalogue tbere are some interesting autobio- 
graphical statements by Brasseur regarding bis early education at Ghent 
and Koine: " Les cireonslances me tirent venir a Gaud, on je me retrouve, 
trentc ans plus tard, imprimant le catalogue des documents reunis duuant 
mes longues peregrinations. C'est au seminaire de eette ville que, recueilli 
en moi-ineme sous la poussiere d'une ancienne bibliotheque, dont mes supe- 
rieurs m'avaient fait l'bonueur de me eonlier la reorganisation, j'appris a 
connaitrc et a apprecier les livrasj serieux, qu'a peine on ouvre dans ce sic- 
ele de journaux insipides et de frivoles revues. Je n'eus pas 1'avantage 
d'achever inon travail: maisce epic j'appris, en remuant ces tresors, est in- 
calculable. Altentif, d'un autre cote, aux enseignemeuts de doctes profes- 
seurs, j'accoutumai insensiblement mon espirit a une action plus grave 
et plus profonde et, ensuite, lorsque, a Versailles, sur la proposition de 
Mgr. Blanquart de Bailleul, depuis archeveqne de Rouen, je lis le voyage de 
1'ltalic et des pays voisins, je joignis, en les parcourant, pendant plusieurs 


American Antiquarian Society. [April, '91. 

annees, hi pratique et ('observation personnellc k mes etudes anterieurs. 
Niebuhr et Nibbi a la main, j'etudiai clans la soeiete du sagu, "Visconti, Komo 
et la eampagne, tout en eeoutant, a la Sapienza et au College Romaiu, les 
savautes lei-ons des professeurs dont la Ville Eternelle a toujours eu la 
primaute, sous ('administration paternelle de ses Pontifes-Souverains. Tour 
a lour disciple de l'assaglia, de l'areheologue Secchi, du sagaee Hreseiani, 
si profondement verse dans les antiquites phenioiennes et prehistoriques de 
la Sardaigne, sa patrie; diseiple de Perrone, dont la voix me tit entrer, de- 
puis, dans CAeademie de la Religion Catholique, visiteur assidu de la Bib- 
liothequc Vatieaine, bonore de 1'arnitie et de la conversation des eardinaux 
Mai et Mezzofante, j'ainassai peu a peu une connaissanccs, dont 
l'enseinble s'enehaina uaturellement a eelles que j'eus occasion d'acquerir 
plus tard au Mexique et dans l'Amerique Ccntrale." 

>v ° ^^^y^i^^fe^^^- r^^^, , SKRi ^^bi^Mfeiy Au,r • P f 








^mericHU ^ntiqtmrinn Jiacictir, 


OCTOBER 21, 1891. 



3 1 1 Main STREET. 





Till? Annual Meeting . 

R-PO-BT of ™ Oou^ P: Em0 ry Marl.,, Carle, A. Okas, 
The French-Canadians in New England! ' Eyleri G. Smyth . 

(^*^^ B ?<> K T °F THE TliKASURRli , . - ' » j ' ' 4 >! £ "' - ■' 



Gioers and Gifts 


James F. ITunneweU. 
HiyTOHiG liuniAL-PLACKS ok Boston and Vicinity. 

«/oAn M.Merriam. 

This Galapagos Islands.' George Baur . 

. ••■ £B ' ' > • ''■.■• 

William Lincoln. C/mr/^ 4/ cw . ; . . 


J 2!)1 

. 303 

v 316 







Oct. 1891.] Proceedings. 291 



The Society was called to order at 10.30 A. M. by the 
President, Stephen Salisbury, A.M. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : — 
George E. Ellis, Edward E. Hale, George F. Hoar, 
Andrew P. Peabody, George Chandler, Nathaniel Paine, 
Stephen Salisbury, P. Emory Aldrich, Samuel A. Green, 
Elijah B. Stoddard, George S. Paine, Edward L. Davis, 
William A. Smith, James F. Hunnewell, Egbert C. Smyth, 
Edward G. Porter, Reuben A. Guild, Charles C. Smith, 
Edmund M. Barton, Franklin B. Dexter, Charles A. Chase, 
Justin Winsor, Henry W. Haynes, Frederic W. Putnam, 
Andrew McF. Davis, Cyrus Hamlin, Henry S. Nourse, 
William B. Weeden, Reuben Colton, William W. Rice, 
Robert N. Toppan, Henry IT. Edes, Frank P. Goulding, 
James P. Baxter, Thomas Chase, G. Stanley Hall, John 
McK. Merriam, William E. Foster, Hamilton A. Hill, 
Charles P. Bowditch, Charles P. Greenough. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

As a part of the report of the Council, the Secretary 
pro tempore read biographical sketches of Alltionso Taft, 
LL.D. ; Benson John Lossino, LL.D. ; and Lyman 
Copeland Draper, LL.D. In continuation of the report, 
a memorial sketch of Hamilton Barclay Staples, LL.D., 
was read by P. Emory Aldrich, LL.D., and in further 
continuation a paper on "The French Canadians in New 
England" was read by Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D. 

c. c \ \ 

292 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., read his report as Treasurer, 
and the Librarian's report was read by Mr. Edmund M. 

All of these reports, as together constituting the report 
of the Council, were accepted and referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

On motion of HeNry W. Haynes, A.M., a vote of thanks 
was given to the Treasurer for the sagacity and skill with 
which he had conducted the money affairs of the Society so 
as to secure an income of six per cent, on the invested funds. 

The Society then proceeded to choose a president. A 
ballot being taken, Stephen Salisbury, A.M., was unani- 
mously re-elected. 

A committee, of which Hon. Samuel A. Green. M.D., 
was chairman, was appointed to nominate a list of the re- 
maining officers to be tilled by election. 

The report of the committee was as follows : — 

. Vice-Presidents : 

Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D., of Worcester. 
Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence : 
Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D., of Hartford, Ct. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence : 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D., of Boston. 

Recording Secretary: 
Hon. John D. Washburn, LL.B., of Worcester. 

Treasurer : 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 

All the above being ex-ojjicio members of the Council, 
itnd the following 

1891.] 4 Proceedings. 293 

Councillors : 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., of Boston. 
Hon. P. Emory Aldricii, LL.D., of Worcester. 
Rev. Egbert C. Smith, D.D., of Andover. 
Samuel S. Green, A.M., of Worcester. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D., of Cambridge. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
Hon. Edward L. Davis, of Worcester. 
Franklin B. Dexter, A.M., of New Haven, Ct. 
J. Evarts Greene, A.B., of Worcester. 

G. Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester. 


Committee of Publication : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
Charles C. Smith, A.M., of Boston. 

Auditors : 
William A. Smith, A.B., of Worcester. 
A. George Bullock, A.M., of Worcester. 

The report was accepted, and by vote of the Society the 
Secretary pro tern, threw a yea ballot for the officers named. 

A letter from Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D., regretting 
his necessary absence, was read by Nathaniel Paine, Esq. 

The President: — "This communication is of interest. 
We all know how gladly Dr. Paige would be with us and 
we hope that he will be able to be so on future occasions." 

The Secretary pro tern, reported that the Council had 
voted to recommend for membership in the Society the 
names of — 

Charles Francis Adams, A.B., of Quincy. 
Rev. Endicott Peabody, LL.M., of Groton. 
Rev. Calvin Stebhins, of Worcester. 
Francis H. Dewey, A.M., of Worcester. 
Charles J. Hoadly, LL.D., of Hartford, Ct. 

294 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

And as a foreign member, 

Ernst Curtius, LL.D., of Berlin, Germany. 
All of whom were duly elected on separate ballots. 

An essay was then read by James F. Hunnewell, A.M., 
entitled : "Illustrated Americana of the Revolution." 

The President said that Prof. Frederic W. Putnam 
was prepared to made certain announcements. 

Prof. Putnam : — "I wish to call your attention to two 
important events in connection with the study of Ameri- 
can archaeology and ethnology. The first of these is, 
that by a decree issued in July last, the Government of 
Honduras placed all the ancient ruins within the borders 
of the Republic in the care of the Peabody Museum of 
American Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard Univer- 
sity, for a period of ten years ; giving to the Museum not 
only the charge of the antiquities in the country, but also 
the exclusive right of exploration, and permission to take 
away one-half of all the objects found during the excava- 
tions. It is probable that as the work of exploration goes on 
at the ancient ruins of Copan it will lead to the establish- 
ment of a school of American archaeology in Honduras. 
We shall now be able, year after year, to carry on investiga- 
tions and to train students and assistants in this important 

"The other event is the establishment of a Department 
of Ethnology and Archaeology in the World's Columbian 
Exposition of 1893. It has fallen to me to fee appointed 
chief of that department, and I believe that we shall bring 
together in Chicago in 1893 an ethnographical and archae- 
ological exhibit of especial importance and interest to all 
students of anthropology. Among other plans is that of 
bringing to Chicago representatives of all the native peo- 
ples of the American continent, who will be living in 
their own habitations, surrounded by their own utensils 
and implements and carrying on their native occupations. 

1891.] Proceedings. 29f> 

An'eftbrt will be made to represent the native people who 
were living on the continent four centuries ago, and furnish 
the means of making a comparative study of the natives 
from Greenland to Patagonia. In this connection we are 
making an extensive series of measurements and observa- 
tions illustrative of the physical characteristics of the native 
peoples of America. We shall also exhibit a large amount 
of archaeological material obtained by special exploration, 
with models of mounds and earth-works. Our associate, 
Mr. Thompson, is making the moulds of portions of the 
facades of some of the immense buildings in Yucatan, and 
we hope to set up casts forty feet or more in length show- 
ing the different types of architecture and sculpture of those 
ancient structures. Besides all this we shall illustrate, so 
far as possible, the early man of America and the evidence 
of his antiquity. Not only shall we have these exhibits 
from America, but a great many from other parts of the 

"1 wish to call attention to the fact that the department 
under my charge is to have cartographical and historical 
sections in which will be illustrated our own American his- 
tory, and that I shall be very much pleased if this Society 
will appoint a committee who will give me advice in rela- 
tion to an historical exhibit which shall illustrate American 
history from the time of Columbus/ I respectfully ask the 
President of this Society to name such a committee to 
advise what should be done for the historical part of the 

Mr. Hoar: — "I move that the President be authorized 
to appoint a committee of five, of which he shall be one, to 
act in the capacity suggested by Professor Putnam, and 
that he take time to appoint it." This was seconded by 
Dr. E. E. Hale, and Was carried. 

G. Stanley Hall, LL.D., in presenting a paper by Dr. 
George Baur, on the recent expedition of the latter gentle- 

296 , American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

-man to the Galapagos Islands, spoke of the great value of 
the collections brought home by that gentleman, which em- 
brace a large part of fche flora as well as of the fauna of the 
islands. "It is too soon," he said, "to speak of the results 
of this expedition. Almost no collections have been made 
there since Darwin and later the Challeru/er were there. It 
has been said that as a result of his visit the theory of 
natural selection as applied to the origin of species and man 
became clear and definite in Darwin's own mind. I do not 
know how true that is, but this collection is certainly of 
great value. It will take years of stud}' and examination 
on the part of experts in various parts of the world, to 
know the results. Those results will perhaps bear upon 
the work of this Society." 

After presenting Dr. Baur's paper, Dr. Hall spoke as 
follows : — 

" Passing to my own paper, I will only attempt to give a 
brief and extemporaneous description of the work involved 
in it. 

"It is nearly six years since I began to experiment on 
the subject of ecstasy and trance. I will not attempt to 
give as full descriptions as we get of such American sects 
as the 'Jumpers' and the 'Barkers,' etc., which make 
ecstasy their chief cultus. I have tried to understand the 
subject historically, and I have been able to get into corres- 
pondence with two Buddhist colleges, and have found that 
the cultus of ecstasy is so central at present that they have 
places on the roof so arranged that they can sway until 
they get contact with the Intinite, or till they attain 
Nirvana. It is thought that is the best way to overcome 
worldly desires. As Mozoomdar himself told me and has 
since written me, they consider that a very central part of 
the cultus of the young men there. He even wished that 
it might be introduced into institutions here. 

" Of course the historical matter is too well known for me 
to speak of it. We all know that this cult is a very ancient 

1891.] Proceedings. 297 

one; The Buddhist sects differ from each other in the way 
in which -perfect ecstasy is attained. There is a good and 
bad side to it. In the good, the elevation is so supernal 
that they get an insight into all the mysteries of the world. 
The ascetic, who is the result of years of systematic devo- 
tion, can actually attain contact with the divine. There is, 
as we all know, a spurious ecstasy. We attempted then to 
make a contact between the old primeval, prehistoric forms 
of which there are traces to be found in archaeology, and 
the present interesting forms of it as a religious cult. Not 
to dwell upon intermediate stages, everyone knows how 
important ecstasy has been in the history of all religions, 
and how central it is. We know the Delphic oracle and 
the part it played there. With Plotinus it played a central 
part. He distinguished four stages of trance, and he was 
only able to attain the highest live times where perfect con- 
tact with the Infinite, as he thought, was reached, and rev- 
elation was made to him. But it became, after the death 
of Plotinus, when his pupils took it up, a cultus which 
spread and which survived in the mysteries of the middle 
ages to an extent hardly known. In some sects there were 
seven stages, and in some nine ; but there was a distinct 
correspondence between the theological views of many sec- 
taries and the different stages of trance. Each higher stage 
gave to the devotee an insight into a higher transcendental 
form of existence, until at last, as in Dante, you have 
touched the highest, the rose of dawn. 

"Of course all savage tribes have these ecstasies. I am 
told by several anthropologists that there is not an Indian 
tribe known which has not an ecstacy cultus in some form, 
and in most of our Indian tribes which we have been able 
to study, the ecstacy reaches its acme just before marriage, 
where the young brave goes off into the woods and starves 
himself, and goes through various ritos until he sees the 
vision of some ancestor, which, if it should correspond with 
the same vision that his own ancestor actually had, is a 

298 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

happy circumstance for his own life. He then goes back 
with his own name, and with his character, and perhaps his 
purpose in life, fixed. Chastity and abstinence from food 
are essential to the rite. The fact that all the best braves 
must have had this vision shows what importance is 
attached to it. 

4 'We all know that a great many religious reformers, 
Mahomet, Swedenborg, and even Joseph Smith, and others, 
had visions, and that these visions are physically conforma- 
ble to the ancient forms of trance. The S3 r mptoms arc well 
known. The first part of my work is to collect the typical 
cases so far as we can collect them from American sources 
and from history. The second part, which is briefer, is the 
experimental part. As many of you know, the experi- 
mental study of trance, under the name of hypnotism, has 
become almost an established part of a medical curriculum 
in France, where there is no medical school, I believe, 
which does not have it. The study of the last eight years 
has marked three very specific and definite results which are 
new to science. I will state these. The first is, that there is 
something which is best described as a tonic cramp of the 
attention, where the attention is brought to an abnormal 
focus. The person can then be easily tested. There are 
some who can read large letters through two thicknesses of 
cotton cloth, who, when the sun shines on it can read the 
same through seven or nine thicknesses. So in respect to 
vision there sometimes seems to be a heightening of vision 
from seven to nine fold. So in all matters. The matter 
of rapidity with which certain mental activities can be per- 
formed is tested, and can be greatly heightened. The 
matter of clearness can be greatly affected. There is a 
positive mental exaltation where a subject can do, under 
laboratory tests which no one would think of doubting 
for a moment, that which he could not do in the ordinary 
state. Therefore we call this the tonic cramp of the atten- 
tion, for want of a better name. In this tonic cramp there 




is a positive pole, or side, of the focus and a negative field. 
We often see the negative field where the attention is so 
sharply focussed on one thing that the energy all passes 
away from the rest of the body. The extremities, perhaps, 
become cold, and the person is insensible even to amputa- 
tions. Even a leg has been in several cases cut oil' without 
sensibility. As a narcotic this form of hypnotism is thought 
to be safe. About one person in three is not at all sensible 
to it. Both the positive and negative fields vary greatly, as 
can be seen by our laboratory methods. 

"The second point which seems to me established, is the 
fact of erethism, or the erectile function of any part of the 
circulatory system. Charcot has even showed photographs 
illustrating this. By fixing the attention on any pari of the 
body you can bring about a dilatation of the veins of the 
skin to such an extent that the serum collects, and in a few 
rare cases a blister follows. This, of course, has been onl}' 
in neurotic subjects. But that is an indication of what 
occurs in all individuals. If anyone places his finger in a 
water-tight apparatus, the action of the mind will so a licet 
the fine capillary system as to cause the swelling or the 
decreasing of the volume of the finger or arm in propor- 
tion to the violence of the agitation so that it can be seen. 
Blood is withdrawn from any part of the body as the atten- 
tion is concentrated on any other part. When it is concen- 
trated on that part the limbs swell, the walls of the arteries 
expand. So much is this the case that in certain hospitals 
this has come to be a method of testing the patient's 
power of attention in certain forms of mental disease. An 
apparatus is fixed on which the patient is exactly balanced; 
and as he is able to concentrate his attention, the head end 
dips down, and the progress of the disease is measured by 
the inability of the patient to concentrate his attention, and 
so to tip the instrument down as much as he could before. 
Thus it is seen that the power of concentrating the attention 
creates an erectile state of the arteries which is entirely dif- 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ferent from the venous enlargement involving inflammation. 
There is an expansion of the arteries, and a relaxation of 
the vessels which keep them tense. While expanding they 
increase the blood pressure, sometimes to the amount of 
several inches, as has been very well demonstrated. 

44 The third and last new factor which has been developed 
bearing on the study of ecstasy is, that whenever any poiv 
tion of the nervous system or of the brain is in a state ot 
ecstasy, all the processes known as fatigue are accelerated. 
Under the microscope it has been seen that there is a dete- 
rioration of the nucleus of the nerve cell, due to rapid 
expenditure of nerve force. This needs a great deal more 

"The contribution then to this historical subject, which 
modern science and the discussion born of it within the last 
eight years have yielded, are these three points, on which 
there is general agreement. First : The focussing of the 
positive and negative field of attention, which is exceedingly 
significant and of scientitic utility. Second : The positive 
field of attention, which has the greatest power over the 
walls of the blood vessels, and can control circulation to a 
certain extent. And third : Whenever tins goes on, the 
cells of the nerve centres involved are undergoing changes 
of deterioration. This process is so evident that if placed 
under a microscope it would be recognized by all. 

"The conclusion has a certain moral result. It is in 
favor of that kind of cult or discipline or regimen, or what- 
ever it may be called, the litany of which is steadiness and 
regularity, and against all the diatheses of spurtiness." 

John McKinistry Merriam, A.B., of Framingham, 
read a paper on the " Historic Burial Places of Boston and 

The Secretary jpro ton. read a biographical sketch of 
the life of William Lincoln, the historian of Worcester, 
a former librarian of this Society. 

The President. "The various papers which have been 

1891.] • Proceedings. 301 

presented are now before the Society for its action. " 
Mr. Hamilton A. Hill. "I should like to add a 
wold. About three years ago I invited Dr. Samuel A. 
Green to accompany me to the Granary burying-ground, 
to visit that tomb in which a large number of the ministers 
of the Old South were buried. I was anxious to ascertain 
whether any proof could be found of the burial of Thomas 
Prince who was supposed to be buried there. We had per- 
mission to open the tomb. Dr. Green, Mr. McDonald and 
1 went down. J found nothing that could give us any 
information in regard to Thomas Prince. We knew that 
Mr. Willaid and family had been buried there. We found 
the coffin of Joshua Huntington ( ?), who died about sixty 
years ago, but we learned nothing to add to the knowledge 
of the contents of that historic tomb." 

Mr. Henry W. Haynes. "T wanted to make one sug- 
gestion as I listened to Mr. Hunnewell's remarks about 
the scarcity of the memorials of the French Revolution in 
the Louvre. The late Francis Gardner illustrated Carlyle's 
'French devolution' in a remarkable manner. On one 
occasion when I was ill he sent those books to me to look 
at. The three volumes of the text had notes explaining and 
illustrating all the literary allusions of the book. Besides 
that there were quartos of pictorial illustrations, which Mr. 
Gardner had gathered in several visits to Paris. As 1 re- 
call them, there must have been at least a thousand plates 
in a half-dozen folio volumes. It made one of the most 
interesting pictorial things I ever saw. 1 wish it might be 
possible through the influence of this Society to obtain 
those volumes to place here among our treasures. They 
ought to be in a public institution." 

Mr. Charles C. Smith. k < It is my impression that they 
were raffled for at a charity fair some years ago." l 

1 The volumes reierred to were twelve in number, and were given by Mr. 
Gardner to the Fair held in Boston in April, 1871, tor the relief of sufferers in 
the Franco-German war.— Note by the Publishing Committee. 

302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Hon. Geoh'JE F. Hoar. "Three or four years ago, I 
asked the members of this Society if any of them could find 
any tracefe of the publication known as the Boston Daily 
Whiff, edited by Charles Francis Adams, father of the 
gentleman whom we have just elected a member, and Vice- 
President Henry Wilson. It was a paper of uncommon 
ability, and it contained the records of the rise Of the politi- 
cal anti-slavery party which developed into the Republican 
party. It is one of the most important historical publica- 
tions of modern times. Hon. Charles Sumner made a spec- 
ial journey to Worcester to find it here. In the visit to 
Quincy which has been described, Mr. Adams, in a collec- 
tion of literary properties discovered a complete set of this 
publication. It is now accessible to the public." 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.I). "I am well aware that my 
name has been selected as Vice-President because 1 am the 
senior member of the Council. I was, I think, the young- 
est member of the Society, when chosen. I owed that 
kindness to my friends in Worcester. For a good many 
years, I felt as though I was the enfant terrible, whom the 
older gentlemen were kind enough to let come in. It is 
forty-two years since I read my first paper. I should 
hardly take the time to say this but for a reminiscence. At 
that time many of the gentlemen whose portraits are hang- 
ing here were then present; and I like to say that to the 
extreme kindness of Mr. Haven, then librarian, and other 
gentlemen I owe the taste for history which has been the 
happiest relaxation of my life. They used to let me come 
in and work in this matchless collection, much superior to 
anything I had known. I feel grateful for the honor con- 
ferred upon me." 

On motion, the various papers and remarks which had 
been offered, were referred to the Committee of Publication. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


lieconliuij Secretary pro tempore. 


Report of the Council. 



The visitor to the Library will lind excellent order prevail- 
ing throughout the building, the result of the intelligent 
labors of the Librarian and his Assistant. The mass of 
unbound matter, including much that is of great value, is 
constantly increasing, and it is to be wished that our bind- 
ing fund might be sufficiently ample to secure the preserva- 
tion of this portion of our treasures in a proper shape. The 
funds of the Society are well invested, yielding a net in- 
come of a little over six per cent, upon the par value of the 

Four vacancies in our membership have been caused by 
death since the last meeting of the Society. 

Alphonso Taft was born at Townshend, Vt., Nov. 5, 
1810. His grandparents on both sides migrated to Vermont 
from Worcester county, Mass. He was descended from 
Edward Rawson, the famous Secretary of the Massachusetts 
Province. His father, Peter Rawson Taft, was reared as a 
farmer, but afterward studied law, served for many years 
as a member of the Vermont Legislature, and was judge of 
the probate and county courts of Windham county. The 
son was reared upon the farm, but by special effort became 
fitted for Yale College, from which he was graduated, with 
high honor, in the class of 1833. He was for two years a 
tutor at Yale, graduated from the law school of that institu- 
tion in 1838, and was immediately admitted to the Connec- 
ticut bar. In the following year he opened an office in 
Cincinnati, and during twenty-live years subsequently he 
had an extended practice, and was engaged in some cases of 

304 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the most important character. An effort having been made 
to set aside the will of one Charles McMicken who had 
devised half a million dollars to found a university for the 
free education of the youth of Cincinnati, Mr. Taft was 
engaged to defend the will. The case was tried in the 
LI. S. Circuit Court, which sustained the will, and was car- 
ried to the Supreme Court of the United States. The 
brief, prepared by Mr. Taft, is said to have been "a com- 
plete compendium of the law on the subject of religious and 
eleemosynary trusts, and reviewed all the decisions of the 
English and American courts [on this ^subject] from the 
statute of the 43d Elizabeth to the present time." The will 
was sustained. During his early residence in Cincinnati he 
served as a member of the City Council, and was active in 
efforts for the benefit of the city, especially for the building 
of railroads. He defended in court, successfully, a hill 
which was attacked as unconstitutional, authorizing the city 
to issue $2,000,000 in bonds for the completion of the 
Cincinnati Southern Railroad. He was one of the incorpo- 
rators of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, one of the first 
trustees of the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad, and for 
many years a director of the Little Miami Railroad. He 
did much to develop the system of street railways in his. 
adopted city. In 1865, he was appointed Judge of the 
Superior Court of Cincinnati, to till a vacany, and held the 
oliice by re-elections, resigning in 1873. While he was upon 
the bench, a suit was brought to enjoin the school board of 
Cincinnati from abolishing the rule requiring the Bible to 
be read in the opening exercises of the public schools. 
Judge Taft read an opinion dissenting from the other 
judges, and taking the ground that the school board had 
power to abolish the rule: and that it should properly be 
stricken out, because the King James version was not 
recognized by the large Roman Catholic population, and 
because its doctrines were in part disbelieved by the Jewish 
portion of the citizens. The case was carried to the 

18 ( J1.] Report of the Council. 305 

Supreme Court of the State, which reversed the decision of 
the lower court and sustained Judge Taft. His opinion in 
this case lost him the nomination for Governor, as a candi- 
date at the Republican conventions in 1875 and 1879, 
because, it was alleged that the popular prejudice upon the 
subject would not secure for him the full strength of the 
party. In March, 187(>, Judge Taft was called to the 
Cabinet of President Grant, as Secretary of War, and three 
months later was made Attorney-General. In April, 1882, 
he was appointed by President Arthur, U. S. Minister to 
Austria, and in the summer of 1884, he was transferred, in 
the same capacity, to the court of Russia, where he re- 
mained until the close of 1885. At St. Petersburg, he had 
a severe attack of typhoid pneumonia, and on recovering 
he returned to Cincinnati, where he resumed the practice 
of law, continuing it for about two years. In the autumn 
of 1889, his health compelled him to seek the salubrious 
climate of San Diego, Cal., where he died on May 2, 1891. 
Jud^e Taft received the decree of LL.D. from Yale 
College in 1867, and was a member of its corporation for 
ten years from 1872. lie married, in 1841, Fannie Phelps 
of Townshend, Vt., who died in 1852, leaving two sons. 
He married, in 1854, Louise M. Torrey, of Millbury, 
Mass., who, with her four children, survives him. He was 
elected to membership in this Society in October, 187b'. 

Benson John Lossing is a name familiar to all who 
are interested in United States History. 

He was born at Beekman, Duchess Co., N. Y., Feb. 12, 
1813, and died on the 3d day of June, last. Left an 
orphan at the age of 11 years, he labored upon the farm 
for three years, when he was apprenticed to a watchmaker 
in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., with whom, at the age of twenty, 
he entered into partnership. At twenty-two, he became 
joint editor of the Poughkeepsie Teleyrapli, a weekly news- 
paper, and shortly afterward established the Poughkeepsie 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Casket. He now acquired the art of wood engraving, to 
illustrate his paper, and in 1838, removed to New York 
City, to perfect himself in the art of drawing. He was 
soon invited to edit and illustrate The Family Magazine, 
said to be the first American illustrated periodical. His 
first"' literary work of importance was an Outline History 
of the Fine Arts, which formed one of the volumes of 
Harper's Family Library. In 1847, he issued a history 
of the Revolution, entitled "Seventeen hundred and Sev- 
enty-six." In 1818, he began his greatest work, "The 
Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution." 1 He received the 

1 The following is a list or' Dr. Losing's works : — 

Outline History of the Fine Arts. 

Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-six. 

Pictorial Field-Hook of the Revolution. 

Lives of hie Presidents of hie United States. 

The New World. 

The Ohio Book. 

Biographical Sketches of the Signers of the Declaration of In- 

The Marriage ok L'ocahontas. 

Pictorial History of the United States for Schools. 

Memoirs of Eminent Americans. 

Life of Washington. 

The Life and Times of Philip Schuyler. 

The Hudson from the Wilderness to the Sea. 

Pictorial Field-Hook of the War of 1812. 

Pictorial Field-Hook of the Civil War in America. 

Pictorial History of hie United States. 

Vassar College and its Founder. 

Memoir of John T. Creijel. 

A History of England. 

Memoir of Alexander Anderson, the First Engraver on Wood in 
the United States. 

The American Centenary. 

our Country. Illustrated by Barley. 

Story of the United States Navy, for Boys. 

Mount Vernon, the Home of Washington. 

Cyclop.edia of United States History. 

Biography of James A. Cakfi Bf.D. 

History of New York City. 

Mary and Martha Washington. 

The Two Spies. 

The Empire State. 

Hours With Living Men and Women of the Revolution. 

1891.] Report of the Council. 307 

honorary degree of A.M., from Hamilton College in 1855, 
and from Columbia College in 1870, and that of LL.l)., 
from the University of Michigan in 1873. He was made 
a member of this Society in October, 1872. He died at 
his home on Chestnut Ividge, Dover Plains, N. Y., where 
he had lived with his family for some twenty years 

Lyman Copeland Draper, who has been styled 
"The Western Plutarch," died at his home in Madison, 
Wis., August 2 G, 1891, at the age of 77 years, 11 months and 
9 days. He was born September 4, 1815, in the little town 
of Hamburg, now Evans, in Erie county, N. Y., and was of 
the fifth generation from James Draper, who, about the year 
lb'50, came from England and settled at Roxbury, Mass. 
His paternal grandfather was a soldier in the war olMhe 
Revolution ; his maternal grandfather fell in the defence of 
ljuli'alo against the British, in December, 1813 ; and his 
own father, Luke, was twice incarcerated by the British 
during the second war with Great Britain. As a youth, he 
had but a meagre education, but was early interested in 
Revolutionary lore, and devoured with avidity such works 
of history or historical romance as he could obtain. In 
1834, he entered Granville (Ohio) College, now called 

At the time of his death he was engaged upon a work entitled "New York 
City; its Commerce and Industries. " 

Besides the above works. Dr. Loosing, in connection with the late Edwin 
Williams, compiled — 
The Statesman's Manual. 
The National History ok the United States, 
A Sketch of Martha Washington. 
The League ok States. 
First in Peace. 

lie arranged and fully annotated— 
Custis's Recollections ok Washington. 


Diaries ok Washington. 

The Old Farm and New Farm; an allegory, by Franeis Hopkinsou. 

Poems ijy William Wilson, with a biography of the author. 

in addition to these labors he edited for three year* " The American Histor- 
ical Reconl and Repertory of Notes and Queries." 

308 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Granville University, where he spent two years as an 
undergraduate. In 1838, he conceived the idea of writing 
a history of the Western pioneers, which should correct the 
errors which had been made by the early historians of the 
border ; and, to that end, opened a correspondence and 
sought interviews with all the leading pioneers. In this 
service he travelled, often through dense wildernesses, over 
sixty thousand miles, having many narrow escapes by land 
and Hood. The result of all this labor is shown by "two 
hundred and fifty portly volumes of manuscript, the greater 
part made up of wholly original matter, most of it as yet 
unpublished, covering the entire history of the light for the 
Northwest, from 1742, the date of the first skirmish with 
the Indians in the Virginia valley, to 1813-14 when 
Tecumseh was killed and the Creeks were defeated." 1 The 
collection includes many diaries kept by the leading pio- 
neers, in the original manuscript. 

In October, 1852, he removed to Madison, by invitation 
of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, and, about a 
year later, was chosen as its Corresponding Secretary. To 
his fostering care the society owes a large measure of its 
remarkable success. Its valuable "Historical Collections" 
were edited by him, and the society "is to-day practically 
what he, aided by the intelligent munificence of the Com- 
monwealth, has made it." 2 His great individual published 
work was his "King's Mountain and its Heroes," published 
in 1881. " The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence" 
and several biographies of eminent pioneers, were nearly 
completed at the time of his death. He was a gleaner to 
the end, gathering into his storehouse, but taking little 
thought of marketing his crops. 

In 1858 and 1859, Dr. Draper served as State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, to the great benefit of the 

1 From a biographical sketch by Ueuhen G. Thwaites in the Magazine of 
Western History, January, 1887* 

18 ( J1.] 

Report of the Council. 


cause and the State. He secured the passage of an act of 
the Legislature making liberal appropriations for a town- 
shif) library-fund ; but the financial exigencies of the Slate 
during the Rebellion led to its repeal. He was made M.A. 
by Granville University in 1851, and LL.D. by the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin in 1871. His fellowship with our Society 
dates from October, 1877. 

Hamilton Barclay Staples, was born in Mendon, 
Massachusetts, February 14, 1829. His ancestors were 
conspicuous among the early founders of that township, and 
the sturdy qualities of character for which they were noted 
have been perpetuated through eight generations of their 
descendants; some of whom have remained cultivators of 
the soil in their native town, while others have won honor- 
able distinction in other places and in other walks of life. 
The father of the subject of this notice was a farmer, though 
with little love, it is said, for that vocation. He was pas- 
sionately fond of history, and devoted large portions of such 
leisure as he could command, to the reading of his favorite 
authors in that department of knowledge ; he was well 
known among his fellow-townsmen for his general intelli- 
genee and for his active interest in town affairs and in the 
politics of his day, both State and national ; he was a good 
talker and fond of debate ; his voice was often heard in 
town meeting, — those little local parliaments, as they have 
been fittingly called, in which many of our eminent states- 
men have received their first lessons in parliamentary de- 
bates and as experts in parliamentary law. The mother of 
our lute associate was a woman of deep religious convictions 
and elevated Christian character. She was a constant reader 
of the Bible and sought to implant its exalted ethical and 
religious precepts in the minds and hearts of her children. 
If there be any truth in the law of heredity, it cannot be 
difficult, with a knowledge of these traits in the character 
of the parents, to trace to their true source the distinguish- 

310 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ing qualities in the mind and character of the son. His 
boyhood was that of the ordinary country boy, living in the 
typical one-story farmhouse, and doing a little light work 
on the farm in the spring, summer and fall, and attending 
the district school during the winter. He early evinced a 
love of books ; and was often found with some favorite vol- 
ume in hand, while his companions were engaged in their 
youthful sports. He also early developed a love for extem- 
porary speech in addresses of more or less serious import, 
to his young associates. These few traits and incidents in 
the character and life of the boy, have been referred to, 
because of the light they cast upon the matured character 
and life of the man. His life was a serious one, having 
clearly defined and tixed objects in view, and for the attain- 
ment of which, his wisely directed labors were unremit- 
ting. Impelled by a strong desire for a broader education 
than the schools of his native town afforded, be began a 
preparatory course of studies at the Worcester Academy, 
and at the age of eighteen entered Brown University, and 
graduated from that institution with the second highest 
honor of his class in 1851, at the age of twenty-two. Soon 
after graduating he began the study of law in the office of 
Chief Justice Ames, in Providence, Rhode Island, and 
afterwards continued his legal studies in the olhce of the 
Hon. Peter C. Bacon, late of Worcester. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1854, and immediately thereafter opened an 
office in the town of Milford, which was originally a part of 
his native town of Mendon. 

He remained in Milford fifteen years, and during that 
period he was, at different times, associated in business 
with several well-known members of the bar in that part of 
the County. During those fifteen years Judge Staples, by 
his industry and fidelity, and by the skill and learning dis- 
played by him in the management of cases in Court, and 
by the wisdom of his counsel to clients seeking his advice, 
made steady and sure progress in his professional reputation, 

1891.] Report of the Council. 3 1 1 

and acquired that practical knowledge of the law, which 
enabled him the more easily to attain the leading posi- 
tion which he held when he left the bar for the bench. 

In 18()i), he removed to Worcester and formed a partner- 
ship in the practice of law with Frank P. Goulding, Esq., 
of this city. This firm took high rank as one of the leading 
law iirms of the State. 

In 1873, Judge Staples was elected District Attorney for 
the Middle District, one of the largest and most important 
in the Commonwealth. He held that office by successive 
elections eight years ; and it is no exaggeration of his mer- 
its as a criminal pleader, to say, that he had no superior 
among all the distinguished prosecuting officers of the State, 
including those who held the office of Attorney-General, 
during his term of service. He served two or more years 
as a member of the City Council, and was a Trustee of the 
City Hospital, and he held, from time to time, other posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility, to all of which he rend- 
ered faithful and efficient service, under a high sense of the 
duty which he owed to the community in which he lived. 
In 1881, he was appointed an Associate Justice of the Su- 
perior Court of the Common wealth, to fill a vacancy created 
by the resignation of his kinsman, the late Judge Francis 
H. Dewey ; he held that office at the time of his death, 
August 2, 1891. 

He was elected a member of this Society in 1878. He 
regarded the election as an honor and as a gratifying recog- 
nition of his merits and reputation as a scholar. He took 
a deep interest in the work of the Society ; and original 
papers from his facile pen will be found in the published 
•proceedings of the Society for the years 1879, '82, '84 and 
'%§. They are entitled: "A Day at Mount Vernon in 
1797 " ; ''Origin of the Names of the States of the Union " ; 
"The Province Laws of Massachusetts"; a brief but in- 
teresting paper on the "Sword of Fitz-John Winthrop, 
sometime a captain in Monk's army "; " La Salle's monu- 

312 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ment at Rouen," &e. All these papers show careful 
research and a clear and ehaste style in the statement of 
facts and opinions — together they form valuable additions 
to the publications of the Society. 

In 1881, the University from which he graduated con- 
ferred upon Judge Staples the degree of LL.D. 

He was twice married; first, in 1858, to Elizabeth A. 
Godfrey, the step-daughter of lion. Benjamin Davenport, 
of /Mendon ; and after her death in 1807, he married, the 
following year, Mary Clinton Dewey, a daughter of Judge 
Charles A. Dewey, late of Northampton, who for nearly 
thirty years was an Assoeiate Justice of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court of Massachusetts. The only members of his 
immediate family surviving him are his widow and son, 
Francis Hamilton Staples, who is now an undergraduate in 
Brown University. 

Judge Staples with his family made two visits to Europe 
and travelled extensively on the Continent and through 
England and Scotland. The foregoing is a brief statement 
of the leading objective facts and incidents in his busy and 
strenuous life of sixty-two years. 

A slight acquaintance and occasional conversations with 
him were sufficient to show that he was a man of scholarly 
habits and tastes, lie loved knowledge and he loved the 
pursuit of it. He was a diligent reader of good books and 
was especially fond of historical and metaphysical writings. 
His mind was eminently analytical and he sometimes carried 
the process of anal} sis into such remote and refined distinc- 
tions as to endanger if not impair the soundness of his judg- 
ments. Analysis can never add anything to our mental 
conceptions ; it can only discover their contents. It is only 
by the synthetic grasp of related facts by the understand- 
ing, that the sum of knowledge can be increased and become 
the basis of safe and valid judgments. I do not mean to im- 
ply that Judge Staples did not possess this power, but that 
by his very acute analytical processes, he sometimes failed 

1891.] Report of the Council. 313 

to attain the best mental results of which he was capable. 

He was ambitious — he loved distinction, and he bore his 
honors with a conscious pride and becoming dignity. But 
the objects of his ambition were worthy, and he sought 
their attainment ever and only by honorable means. He 
highly prized the good opinion of his fellow-men, and was 
keenly sensitive to adverse criticism. There was, however, 
something which he valued more than the approval of others, 
and that was his own self-approving conscience ; and in the 
seclusion of his boyhood and by his severe struggles with 
limited pecuniary resources during the entire period of his 
collegiate life, he acquired the habits of self-reliance and 
independent action. His character and will were tested 
and strengthened early in the school of privation and self- 
dependence. A man with a character so disciplined may 
be often defeated ; he can never be conquered. 

His brethren of the Worcester County bar, by whom he 
was best known, have, since his death, placed on record 
their high estimate of his character both as a lawyer and 
judge. In their memorial of him they declare that "as a 
lawyer, he was, in the preparation of his causes for trial, 
quick of apprehension, industrious, minute and critical, 
patient and untiring. In actual trial he was alert, sagacious, 
and possessing an unfailing memory, courage, and powerful 
advocacy ; he was a tower of strength to his clients and a 
formidable opponent. He brought to the bench a thorough 
knowledge of the common and chancery law and its appli- 
cation in practice. As a judge, he was dignified, patient, 
painstaking, discriminating, careful and always just. His 
judicial life was upright and unstained." 

To gain an adequate conception of the extent of that theo- 
retical and practical knowledge of Jaw here attributed to 
Judge Staples, it would become necessary to consider the 
extent of the jurisdiction of the court of which he was an 
Associate Justice. That court has original and exclu- 
sive jurisdiction of all felonies, and original or appellate 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

jurisdiction of all misdemeanors ; in other words, jurisdiction 
of every offence known to the criminal code of the State. 
It has original and exclusive jurisdiction of all actions of 
tort, wherein the amount claimed exceeds a certain limit, 
and original or appellate jurisdiction of such actions when 
the amount claimed falls below that limit — in short, there 
is not an actionable wrong to person or property, which 
that court may not be called on to try. As a court of equity 
it has full and complete jurisdiction. It has exclusive origi- 
nal jurisdiction of all causes of divorce and nullity or valid- 
ity of marriage. It has large appellate jurisdiction of appeals 
from the Probate and Insolvency Court and from other 
subordinate courts ; and besides these general powers, there 
are numerous statutes conferring upon the court special and 
extraordinary jurisdiction. It may well be doubted whether 
there is any other court, in any of the States, whose juris- 
diction is at once so extensive and varied. And to say of 
our friend, that he was competent to deal with any and all 
of the innumerable questions likely to arise under this wide 
jurisdiction, would be to pronounce upon him, as a jurist, 
the highest possible eulogiuin. And to affirm* that he failed 
in some respects, to reach the highest degree of judicial ex- 
cellence, would be only to affirm that he was human. His 
administration of the criminal law was sometimes made the 
subject of criticism. It was thought that at times his kind 
and sensitive nature led him to treat convicted offenders 
with too much leniency ; that his reluctance to inflict pain, 
even upon the violators of law, made him for the moment 
forget the larger purposes of penal statutes to prevent 
crime and secure public order and safety. But if this was 
a fault in his judicial character, was it not one of those 
faults which lean to virtue's side ? It is undoubtedly the 
better judgment of those competent to form an opinion 
upon the subject, that so long as it is thought necessary to 
maintain upon the statute book a penal code, it should be 
administered with a firm and vigorous hand, and that those 

1891.] Report of the Council. 315 

who are called upon to pronounce its sentences should look 
to the law and to the public safety to discover their rule of 

Whoever heard Chief Justice Shaw pronounce sentence 
(Upon a convicted felon, will remember never to have seen 
or heard him perform that painful duty, when he did not 
exhibit visible signs of deep emotion ; but it was the man 
that wept, while the great magistrate declared the stern 
sentence of the law. 

Turning now from Judge Staples's honorable public 
career to the remembrance of him in the private walks of 
life, it will, I believe, be the concurrent judgment of all who 
knew him best, that he was an accomplished scholar, whose 
tastes and scholarship had been assiduously cultivated and 
improved by study and association with the learned and 
refined at home, and by the larger opportunities of foreign 
travel ; that he was an agreeable and instructive companion, 
with a warm heart and capable of the most genuine and 
permanent friendships, and that he was a lawyer of wide 
and varied learning ; and that as a magistrate, he has left a 
reputation unsullied by a single unworthy deed, constitut- 
ing as it does the richest legacy he could transmit to those 
of his own name and lineage. » 

For the Council. 


310 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



In the last Report of the Council reasons were given why 
historical scholars should endeavor "to make their country- 
men familiar with the history, traditions and institutions of 
Canada." The remainder of the present Report, for whose 
statements the writer alone is responsible, will be devoted 
to the French-Canadians in New England. An account 
\ will first be given of their numbers and organization and of 
the national hopes which are centered in them, and then a 
closer study attempted in the light of their origin, training 
and leadership. 

For the facts communicated in the earlier part of what is 
thus submitted, the writer is indebted to two works to 
which it may not be amiss to turn attention. One is a 
thick, octavo volume, published at Lowell, and entitled 
Le Guide Frarujais des Etats-Uni&. It is compiled by 
Mr. A. Bourbonniere, Secretary of the Soc'uM de Publica- 
tions Fran^aises des Etats-Unis, and appears the present 
year in its third edition. The other volume is: Les 
Canadiens-FraiKjais de la Nouvelle Angleterre, also an 
octavo, and numbering about five hundred pages. It was 
published in Quebec the present year, and is from the pen 
of a member of the Society of Jesus : E. Ilamon, formerly 
an attractive Professor of Belles Lcttrcs in the ColUye de 
jSairde Marie, Montreal, and well known among his country- 
men in New England and New York as a missioner or con- 
ductor of religious ''retreats." The first part of this book 
gives a graphic sketch of the material and social condition 
of the French-Canadians in New England, together with an 

1891.] The French- Canadians in New England. 317 

ardent and eloquent plea for the preservation of their dis- 
tinct nationality and for the agencies by which it is believed 
that this may bo maintained. The second part contains a 
detailed history of a very large number of Canadian parishes 
in these States. No work is known to the writer which so 
' full}' and spiritedly introduces the reader into the life and 
aspirations of these French communities in New England. 

In the preceding Report of the Council, already referred 
to, it was stated that "there are probably 1,250,000 Cana- 
dians now dwelling in this country." About one million of 
these people are French. Their di [fusion is such that sta- 
tistics are reported concerning them, though confined to the 
Roman Catholic division, from all but two 1 of the fifty-one 
States and Territories of this country, though in the returns 
Oklahoma is not distinguished from the Indian Territory. 
In Alaska there is a French-Canadian population of about 
three hundred; in the Indian Territory there are from five 
to six hundred. The chief centres are New England, where 
there are 302,396, or nearly eight per cent, of the entire 
population (4,700,745) ; and the State of New York, where 
there tire 100,000, of whom 29,498 arc voters. In Maine 
there are 52,986 ; in New Hampshire, 47,682 ; in Vermont, 
31,467; in Massachusetts, 165,325; in Rhode Island, 
37,338 ; in Connecticut, 27,598. These figures include only 
Roman Catholics. Probably at least 10,000 Protestants 
should be added, giving as the total French-Canadian popu- 
lation in New England, 372,396, or in round numbers, and 
recosrnizino; that these returns are of a date from which we are 
rapidly advancing, towards 400,000. The valuation of prop- 
erty in the hands of the Roman Catholic portion is reported 
by the Guide Franvais to be in Maine, $2,400,374; New 
Hampshire, $2,599,451; Vermont, $2,580,315 ; Massachu- 
setts, $10,900,604 ; Rhode Island, $1,919,975; Connecti- 
cut, $1,422,915 ; in all, $21,823,634. The real estate held 
by the French-Canadian Roman Catholics in the country is 

1 Maryland and Washington. 

318 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

estimated at $105,328,500. The same authority reports as 
naturalized citizens, or voters, in New England, 33,563.' 
This is more than double the number returned in 1887. 
The number of proprietors has increased in the same brief 
period from 7,568 to 11,91)0, and their valuation from 
$13,044,076 to $21,823,364. The variety of employments 
( which are pursued is noteworthy. A very large proportion 
work in shoe, cotton, or other factories, but no one of the 
ordinary trades and professions seems to be unappropriated. 
Besides carpenters, clothiers, grocers, bakers and other 
dealers in the necessaries or customary conveniencies of life, 
the ornamental arts are well represented, and enterprise has 
extended itself to a great variety of business employments. 
There are also commissioners of various kinds, justices of 
the peace, sherilfs, policemen, health officers, city council- 
lors, inspectors of customs, registrars, members of legisla- 
tures, notaries, lawyers, doctors, journalists, teachers and 

. The Canadian emigration is distinguished by Father Hamon 
into three classes, the temporary, the roving and the 
permanent. The first is composed of farmers who come here 
to obtain means to lift from their lands at home the mort^ 
gages which have settled upon them. This class constantly 
recruits the third. Though the parents recover their homes 
the children are discontented, and find their way back to 
the States, and whether they stay or go they become, volun- 
tarily or involuntarily, propagandists in the old parishes of 
new migrations. Their example, their success, their brilliant 
descriptions of American life, the fine clothes they wear, 
excite the imaginations of their neighbors and acquaintances, 
so that often for one man who returns to Canada iive will 
.go to the States. 2 The permanent emigrants, we are told, 

come mostly from the rural districts, the Eastern counties, 


1 lu Maine, 12,100; New Hampshire, ;{,S00; Vermont, 3,3oti; Massachusetts, 
10,740; Rhode Island, 2,017; Connecticut, 1,550. 

2 Las CanadienS'Fran^ais de la NoucelU-AwjleUrre. 

1891.] The French-Canadians in New England. 319 

the dioceses of Three Rivers and liimouski. Father 
Hamon delineates vividly the process by which these 
habitants arc transformed into successful operatives, the 
tenement-house is supplanted by the cottage, and a life of 
comparative material comfort and social advancement takes 
the place of the old Canadian poverty and restriction. 
Though the sketch needs toning down, it is doubtless in 
the main truthful, and is certainly attractive. If time per- 
mitted it would be a pleasure to read its bright and graphic 
description of French-Canadian life in Marlborough and 

We have noticed thus far the concentration of the French- 
Canadian immigration in New England, and the diversified 
industries and professions into which it has extended itself. 
Equally worthy of observation is its organization. At 
the bottom, precursor and pledge of all besides, is the 
parish, which with important differences, to be noticed 
later, is transferred from Quebec to New England. With 
the parish and its church and presbytery come the convent 
and the parochial school. In New England and New York 
one hundred and twenty parishes with church buildings or 
chapels have been established during the past twenty years, 
and fifty large convents, where, with the other schools, there 
are taught more than 30,000 pupils. "Many others are in 
process of construction and will be soon opened." The 
parishes are served entirely by Canadian or French priests, 
usin"; the French language, which is also the medium of 
instruction in the convents and schools. 

Besides these institutions, promotive of a distinct and or- 
ganized life, there are numerous societies which minister to 
the same end. Such are the religious associations composed 
of young women and of mothers, the congregations of the 
Sarnie Viertje and the association of the Dames de la Bonne 
Sainte Anne, and for men the Liyue da Coeur de Jesus. 
The latter exists in one hundred and lour parishes in Can- 
ada and the Eastern States, and numbers more than 38,000 

320 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

members. Forty branches, with 14,000 members, have 
been added in the United States in five years. More im- 
portant still for certain purposes to which we will soon allude 
is the wide-spread organization of Saint Jean Baptiste. 
Its motto is, Notre Religion, Notre Lanyue, et nos Mceurs, 
There are two hundred and ten of these soeieties in Now 
England, with 30,540 members. The priest of the parish 
or some one appointed by him is now, by a somewhat re- 
cent change in their rules, the chaplain of the local associa- 
tion. The members must be French-Canadians, speak the 
French language, and be Roman Catholics. They cannot 
belong to any society disapproved of by the Church. 

In addition to these organizations there are numerous 
religious orders and communities. 

The first French-Canadian parish founded in New Eng- 
land and now enrolled was that of St. Joseph in Burlington, 
Vermont. It encountered in its beginning strong opposition 
from the Irish Catholics of that city, but in 1850 received 
the approval of Bishop Fitzpatrick of Boston. In 1853, 
Vermont was made a separate diocese, and a man was 
placed at its head who became the prime mover in the work 
of organization whose results we have just stated. There 
were then in "Vermont not a few Canadians, some of whom 
were descendants from men who had received lands on 
Lake Champlain for services in the war of Independence, 
and others had sought refuge over the border after the sup- 
pression of the insurrection in 1837. Bishop DeGoesbriand, 
with an apostolic zeal and self-denial, after obtaining priests 
from Brittany in France, which he visited for this purpose, 
traversed with his assistants the mountains and valleys of 
Vermont, seeking those whom he regarded as sheep without 
a shepherd. At the close of our Civil War began the 
immigration which has attained so large proportions. 
Bishop l)e Goesbriand devoted himself indefatigably to the 
establishment of distinct French parishes, and to providing 
for them priests, teachers, churches and schools. No one can 

1891.] The French-Canadians in New Enyland. 321 

read his fervent appeal, published in the Protecteur Can- 
adien in 1869, without recognizing that a primary element 
in the i^reat work of organization which has been accom- 
plished was a burning religious zeal ; and all that we learn 
of him from persons of intelligence outside of his communion 
accredits him with a pure Christian motive in his arduous 
and self-denying labors. He has had the trust in Providence 
which belongs to his order of greatness. "Providence," he 
wrote in 18()9, "which governs the world, in this emigra- 
tion which astonishes us, has views which are unknown to 
us. Let it work. It will know how to draw good from 
what seems to us evil." And again: "God in his Provi- 
dence wills that nations be evangelized, at least generally, 
by apostles who speak their language, who know their 
habits, their dispositions ; that the nations be evangel- 
ized by the priests of their own nation." The Church was 
aroused by the Bishop's faith and eloquence, and the policy 
of distinct French parishes, served by French priests, has 
now everywhere triumphed. As usual there have blended 
in the history, as it has developed, other motives and aims 
than those which, to say the least, were paramount in the 
minds of Bishop De Goesbriand and his little band of mis- 
sionary priests. Father Hamon enables us to discover these 
without pains. In several chapters he discusses the ques- 
tion of the retention by his countrymen in New England of 
their distinctive nationality, and opposes vigorously the 
doctrine of the Baltimore Congress that "national societies 
as such have no reason for their existence in the Church of 
this country." The Canadians in this land, he contends, 
should be loyal to its government, but their hearts must 
remain true to their first love, their own nationality, a new 
France distinct in language, customs, traditions, aspirations, 
faith, if not in political organization. Even here we need 
not question that the religious end is ultimate, but from the 
Roman Catholic point of view this cannot be dissociated 
from the ecclesiastical, nor this entirely from the political. 

322 American Antiquarian Society. Oct. 

Accordingly, our author emphasizes, with the preservation 
of the Catholic faith of his countrymen, and in the last 
analysis as subordinate to it, the retention by them of all 
that connects and identities them in thought and feeling, in 
spirit and aim, with their brethren the other side of the 
border. The Canadian parish must everywhere be repro- 
duced. The girls must be educated so that French will be 
the sure and indeed the necessary language of the home. 
The vision must never fade of a complete union in language 
and customs with the people whom they have left in their 
former home. The feasibility of the most intimate union 
of this sort, and the possibility of something more complete, 
and, to their national feeling, more satisfactory, are bril- 
liantly depicted. The law of migration, we are told, is 
southward. The Canadian territory south of the Saint 
Lawrence is, in consequence, fast rilling to repletion. Al- 
ready its population overflows into the States. There will 
be an increasing tide of migration. It will be under full 
headway by another generation. The national disposition 
and the parochial organization of those already on this side 
of the line will hold them to their language, religion and cus- 
toms, at least until there comes this great re-enforcement. 
Their connection with their mother country, the Province 
of Quebec, differentiates them from the French in Louisiana, 
isolated and remote from their ancient home, or from the 
Irish, or the German immigration. They are of a race 
tenacious of its characteristics, tenacious of a different civili- 
zation from the Anglo-Saxon. Soon the network of parishes 
spreading over New England will meet and unite with that 
which covers the Province of Quebec. There will be prac- 
tically one controlling social and religious organization, 
whatever political distinctions may remain. Two possibili- 
ties arise in this latter regard. Either Quebec may become 
independent of the Dominion and of England, or it may be 
united with this country. In either event there are the 
strongest inducements to cherish the sentiment of French 

1891.] The French- Canadians In New England. 323 

nationality. It may be counted upon to endure at least tor 
a hundred years. Then the United States will number 
more than a hundred millions of men. What possibilities 
are there of new divisions, new political organizations ! In 
a word, the dream and the vision may at last be fulfilled of 
the new France. 

We do not pause to consider what necessary reductions 
a sober criticism may make upon such schemes and hopes. 
Let these be as important as they may, there can be no 
question that a great power, controlled by ideas such as 
thrill and consolidate communities, is rising, and is already 
firmly organized and strongly connected and supported, 
within our borders. If eventually it is to be "American- 
ized," this will not come about unless the forces requisite 
for such a result are kept pure and operative. If it is to 
gain a greater independence and inlluence we need to un- 
derstand its character. 

• Who are these swarming immigrant*? What are their 
characteristics? What has been their training? Such 
questions deserve careful study. Some suggestions that 
must enter into a true answer to them are all that we can 
hope now to offer. 

The French-Canadians are mainly descendants of the Nor- 
mans and Bretons who came over from France in the seven- 
teenth century. With them are to be associated settlers 
from Anjou, Poitou, Le Perche, L' Isle de France, officers 
of the crown, and soldiers, especially from the famous regi- 
ment of Carianan. The main French emigration is said to 
have closed about 1G75. After 1072 no new regiment was 
sent out from France, though the old ones continued to 
be recruited and thus added somewhat to the number of the 
colonists. Some contrabands, not more than two hundred, 
are admitted by the same writer to have been sent over 
between 1700 and 1730. » 

J Pv-oceedings and Transactions of the. Boyal Soviet;/ of Canada. Vol. Til, 
Section 1., pp. 13-2S. Communication by Benjamin Suite. 

324 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Some authors have contended that there is in this race a 
large percentage of Indian blood. This admixture is cred- 
ited to the time of the earlier settlers, and traces of it are 
claimed with great confidence to be apparent in the features 
of many Canadians of the present day. Such a representa- 
tion appears to be insuiliciently grounded in what is known 
of the early history, and to involve a great exaggeration of 
what is now observable, or insecure inference from it. 
During the past year a distinguished scholar, the Abbr 
Tanguay, has published the seventh volume of his monu- 
mental Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families Canadl- 
ennes. It gives as complete a record as the learned author 
has found to be possible of every Canadian family down to 
the Conquest, to which are added some materials appropri- 
ate to later volumes which the author fears his strength 
may not enable him to finish. .No such work is possible 
among ourselves, or from the English parishes, since the 
records are far less complete. In Canada they have been 
remarkably well kept and preserved, so that the boast is 
made that every descendant of the original settlers can trace 
his family history, in its beginnings in this country, in this 
Dictionary. At the close of the last volume, a list is given 
of whites known to have married Indian women during the 
preceding two centuries of Canadian history. They number 
ninety-four. The author claims that the children of these 
marriages were all dead before the close of the last century ; 
that a few, but only a few, half-breeds from the West have 
married into the race, and that the mixed element is 
imperceptible in a nation of 2,000,000. There are a few 
families, we have in mind two, which are of distinction in 
public and social life, that are known to have Indian 
blood, and this fact excites the same sort of comment 
that attaches with us to the supposed descendants of 
Pocahontas. If it be suggested that the amount of admix- 
ture is much increased by unions and births not likely 
to be registered, it may be replied that such descents 

1891.] The French- Canadians in New England. 325 

belong rather to Indian than to Canadian genealogies. 1 
A much more important fusion has taken place through 
intermarriages with the English, Scotch and Irish. The 
curious phenomenon is presented of neighborhoods and vil- 
lages where the family names are Scotch, Irish or English, 
— people not a few, as an informant remarked, "who 
never could speak a word of English, descended from 
people who had never known a word of French." Dr. 
Kingsford, who is publishing an elaborate and valuable 
"History of Canada," attributes much importance to this 
absorption of foreign blood. lie points out that at the time 
of the conquest the Canadian population numbered tiO,000, 
of whom there were only about 15,000 males between six- 
teen and sixty years of age, and that by 1881, according to 
the census, there were in the provinces of Quebec and 
Ontario 1,176,563 French-Canadians. So great an increase 
he maintains could not have sprung from the men who 
yielded to the British invaders. 2 There has doubtless been 
a large absorption of foreign blood, yet the principal, the 
controlling strain is from the days of the French regime and 
from the sailors and farmers, the adventurers and soldiers, 
whose homes had been among the hills and on the plains 
and coasts of Brittany and Normandy and a few of the ad- 
joining divisions of France. 

Intelligent observers also claim that the Breton or Nor- 
man descent can still be plainly discriminated in particular 
districts or parishes. The Bretons are straight-forward, 
plain-spoken, strong-headed, even to obstinacy. A hand- 
shake over a bargain is as good as a bond. They are un- 
suspicious and easily deceived. The Normans are more 
polite, and somewhat slippery. Horse-traders, our informant 

i For further discussion of this question reference may be made to a paper 
by Benjamin Suite, Pn-tendues origines des Canadiens-Francais, in the 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Poyal Society of Canada, lSSo, Vol. 
ill., Section 1., pp. I8-2& For an article on the other side, see ibid., Section 
11., pp. 1-214 "The Half-Breed," by -John Keadc. 

- The History of Canada, Vol. IV., pp. 501-604, 

o2(> American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

added, know which parishes to visit. After receiving his 
account of the characteristics of certain parishes where the 
Normans prevailed we happened to light upon Air. Freeman's 
inventory, in the Encvdopwdia Britannica of the quali- 
ties of the inhabitants of Normandy, and found the two 
descriptions almost identical in substance, with one import- 
ant exception : Mr. Freeman, having in mind the Scandi- 
navian conquerors of Normandy, the Northmen who gave to 
it its name, emphasizes their facility in being absorbed by 
other races. The Normans of the seventeenth century and 
their descendants in Canada seem to show the commingling 
with their Scandinavian parentage of a Gallic stock which 
is tenacious and persistent. 

The parishes where the two sources can be distinguished, 
we suppose, are few and exceptional. The general French- 
Canadian type is formed by indiscriminate intermarriage 
among the early colonists. The people at large have clearly 
the usual French qualities, courtesy, vivacity, fondness 
for amusements, ready submission to traditional authority, 
adaptability, with a power of patient persistence for which 
not enough credit has been given. Their prolilicness is 
phenomenal. Only in Prince Edward Island is the family 
ratio so high, either in the Dominion or the United States. 
From the beginnings of Canadian history, early marriages 
and large families have been promoted by rulers and priests. 
Louis the Fourteenth adopted vigorous and successful meas- 
ures to secure these results. ' Cargoes of young women 
were regularly shipped to the colony. Any adult male not 
marrying was subjected to restriction. To be the father of 
a numerous family became a title to distinction and profit. 
The Archbishop of Paris instructed each cure in his diocese 
to learn what young women were willing to seek their for- 
tunes in Canada. The King in their case certainly showed 
his beneficence. He not only trusted to the charms of these 
rustic beauties ; but each one, on her marriage, was the re- 
cipient of a mark of royal favor : cattle, provisions, or the 

1891.] The French-Canadian* in Mid England. 327 

means of constructing a house. Generally, in fifteen days, 
most of the new arrivals found partners, and the choice of a 
wife was enforced with all the auxiliaries of power. Young 
men who did not marry were forbidden to trade, hunt, or 
fish, or in any way enter the hush. The Mi-re de V Incar- 
nation tells us that as the selection was made, marriages 
were celebrated by thirties at the same ceremony. Nor 
was it by emigration alone that the promotion of marriage 
was attained. M. de Laval was called upon by the King to 
use his iniluence to induce the youth to marry at eighteen 
and the girls at sixteen. Twenty livres was the reward of 
the youth of twenty and of the girl of sixteen or under, 
who married. It was called le pre'sent du roi. Fathers 
who did not marry their children were fined. A pension 
of three hundred livres [in a special edict] is promised to 
the habitant* having ten children, no sex named ; four 
hundred to those having twelve.' Such are the statements 
of a careful historian, Dr. Kingsford. 1 The policy thus 
begun is continued to the present time. Not long since the 
Quebec Legislature offered "a bounty of 100 acres of land to 
every head of a family of twelve living legitimate children." 
The first to avail himself of the offer was the speaker 
pro tempore of the legislature. y ''Already," writes Dr. 
Prosper Bender, under date of July, 1890, "over one thou- 
sand applications have been made for the promised bounty." 
" In most homes" he further states, "there are from a dozen 
to sixteen children, and even as many as twenty-eight. Two 
prominent officials of the Province of Quebec are twenty- 
sixth children, and fine specimens of physical development 
and mental culture they are, too." 3 " The Speaker of the 
House of Commons is the twenty-fourth child of a twenty- 

1 History of Canada, I., pp. 35 ( J-3ti'J. 

'* Report submitted to the U. S. Senate by Mr. Hoar, July 21, 1890, p. 

* Magazine of American History, Aug. 1S90, pp. 132-13:$. 

328 . American Antiquarian Soviet//. [Oct. 

fourth child." 1 The most impressive evidence of the ex- 
pansion of the French population is given in the statistics 
of population for the Eastern and other English townships 
in the Province of Quebec. " In 1831," we quote from the 
Toronto Mail, March, 1890, as reprinted in Senator Hoar's 
Report,- "The eastern townships contained 87,964 Protest- 
ant, i. e., British settlers, and 4,242 Roman Catholics, of 
whom about 1,200 were Irish Catholics, leaving the number 
of French-Canadians 3,000 or thereabouts. In 1844, * * 
the figures stood 48,398 British and 14,622 French; in 
1851, GO, 199 British and 34,066 French; in 1861, 76,317 
British and 60,319 French; in 1871, 72,591 British and 
83,705 French; and in 1881, * * 77,805 British and 
109,042 French, * * * In the other four English counties, 
the figures stand thus: In 1861, the British population was 
48,650; in 1871, 49,754; in 1881, 54,410; whereas the 
French population in these years was 23,620, 33,795, and 
46,518 respectively." A gentleman, born in France, but 
educated after thirteen in Quebec, remarked to the writer 
that a Canadian mother, with say four young daughters, will 
do all the hard work herself in order that her daughters, 
especially if pretty (and the average oi' good looks is 
high), may not impair their attractiveness for marriage. 3 

Comparatively speaking there is a good standard of mo- 
rality among these people. Mr. Winans, when before the 
select committee of the 17. S. Senate on Relations with 
Canada, when asked his opinion on this subject replied : 
* * "The insurance actuaries say that if the moral condition 
of the people of the United States was as high as that of 
the people of the Dominion of Canada, they would get their 
insurance at two-thirds of the price they now have to pay." 4 
lie was asked at the same time concerning their intelligence, 

i Senator Hoar's Report, p. 7f>5. - Ibid., p. 105(5. 

a For additional information, see President Aniaron's Your Heritage, p. 42. 
et seij. 
4 Report, p. 700. 

1891.] The French-Canadians in JVew England. 321) 

but does not appear to have covered this in his answer. 
There has been marked improvement of late years in the 
educational system, yet the mass of the people have had 
the most meagre school training, and many who come to us 
are deplorably ignorant. 

Their civil and political training, until very recently, has 
been from the outset under the maxims of absolutism. The 
feudal system, though without the military obligation of the 
vassal to his lord, was set up at once, and remained in force 
down to within the lifetime of present proprietors and rent- 
ers of the soil. 1 The King governed through the Provincial 
Governor, and especially the Tntendant. "During the days 
of French domination in Canada" [1G08-1760], says an 
eminent authority, Mr. Bourinot, "we look in vain for evi- 
dences of self-government in any form, such as we see in 
the town-meetings of Massachusetts and in the counties and 
parishes of Virginia, or in other divisions of the old English 
colonies in America, in all of which we can see the germs of 
liberty and free institutions from the earliest days of their 
history. The system of government that was established on 
the banks of the St. Lawrence was the very opposite of that 
to which the people of New England always clung as their 
most valued heritage. While the towns-folk of Massachusetts 
were discussing affairs in town-meeting, the French inhabit- 
ants of Canada were never allowed to take part in public 
assemblies, but were taught to depend in the most trivial 
matters on a paternal government." 2 Nor was there any 
marked improvement or substantial change under British 
rule down to the time of Lord Durham, and the changes 
which took place in connection with the union of Upper 
and Lower Canada by the Act of 1840. More exactly, the 
period from 1845 to 18(17 may be marked as the formative 

1 The seiyneuvies came to tin eucl in 1854. 

* Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies, Fifth Series, V.-VI., 18ST. '< Local 
Government in Canada, etc.," by John George Bourinot, Clerk of the House 
of Commons of Canada, etc., etc. 

1891.] The French- Canadians in Sew England. 32S) 

but does not appear to have covered this in his answer. 
There has been marked improvement of late years in the 
educational system, yet the mass of the people have had 
the most meagre school training, and many who come to us 
are deplorably ignorant. 

Their civil and political training, until very recently, has 
been from the. outset under the maxims of absolutism. The 
feudal system, though without the military obligation of the 
vassal to his lord, was set up at once, and remained in force 
down to within the lifetime of present proprietors and rent- 
ers of the soil. 1 The King governed through the Provincial 


Governor, and especially the Intendant. "During the days 
of French domination in Canada" [1608-1760], says an 
eminent authority, Mr. Bourinot, "we look in vain for evi- 
dences of self-government in any form, such as we see in 
the town-meetings of Massachusetts and in the counties and 
parishes of Virginia, or in other divisions of the old English 
colonies in America, in all of which we can see the germs of 
liberty and free institutions from the earliest days of their 
history. The system of government that was established on 
the banks of the St. Lawrence was the very opposite of that 
to which the people of New England always clung as their 
most valued heritage. While the towns-folk of Massachusetts 
were discussing affairs in town-meeting, the French inhabit- 
ants of Canada were never allowed to take part in public 
assemblies, but were taught to depend in the most trivial 
matters on a paternal government." 2 Nor was there any 
marked improvement or substantial change under British 
rule down to the time of Lord Durham, and the changes 
which took place in connection with the union of Upper 
and Lower Canada by the Act of 1840. More exactly, the 
period from 1845 to 1867 may be marked as the formative 

i The seigneuries came to tin end in 1S54. 

* Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies, Fifth Series, V.-VL, 1887. " Local 
Government in Canada, etc.," by John George Bourinot, Clerk of the House 
of Commons of Canada, etc., etc. 

330 Artier lean Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

one for municipal organization, with local responsibility 
and self-government. The immigrants who iiock to us to- 
day, and still more those who have preceded them for 
twenty or twenty-five years past, have had little or no expe- 
rience in that method of responsible local government in 
which we have been trained from the start ; nor in their 
ancient civil constitution is there anything correspondent, 
not only to the old English parish system, but to that inter- 
mediate agency between the crown and the people supplied 
by the country gentry, and which in English history has 
helped to prepare for more democratic institutions and 
methods of government. The Canadian seigneur is no equiv- 
alent for an English baron, nor even for an English squire. 
Until very lately there has been in Quebec, in civil affairs, 
almost nothing in institutions and classes in society, to pre- 
pare for popular liberty and true self-government. One 
result of this history is that the suffrage now bestowed is 
used with but a vague and low sense of its responsibility. 
To a lamentable degree it is venal. 

A parish system has been in existence from the early 
times, and with its dependencies, it has been the leading 
educational iniluence in an institutional way. The people 
who could not meet in civil assemblies, met within the 
church or on its steps. So far as the doctrine or practice 
of the irremovability of the curd at the will of the bishop ob- 
tained he was a representative of a sort of autonomy among 
his parishioners, however completely he ruled them. Such 
intellectual, moral or spiritual quickening as they received 
came through the services of the parish church. Its spire 
determined the parish. Every church had its fabrique, 
or board of trustees, and its mar(/uillier$ y or wardens. 
Civilly the country was ruled through the; cure, the seif/neur, 
and the capltaiue. The circle of notables was likely to be 
larger for church affairs, and more diffusive of thought and 
the sense of community. Yet in this sphere, as in the civil 
and military, there was but little range for freedom of 

1891.] The French- Canadians in New England. 331 

action. The system of tithing for the support of religious 
institutions was early established. There has been a long 
and earnest dispute whether before the Quebec Act of 1774 
such assessments had a legal force. A recent discovery of 
a royal edict is said to have settled the question affirma- 
tively. Under this system all such dues were imposed 
without any consent direct or indirect of the party upon 
whom they fell. Taxation in the Church as in the State, 
and by the power of the State, was without representation. 
So that here too there was no effective or real autonomy 
even in respect to the secularities of religion. 

Time does not permit any sketch of the history of muni- 
cipal or parochial life in French Canada. A glance at some 
of their features as now constituted is all that can be 

The Province is divided into twenty judicial circuits, and 
into sixty-five counties, or electoral districts. These are 
subdivided into cities, towns, parishes and villages. 

A village is not a municipal corporation and has no 
proper council, but is regulated by that of the parish. 
Ordinarily it is the place where the church building is 
located, though sometimes there are two villages in a 
parish : one, where the church stands, that is the centre 
of religious administration ; another, where the civil admin- 
istration has its seat. As a rule the village is that part of 
the parish where the church is located, and the Commis- 
sioners' Court is held, a court which deals with all contested 
claims for twenty-five dollars or less, excepting actions for 
tort. The commissioners are three in number and are 
appointed by an order in Council, that is by the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor and his cabinet. At such a centre may be 
found the post-office and school-house, the priest, beadle 
and schoolmaster, the doctor and notary, the shoemaker 
and grocer. 

Towns are incorporated by act of legislature. The law 
requites a population of 3,000, but this is not rigidly 

332 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

enforced. It has power to appoint its own mayor and coun- 
cillors, and to levy local taxes. The number of councillors 
depends on the number of quartiers^ or districts, pre- 
scribed in the charter. The mayor is ex-officio a justice of 
the peace for cases originating in the town. With the 
councillors he is elected in January by the voters, who 
must have discharged their taxes, and must own property 
to the value of fifty dollars, or at least pay a rent of twenty 
dollars on land in town. Considerable interest is taken in 
the election, which has been enhanced by the fact that poor 
people have often secured the payment of their taxes by the 
candidates, though now that the secret ballot is introduced 
the transaction is not so sure in its issue as formerly. 
The experience of the people in municipal government is 
quite recent, not being fully entered upon until 1807. 
Every town and parish is represented by its mayor in a 
county council. The chairman of this council is called the 
warden. " It regulates," says Mr. Mercier, 1 " all questions 
interesting more than one municipality, decrees the erection 
of certain territory into municipalities [/. e., associates cer- 
tain sections for purposes of taxation in matters of common 
interest], and decides on appeal certain contestations aris- 
ing out of affairs of the local municipalities." County roads 
are under the control of the county ; what are called conces- 
sion roads are under that of the parish. 

A parish is a village or villages, or part of such, with the 
surrounding concessions, approved by the bishop of the 
diocese. The moment it has three hundred inhabitants it 
can become a municipality, or civil corporation, without 
resort to the legislature. It is organized for civil purposes 
by the choice, by the taxpayers, of seven councillors who 
elect from their own number a mayor. a The authority of 

1 General Sketch of the Province of Quebec. By Hon. Honor* Mercier, 
Premier of the Province. Quebec, 18S9. [Published in Canada: A Memorial 
Volume. Montreal, 1S89.] 

***Tfce powers of the municipal councillor.-" says Mr. Mercier, " embrace 
the making and maintenance of roads, public , -ks of u purely local nature, 
the levying and collection of municipal and school taxes, police matters, and 
the enforcement of certain laws concerning agriculture." 

1891.] The French-Canadian* in New England^ 333 

the Church plays a great part in the erection of parishes 
and parochial municipalities. This may be illustrated by 
the process pursued when a parish is to be divided, as this 
has been described to the writer. Some of the proprietors 
go informally to the bishop and ask for a division. The 
bishop asks, "How many inhabitants will there be in it? 
Get a petition signed by a majority of the requisite number 
[r. e., 300] and I will establish a parish at once." The 
petitioners may be the smallest proprietors, and the poorest 
class of the inhabitants. The requisite number being 
assured, the bishop sends a note to the Commissioner, who 
calls a meeting of the freeholders of the locality where the 
new parish is to be set up. As soon as he is certified of a 
majority vote he makes a favorable report, a priest of the 
new parish is appointed at once and becomes head of the 
parish. Then a meeting is held of which the priest is ex- 
ojjicio president. He can speak from the chair. Syndic* 
or trustees are then appointed to look after the building 
of the parish church. Generally six are chosen, sometimes 
four, the priest having the balance of power. With the 
priest and the bishop they arc the only otlicials to decide 
on the cost of the church. The plans and estimates are 
then made under the direction of the syndics, and when 
approved by the bishop, become the legal basis of assess- 
ment upon all rate-payers belonging to the Roman Catholic 
Church. The same method is pursued for the erection of 
the priest's house. The location of the church and presby- 
tery is decided by the bishop. The assessments can be 
enforced at the rate of ten per centum per annum. These 
give rise to many mortgages on the real estate in the parish, 
which are held by the Church. This has been an effective 
instrument in the encroachn Mit of the French-Canadian 
agricultural population on the English. The Church con- 
trols the land. 

Within the parish is the fabrique, a term in universal 
use, and of legal force, which no one seems able to define. 

334 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

It is a legal corporation, levies taxes collectible by law, 
and more perhaps than any other institution has maintained 
in the Canadian communities the little force or measure of 
autonomy which has obtained. It is supposed to be formed 
of the cure or parish priest and the marguilliers. The 
main function of the fabrique is to assess the rates for the 
Church administration of the parish, the so-called casuel, 
including warming and lighting the church building, and 
fees for a multiplicity of priestly services. Once a year 
the marguilliers accompany the priest in his visit to the 
families of his Hock and receive a collection, nominally at 
least, voluntary. They go round in a large sleigh for the 
quete de V Enfant Jesu. The marguilliers are elected, one 
each year, for a term of three years. The oldebt in office 
is president of the body. 

In conclusion we would emphasize these points. 

1. The French-Canadians have come to stay. The tenac- 
ity of the race is historically demonstrated. The Romans 
conquered the Gauls, but the Gauls absorbed their conquer- 
ors. The Scandinavians took possession of Normandy, gave 
it its name, and impressed their characteristic qualities, which 
remain to-day with a certain distinctness in parishes and 
districts in Canada. Yet there is a staying power in these 
people which seems to spring from the stock into which the 
Northmen were engrafted. The Franks, before this Danish 
invasion, came and ruled, but France and Germany are al- 
most as distinct to-day in racial peculiarities as the ancient 
Gauls and Romans. And on this continent the British con- 
quest of Canada is leaving less and less traces of itself in 
the population of Quebec. This province is becoming more 
and more thoroughly and completely French. 

2. So that we must say, secondly, Canadians have come 
to remain, for a long time certainly, French Canadians. 
The force of their past history, the constant pressure, im- 
pulse and direction of their trusted leaders, will keep them 
to this national unity. They are not like people separated 


1891.] The French-Canadians in New England. 335 

by thousands of miles from the lands of their nativity or 
origin. Their countrymen press hard upon the thin, invisi- 
ble line which separates the Province of Quebec from Maine, 
New Hampshire and Vermont. The old English counties 
are filling up from the French parishes north of the St. 
Lawrence. The overflow from the same districts is not re- 
strained by any geographical or political boundary. Soon 
the parishes south of the St. Lawrence will run over. 
Meanwhile a parochial organization w r ill have been thor- 
oughly established reaching up from Connecticut to the 
border, and meeting a similar one there covering the entire 
province. A living inter-communion of this sort is an im- 
mense force for the preservation of the national traits, lan- 
guage, and customs. 

If possible, the priests, so far as organization can effect 
this, are more in control with us, than in Quebec. The parish 
is transplanted, but not the fabrique. All the church prop- 
erty of a parish is in the hands of the priest, or his ecclesias- 
tical superiors. One thing is wanting, the system of tithes, 
with its first lien upon the land. The discovery, if it be 
such, that this was in force as civil law before the conquest, 
helps to fasten this. on Quebec, under its present allegiance. 
For though the Act of Quebec reserves the supremacy of 
the Crown, it guarantees to the Roman Catholic Church 
under this limitation, all the "dues and rights," with respect 
to its own followers, which existed under the French Re- 
gime. This falls away the moment the parish crosses the 
line and enters New England. Hut no one acquainted with 
the powers wielded by the Roman Catholic priesthood over 
these people as they come to us can anticipate much change 
for a long time on this account. The money for churches, 
schools and convents is forthcoming without the fabrique 
and Without legal tithes. 

3. And this population, organized" and moving, as it 
were, in a solid and disciplined column, has come to multi- 
ply. Not so fast as at home, we inay believe, by natural 

336 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

increase, but still largely thus, and also by constant re- 
enforcement. The domestic policy has greatly changed. 
Once Bishop De Goesbriand could obtain priests only from 
France. Now Father If anion's book appears under the 
approval of Cardinal Taschereau. 

AVe have thus rapidly developing among us an organized 
community opposed to Americanization, secluded by all pos- 
sible effort on the part of its leaders from the assimilating 
influences which affect other immigrants, and having on its 
banners the inscription : Notre Religion^ Notre Laitgue, 
et nos Mature. It is an organization ruled by a principle 
diametrically opposed to that which our fathers brought to 
these shores, and which has made New England what it is. 
The one depresses to the lowest point possible what the 
other exalted to the highest, the principle of personal re- 
sponsibility with the freedom which this involves. 

We have no criticism to pass upon men of another faith 
for being loyal to their convictions, we recognize their pur- 
pose to be loyal to our flag, we would have them enjoy all 
the guarantees our Constitution and civilization provide of 
civil and religious liberty. We would incite no religious 
or civil crusade, nor play the role of alarmists. Wc would 
use only the weapons of truth and light. But light there 
must be ; for in it, under the blessing of Him who gives it, 
is our national security. Shall not the scholars of America 
see to it, so far as they may, that the common-school system 
shall remain a bond of union, a common principle, and not 
become a question for political division? 

1891.] Report of the Treasurer. 'AA1 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report of receipts and dis- 
bursements for the six months ending October 1, 1891. 

By direction of the Finance Committee there has been 
carried to each fund, from the income of the investments 
for the past six months, three per cent, on the amount of 
the several funds April 1, 1891. 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund has been increased $5,000 
by the gift of Hon. E. L. Davis, and by vote of the 
Society is hereafter to be called The Isaac and Edward L. 
Davis Book Fund. 

A detailed statement of the investments is given as a 
part of this report, showing the par and market value of 
the various stocks and bonds. 

The reserved " Income Fund" now amounts to $1,372.62. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand October ] , 
1891, was $115,547.78, divided among the several funds 
as follows : 

The Librarian's unci General Fund, • • $30,400.53 

The Colleetion and Research Fund, 18,!>23.N:i 

The Bookbinding Fund, 8,411.81 

The Publishing Fund, 22,517.45 

The l.saae and Edward L. Davis Hook Fund, 0,807.31 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 3,207.14 

The Uenj. F. Thomas Local History Fund, 1,07-1.70 

The Salisbury Building Fuud, 1 ,084.37 

The A lden Fund 1 ,308.01 

The Teuney Fund, 5,000.00 

The Haven Fund, 1,218.48 

The George Chandler Fund, 530.17 

The Francis 11. Dewey Fund, 2,320.12 

Premium Account, 070.00 

Income Account, 1.372.02 

Stevens' Subscription, 75.00 


338 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The cash on hand, included in the following statement, 
is $7,349.51. 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the past six months, ending October I, 1891, is as 
follows : 


1801. April 1. Balance ©feashas per last report, $1,231.44 

'' Oct. 1. Received for interest to date, 2,721.77 

" u Received for annual assessments, 185.00 

" " Received from sale of books and pamphlets, 170.40 

" " From Hon. Edward L. Davis, 5,000.00 

" " Mortgage Notes paid, 0,200.60. 

Subscription to Stevens's K Facsimiles n Fund, 

Stephen Salisbury, $50.00 > ^ ()0 

Edward L.Davis, 25.00) 


I \y salaries to October 1, 1891, $1,181.71 

By expense of repairs, 2:50.71 

By printing " Proceedings" 645.011 

Hooks purchased, 267.00 

For binding, 50.00 

Incidental expenses, including coal purchased, 546.50 

For Insurance, 17.50 

Invested in Rail Road Bonds 5,000.00 

Balance in cash October 1,1801,.... 7,310.51 

Condition op the several Funds. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

Balance ot Fund, April 1,1891, $30,525.54 

Income to October 1, 1801, 1,185.76 

Transferred from Tenney Fund, 150.00 

$40,801. 30 

Paid for salaries, $!H0.04 

Incidental expenses, including coal purchased,. . 101.23 

For Insurance, 17.50 

1801, October 1. Amount of Fund $30,400.53 

18 ( J1.] Report of the Treasurer. 33 ( .) 

The Collection and Research Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $18,942.56 

Income to October 1, 1891, 568.26 

$19,5] 0.82 
Expenditure from the Fund for salaries and incidentals,.. 5.S7.00 

1891, October 1. Amount of Fund, $18,923.82 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $6,280.01 

income to October 1, 1891, 188.40 

Paid for binding, 50.00 

1891, October 1. Amount of Fund, $0,411.81 

The Publishing Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $22,455.33 

Income to October 1, 1891, 073.05 

L'liblications sold, 33.50 

$23, 102.4b 
Cost of printing " Proceedings," 045.03 

Balance October 1, 1891, $22,517.15 

The Isaac and Edward L. Davis Book Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,609.80 

Received from Edward L. Davis, 5,000.00 

Income to October 1, 1891, 200.94 

Paid for books, 03.13 

Balance October 1, 1891, $0,807.31 

'The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $3,113.73 

Income to October 1, 1891, 93.41 

Balance April 1, 1891, $3,207.14 

The Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance April 1,1891, $1,080.28 

Income to October 1, 1891, 32.10 


Paid for books,... 37.92 

Balance October 1 , 189 1 , $1,074.70 


340 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,771.92 

Income to October 1, 1891, 1-13.16 

Taid for repairs,...- '230.71 

Balance October 1, 1S91, , $-1,081.37 

The Aldea Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,270.82 

I ncome to October 1 , 1891 , 'M.12 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,308.91 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $5,000.00 

Income to October 1 , 1891 150.00 

Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund, 150.00 

Balance October 1, 1891, $5,000.00 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $1,314.87 

Income to October 1, 1891, 39.44 

Paid for books, 135.83 

Balance October 1, 1891, $1,218.48 

« - 

The George Chandler Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $522.9« 

Income to October 1, 1891, , 15.67 

Books sold 2 1 .00 

Paid for books, 23.18 

Balance October 1, 1891, $539.47 

The Francis II. Dewey Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1891, $2,200.93 

Income to October 1, 1891, 67.82 

Paid for books, 8.03 

Balance October 1, 1891, $-2,320.12 

Total of tbe thirteen funds, $113,423.20 

Balance to the credit of Premium Account ... 676.96 

Balance to the credit of Income Account, 1,372.02 

Balance to Stevens's Publication Subscription 75.00 

October 1, 1891, total, $115,517.78 

J891.] Report of the Treasurer. 341 

Statement of the Investment 


No. of Stocks. Par Market 

Sluires. Value. Value. 

6 Central National Bank, Worcester $ (iOO.OO $ 894.00 

'22 City National Bank, Worcester, 2,200.00 8,250.00 

10 Citizens National Bank, Worcester, 1,000.00 1,350.00 

4 Boston National Hank 400.00 400.00 

Fitchburg National Bank, G0O.O0 000.00 

5 Massachusetts National Bank, Boston, 500.00 540.00 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston 3,200.00 4,128.00 

National Bank of Nortli America, Bo.ston, 600.00 780.00 

5 North National Bank, Boston, 500.00 700.00 

24 Quinsigamond National Bank, Worcester 2,400.00 2,880.00 

46 Shawmut National Hank, Boston, 4,600.00 5,700.00 

33 Webster National Bank-, Boston, 3,300.00 3,808.00 

31 Worcester National Bank, 3,100.00 4,681.00 

Total of Bank Stock, $23,000.00 $20,673.00 

30 Northern (N. II.) R. R. Co., $3,000.00 $1,170.00 

5 Worcester Gas Light Co., 500.00 775.00 


Boston & Albany 11. It. Bonds, 7s., $7,000.00 $7,025.00 

Central Pacific R. R. Bonds, 6,000.00 6,360.00 

Eastern R. R. Bonds, 1.000.00 1,210.00 

Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf R. R., 1,800.00 1,050.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Ft R. R. Co., 8,000.00 2,880.00 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. 5 per cent 5,000.00 4,800.00 

Ouincy Water Bonds, 6,000.00 6,000.00 

Notes secured by mortgage of real estate, 10,050.00 40,050.00 

Deposited in Worcester savings banks,... 848.27 34S.27 

Cash in National Bank on interest 7,319.51 7,349.51 

$115,547.78 $ 121,590. 7S 
WORCESTER, Mass., October 1, 18*91. 

Respectfully submitted. 



The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that we have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to October 
1, 1891, and liml the same to be correct and properly vouched; that the securi- 
ties held by him are as stated, and that the balance of cash, as stated to 
be on hand, is satisfactorily accounted for. 


October 17,1891. 

312 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


The past six months have been marked by quiet prosperity. . 
Large receipts of historical material, the publication of 
valuable papers and a fair use of our treasures, may be 
named as the chief points of interest in our Society-life 
during that period. 

It is sometimes asked whether ours is a public or a pri- 
vate library. To this question your librarian has felt at 
liberty to reply that it may be called with at least a certain 
degree of propriety, a private library for the public good. 
The rules and regulations adopted by the Council and the 
Library Committee for the government of the library, are, 
as the Society's by-laws require, such as are "most con- 
ducive to the preservation and highest utility of the same." 
To this end, Section 1, under "Use of library " provides that 
"Members of the Society only are entitled to enter and re- 
main in alcoves unattended, but for specific purposes, other 
persons may enter the alcoves when accompanied by the 
Librarian or Assistant, for the purpose of obtaining and 
consulting books, but shall not be allowed to remain in the 
alcoves unless authorized by a member of the Council." 
Section 2 provides that "Any person who desires to use 
books in the Library may be furnished with volumes for 
consultation upon application to the Librarian and Assist- 
ants." In the Society's earlier days its librarian was, to 
some extent at least, a law unto himself. I desire to testify 
after ten years trial, that the by-laws and rules adopted in 
the month following the death of the distinguished scholar 
and librarian who preceded me, have given aid and comfort 
to his successor. It is hoped that there may be a wide-spread 


Report of the Librarian. 


knowledge of the freedom of our treasure-house to mem- 
bers, as well as of the privileges granted to all others. 

The Society's "Order of Performances" for only two 
years is known to have been preserved, and each is believed 
to be unique. A copy of the one used at the third anniver- 
sary celebration, on Monday, October 23, 1815, was re- 
produced in the librarian's report of October, 1890, and the 
other, which was distributed seventy-five years ago at the 
Stone Chapel in Boston, on the fourth anniversary, is now 
in like manner reproduced: — 




I. Voluntary, on the Organ. 

II. Prayer. 

III. Hymn. 

IV. ADDHESS by the Rev. W.u. Ui:ntlev. 


> V. Hymn. 

C VI. Benediction 


LET children hear the mighty deeds, 
Which Goi> performed of old; 

Whieh in our younger years we saw, 
And which our fathers told. 

He bids us make his glories known, 
His works of power and grace; 

And we'll convey his wonders down 
Through every rising race. 

Our lips shall tell them to our sons. 

And they again to. theirs; 
That generations yet unborn, 

May teach them to their heirs. 

Tims shall they learn in Goo alone 
Their hope securely stands; 

That they may ne'er forget his works, 
Hut practice his commands. 


God of Eternity! from Thee 
Did infant Time its being draw; 

Moments and days, and months and years, 
Kevolve by thy unvaried law. 

Silent and slow they glide away ;— 
Steady and strong the current Hows; 

'Till lost in that uumcasur'd sea 
From which Its being first arose. 

The thoughtless sons of Adam's race 
Upon the rapid stream are borne, 

To that unseen, eternal home, 
Krom which no travellers return. 

Great Source of Wisdom! teacli our hearts 
To kuow the price of every hour; 

That Time may bear us ou to Joys, 
Beyond its measure and its power. 



344 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The address delivered on the latter occasion by the Rev- 
erend William Bentley was found among the manuscripts 
bequeathed to the Society in 1875, by his nephew, Mr. 
William Bentley Fowle, and printed in a limited edition, 
the same year. Copies may be obtained of the librarian. 

Recent applications to be allowed to deposit geological 
specimens in our cabinet have been reminders of a passage 
in Mr. William Lincoln's Council Report of May 21), 1839, 
in which he mentions "An extensive collection of foreign 
and native minerals and of shells, many of them of singular 
beauty and high scientific value, but not peculiarly appro- 
priate to the objects of the Institution." It is the transfer 
of this and similar material which is referred to in the ac- 
companying letter. Mention was made of this transfer in a 
former report of the librarian, as establishing an important 
precedent. It seems well to submit this communication of 
more than thirty-seven years ago and thus indicate another 
of the important steps which the Society has taken through 
its leaders, in the cause of education. Following is the 
letter : — 

"Worcester, May 30, 1854. 

To the Trustees of the American Antiquarian Society. 

Gentlemen : 

A number of gentlemen interested in the 
study of Natural History have recently organized a Society 
for the promotion of that study here. They have availed 
themselves of the charter of the Library Association, and 
are at present organized as a department of that Institution. 
They have already taken measures to establish a cabinet 
and have appointed their oilicers. It has been suggested 
that the Antiquarian Society will be willing to surrender to 
this new Society the charge of the collections of the old 
Worcester Natural History Society. I am directed there- 
fore to make an application to your Board, on behalf of the 
new Society to ask if those collections can be transferred to 
us. A provision in our Constitution directs that in case of 
the failure of any special organization for the study of 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 345 

Natural History, our collections shall be deposited with you. 
Very respectfully, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

Edward E. Hale. 
Chairman of the 
Natural History Department 
of the Young Men's Library Association. 

It is a pleasure to be able to add that after living under 
various names, the Society, by an Act approved March 6, 
1884, became the Worcester Natural History Society, that 
it has occupied the Edwin Conant homestead, recently be- 
queathed to it, that our President is one of its chief patrons 
and that members of our Council and Society have always 
been influential in the management of its affairs. One of its 
founders, Col. Thomas Wentworth Iligginson, in our Pro- 
ceedings of April 28, 1886, spoke of it as " a sort of oil- 
shoot of the American Antiquarian Society " ; and if this 
.be so your librarian will surely be excused for briefly call- 
ing your attention to so vigorous and so promising an 
offspring. I will also take the liberty of preserving in our 
Proceedings the following important facts relating to the 
period under consideration, from Mr. Nathaniel Paine's 
paper read before the Natural History Society, November 
22, 1890, which were found in the newspapers of the period 
after the foregoing paragraphs were penned. Referring to 
the Worcester Lyceum and Library Association he said : — 

''Perhaps the most important epoch in our history was in 
the spring of 1854. There were at that time quite a number 
of ladies and gentlemen of the Association who were more 
or less interested in the subject of natural history, and it 
was proposed to encourage this interest by means of the 
Library Association organization. The matter was brought 
before the Association at its annual meeting in April of that 
year, and was received with much favor, and in May, Rev. 
Edward E. Hale presented to the directors a plan for the 
organization of a natural history department of the Asso- 
ciation. The manager of the new department, Mr. Hale, 
invited Prof. Louis Agassiz, the eminent naturalist, to visit 

34(i American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Worcester and advise them as to the best course to be pur- 
sued in starting the new department. October 24, 1854, 
Prof. Agassiz came to Worcester, and with the officers of 
the new department examined the collections of the 
Worcester Lyceum of Natural History, a society founded 
many years before [1825] and whose collections were de- 
posited in the rooms of the American Antiquarian Society. 
By the consent of Levi Lincoln, Stephen Salisbury', Isaac 
Davis, Dr. John Green, Frederick W. Paine and a few 
other gentlemen, the survivors of the old Society, this col- 
lection was transferred to the new department and became 
the nucleus of the present fine cabinet of this Society. " 

Your librarian has received a communication to which he 
desires to call your attention. It contains the following- 
paragraphs : "The New England Magazine for February, 
1891, has a long story on Charlestown — murder of Capt. 
John Russell, 1755, reproduced in the local paper, and 
based on good historical authority. It is out on Charlestown. 
Russell is Codman, and dates and names are altered, etc. 
The jail at Worcester is described as a loathsome hole, in a 
granite quarry, overcrowded with criminals. Is there any 
truth in this part of the story? The tone of the article is 
to make matters look worse than they were — and they were 
bad enough at the best." The paper, which is by Mr. John 
Codman 2d, is entitled "A Story of Old Charlestown," 
and the reply to that portion of it which relates to the 
Worcester Jail may well be treated under two heads, viz. : 
the charge, and the answer thereto. And first as to the 
charge, which recites that — 

"The day after the examination, the prisoners, Mark, 
Phyllis, Robin and others, clogged and chained, were trans- 
ported by stage to the jail at Worcester, — for owing to the 
war and the turbulence of the times, those nearer Boston 
were overcrowded. This den, one of the worst in the 
country, was in an old worked-out granite quarry. Robin, 
as the only white man of the gang, first descended the ladder 
the length of the shaft which led to the caverns under- 
ground, where criminals of all grades were indiscriminately 
mingled : poor debtors, forgers from the pillory or the 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 347 

whipping-post, counterfeiters with the letter "C" stamped 
on their foreheads, or with ears cropped, women who wore 
the scarlet letter, many whose arms were fresh from the 
branding-iron, murderers, and the perpetrators of the most 
heinous crimes. By the feeble light which penetrated the 
shaft Robin saw a crowd of repulsive, scarcely human faces 
wailing for him at the foot of the ladder, while their cries 
and ribald laughter and the blows of the keepers urged his 
descent. Manacled and powerless he fell from the ladder 
into the midst of the creatures who awaited him. They 
sprang upon him like bloodhounds, tore his clothes from 
his body, struck him, spat upon him. This only ceased 
when Robin, half senseless, was thrown into a blanket and 
tossed again and again from the muddy floor to the stone 
roof, striking each time with such force that but for the ex- 
haustion of his tormentors they would have killed him. 
With money stolen from his clothes, they bought rum from 
their keepers, and a fiendish revel began, in the course of 
which their insensible victim was forgotten. In this place, 
Robin and his fellow-prisoners passed many months, each 
night coniined in a little pen of wood, their feet fastened to 
iron bars and necks chained to rings in beams above them. 
Water oozed from the roof and trickled down upon them ; 
masses of earth were constantly falling oil'. In the dampness 
and tilth, what remnants of clothing were vouchsafed them 
grew mouldy, and their limbs became still' with rheumatism. 
Vermin swarmed upon them, and not a ray of light reached 
their cells; they were without a window, a chimney, or 
even a hole in the wall." 

A brief answer to the foregoing will be drawn from Mr. 
William Lincoln's History of Worcester, in which it is said 
of the jail of the period referred to, that it " stood on land 
of Stephen Salisbury, Esq., east of the south extremity of 
Lincoln street." The jail itself is minutely described as 
follows : — 

"In 1753, a new gaol was built a few rods south of the 
former prison, 38 feet long, 28 feet wide, with 7 posts. 
The south end was studded with joist six inches square set 
live inches apart and tilled between with stone and mortar. 
The top, sides and tloor were covered inside and out with 

348 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

oak plank fastened with a profuse use of iron spikes, and 
doors, windows and partitions were heavily grated." 

Justice to the city in which we are met as well as to the 
second librarian of this Society who was the Historian par 
excellence of Worcester, with a desire to promote historical 
accuracy, have led your present librarian to deny the cor- 
rectness of Mr. Codman's highly-colored picture of prison- 
life in Worcester in the year 1755. It could with more 
propriety be called an intensified representation of all the 
American prison miseries — so vividly described by 
McMaster — with others known before the era of prison 
reform, added thereunto. 

During the six months immediately preceding October 
15, 1891, we received gifts from two hundred and sixty-six 
sources, viz. : from forty-four members, one hundred and 
thirteen persons not members, and one hundred and nine 
societies and institutions ; nine hundred and thirty-six 
books, fifty-one hundred and sixty pamphlets, one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight files of unbound newspapers, two 
framed and twenty-four unframed engravings, three framed 
and eleven unframed photographs, eleven maps, three manu- 
scripts and one copper coin. By exchange, one hundred 
and thirty-nine books and twenty-one pamphlets ; and from 
the bindery eighty-four volumes of newspapers, making a to- 
tal of ten hundred and seventy-five books, lifty-one hundred 
and eighty-one pamphlets, eighty-four bound and one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight unbound volumes of newspapers, etc. 

I note a few facts of interest in connection with the ap- 
pended list of Givers and Gifts. Of the forty-four members 
therein, thirty — including nearly every member of the 
Council — have contributed works of their own. Vice- 
President Hoar's gift includes two photographs taken at 
Santo Domingo, May 22, 1891, one of which is marked 
44 Casket containing the remains of Christopher Columbus 
(upper one the ashes)" and the other "End view of the 
Casket containing the remains of Christopher Columbus." 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 349 

With Mr. Charles A. Chase's gift is a Confederate pass with 
the oath of allegiance, both of which are worthy of repro- 
duction as fragments of history. Following are the pass 
and the oath which is upon the reverse thereof: — 


Richmond, Sept. 25, 1862. 
Permission is granted Manuel O'Neal 

to visit Augusta, Ga. upon honor 

not to communicate in writing or verhally, for publication, any 
fact ascertained, which, if known to the enemy, might be inju- 
rious to the Confederate States of America. (Subject to the 
discretion of the military authorities.) 

E. Griswold, 
Provost Marshal. 

I Manuel O'Neal , do 

solemnly swear or allirm, that 1 will bear true faith and yield 
' obedience to the Confederate States of America, and that I will 
serve them honestly and faithfully against their enemies. 

Manuel O'Neal. 
Richmond, Sept. 25, 1862." 

For the addition of five thousand dollars to what is now 
known as the Isaac and Edward L. Davis book fund, per- 
haps no one can be more grateful than your librarian. It 
has given him fresh courage in his special effort to secure 
the chief authorities mentioned in Bandelier's " Notes on the 
Bibliography of Yucatan and Central America," so many 
of which are already in our Davis Spanish- American alcove, 
lion. John D. Washburn, United States Minister to Switz- 
erland, in forwarding Dr. Carl Hilty's recent work on the 
Swiss Constitution speaks of it as "a very valuable contri- 
bution to the history of that most interesting country." Dr. 
George Chandler's gifts include those brought by his own 
hand, purchases by the fund which he has so wisely estab- 
lished, and someof the latest and best printed results of gene- 
alogical research secured by exchange for his faithful record 

350 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

of the " Chandler Family." His worthy example, especially 
in presenting the remainder of the second edition of his 
great work for the upbuilding of our department of family 
history, may well be imitated by his associates and others. 
It has been thought wise to add to the Haven alcove Mr. 
Hubert Howe Bancroft's narrative portion of his historical 
series relating to the western half of North America. It has 
been truly said of the author that "Had he been the typi- 
cal scholar and man of letters he would probably not have 
undertaken the task he did undertake." Mr. Bancroft has 
presented the Harper Brothers' reprint of his thirty-ninth 
and last volume, which is entitled "Literary Industries: a. 
Memoir," it being a personal and minute account of the 
methods pursued in the thirty years required for the prepa- 
ration and execution of his work. It is quite possible that 
the meeting of the American Library Association in San 
Francisco, the present month, may directly or indirectly sug- 
gest the future home of the Bancroft Library of fifty thousand 
closely related volumes. While the Pad lie coast might well 
lay claim to it, a more central location would on some ac- 
counts seem more desirable. The last gift of the Hon. 
Hamilton B. Staples was his first contribution to our Pro- 
ceedings, viz. : "A Day at Mount Vernon in 1797." It may 
be said of its author that he showed his love for this Society 
by answering all the calls which it made upon him. Since the 
judge's decease, we have received from Mrs. Staples a copy 
of his "Origin of the Names of the States of the Union," to 
fill an order given by a leader of the Massachusetts Bar, who 
said, "I wish it, also, as a souvenir of one whose courtesy 
both on the bench and in private life I shall always recall 
with most affectionate feelings." Mr. J. Fletcher Williams, 
our only Minnesota member, has from time to time pur- 
chased for us new histories relating to that State. His 
latest gift is the Memorial History of St. Paul, recently 
published, which contains his exhaustive history of the 
Press, with a short biographical sketch of the author. 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 351 

Grateful mention should be made of the lar^e contribution 
from the libraries of the late John Quincy Adams, sixth 
President of the United States, and of his son, the late 
Hon. Charles Francis Adams. This material from the 
Adams family has been selected under their direction by 
Mr. Theodore F. D wight, a member of this Society. The 
Reverend Narcisse Cyr has added value to his gift of vari- 
ous photographs of foreign persons and places, by sending 
a descriptive letter relating thereto. Mrs. George F. Hoar 
and Mrs. William W. Rice have made a large deposit of 
books, pamphlets and newspapers received from their 
father, the late Mr. Henry W. Miller, of Worcester; and 
one of a similar character has been made by the heirs of 
Mrs. Francis H. Kinnicutt. Amos R. Thomas, M.D., in 
presenting a copy of his "Descendants of William Thomas, 
of Hardwick, Mass." says "Claiming kinship with the illus- 
trious founder of your Society, Isaiah Thomas, LL.D., it is 
with special interest that I oiler this volume for a place on 
the shelves of your library." We have received from the li- 
brary of our late associate, Charles O. Thompson, Ph.D., 
after a second personal conference with Mrs. Thompson, 
four cases of books and pamphlets, chiefly educational. The 
family of Dr. Thompson have been anxious to carry out his 
expressed wishes so far as possible. To this end his valuable 
collection relating to Dartmouth College, his Alma Mater, 
is included in the gift. A most valuable accession is the 
first report of the Massachusetts Library Commissioners, 
prepared by its chairman, Mr. C. B. Tillinghast, State 
Librarian. If the doctrine, Qui facit per a Hum Jack per 
.se, still prevails, we may, perhaps, justly speak of it as our 
first year's work, for Mr. Samuel S. Green, of our Council, 
and our associate, Hon. Henry S. Nourse are members of 
this most excellent Board. In a number of the Transactions 
of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec just re- 
ceived, is the following, which is reprinted both in the 
spirit of reciprocity and as a note of warning: "Lost or 

352 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Removed from the Library of the Quebec Literary and His- 
torical Society, Morrin College Building, St. Stanislaus Hill, 
two volumes of the Quebec Herald, 1788 to 1790. Size, 10J 
in. x 8 -J in. x J in. thick; without covers, for the person 
who removed them left the covers behind. These missing; 
volumes, or any information relating thereto, will be thank- 
fully received by the Custodian of the Library, or F. C. 
Wiirtele, Librarian." 

We have received from Mr. Henry H. Edes, a member 
of the revision committee, the Rolls of Membership in the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, recently 
printed. The committee have been reminded, doubtless, of 
the Introduction addressed "To the Christian Reader" in 
Mr. Henry Stevens's "Catalogue of my English Library" — 
published in 1853 — in which he says "If you are troubled 
with a pride of accuracy and would have it completely taken 
out of you, print a catalogue." This observation applies, 
though possibly not with equal force, to catalogues of both 
persons and things. There appears to be at present no uni- 
formity whatever in the preparation of membership lists, 
and perhaps it is not important that there should be. In the 
year 1876, Mr. Stevens — already cited — dedicated his 
Photo-Bibliography "To the Librarian of the Future whose 
Bibliography is to be as Exact and Uniform as his Spelling," 
It would seem to be as safe to predict uniformity in the 
membership rolls of the future as in the department men- 
tioned. But however that may be, such carefully prepared 
works as this to which your attention has been called, are 
labor-saving helps which can be fully appreciated only by 
those who have frequent occasion to use them. 1 might 
add that your librarian has given considerable time to the 
verification and correction of the Genealogical Society lists, 
so far as they relate to past and present members of this 
Society, and that in this effort light was received as well as 
given. It is interesting to note that the discrepancy of a 
single day in the date of decease as recorded in the earlier 

1891.] Report of the Librarian. 353 

newspapers, is sometimes accounted for b} r the fact that 
"died last night" really means after midnight, t. e., this 
morning, and "last Thursday night" may also mean after 
midnight and therefore more exactly Friday morning, thus 
confusing the later chronicler who desires strict accuracy in 
dates. Additions and corrections to our List of Members 
January 1, 1890, will always be entered in our interleaved 
copy and thus be ready for the next printed issue. 

Our third librarian gave to this Society a golden text 
when he said "I will not eulogize a man dead or alive at 
the expense of truth." Your present librarian notes with 
genuine regret the death of Mr. F. W. Christern, for many 
years our New York agent for foreign purchases. It has 
been truthfully said by one who evidently knew him, that 
"He was most genial and most respected; blest with 
obligingness which was inexhaustible." 

Our collection of portraits has in late years answered 
many questions, not only for the historical writer and illus- 
trator but for the historical painter and sculptor as well. 
When Mr. J. Q. A. Ward was about to begin work upon 
his statue of The Puritan now in Central Park, New York, 
he sketched the dress of Gov. John Winthrop, as repre- 
sented in our oil portrait. He was also much interested in 
drawing the details of the Continental costume as shown in 
our portrait of Col. John May, painted by Gullager during 
the war of the Revolution. With regard to the latter he said 
that while he could readily examine General Washington's 
costume so. carefully preserved under glass, it was much 
more important for his purpose to be able to see this officer 
in his uniform and to know that the presentment upon the 
canvas is original and real. Facts regarding this interest- 
ing but not widely known character, who served his country 
both as non-commissioned and commissioned officer during 
the war of the Revolution and subsequently, may be found 
in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register 
of January, 1873; in Mr. Nathaniel Paine's "Portraits and 

354 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Busts in Public Buildings at Worcester, Mass., in 1876"; 
and in a Genealogy of the Descendants of John May, pub- 
lished in 1878 ; and therefore need not here be repeated. 
As, however, the authors do not agree as to the date of the 
Colonel's decease, it seems best to fix it by contemporary 
history and at the same time to add a few minor facts not 
therein mentioned. For this purpose I quote from the 
Weekly Messenyer, Boston, Friday, July 17, 1812, as fol- 
lows : "Yesterday morning suddenly, John May, Esq., JEt. 
63 years. His funeral will proceed from his late mansion 
in Fish Street at 5 o'clock this afternoon, when the relations 
and friends are invited to attend without further notice." 
Also, from the Oentinel, Boston, Saturday, July 18, 1812, 
the following : "In this town on Thursday morning of a 
paralysis, John May, Esq., irCt. 63. By the death of Col. 
May the town is deprived of a judicious and faithful oflicer 
and the public of an active, useful and benevolent citizen : 
to his family the loss is irreparable. His funeral took place 
yesterday, attended by the Selectmen, Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company," & c -> & c - Thus it would appear 
that Col. May died Thursday, July 16, and not July 13, 
as given by two of the authorities named. 

Our portrait of Ivcv. Aaron Bancroft, D.D., has been 
copied by Mr. Edwin T. Billings by order of his son, 
lately deceased, and placed in Channing Memorial Hall, 
Boston. And here I may be allowed to make a correction 
or perhaps better, to report a decision as to the name of the 
painter of this beautiful portrait. It has several times been 
attributed in print to Chester Harding but was undoubtedly 
the work of Mr. A Ivan Fisher, an artist who lived in Boston 
in 1827-28, and possibly later. Light upon the subject 
has been obtained from the following sources : Mr. Billings 
writes, "My impression is that the original portrait was 
painted by Chester Harding, but as he had imitators it may 
have been painted by Mr. Fisher." This first impression 
was held by others, but the evidence seems to be strongly 

181)1.] Report of the Librarian. 355 

against it. Mr. Haven says in his Librarian's report Octo- 
ber 21, 1863: "Mrs. Davis has also deposited the fine 
portrait of her father, the late Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft, 
painted (by Fisher) at the request of some of his friends." 
Our associate, Hon. J. C. Bancroft Davis, in a letter to the 
librarian, confirms this view. He says, "Mr. Haven was 
right, Fisher was the name of the artist who painted the 
portrait of my grandfather. My recollection is that he was 
from Boston. 1 was a very young child when the picture 
was painted about 1827, 8 or 9, but 1 remember it very 
well, though I cannot say now what Mr. Fisher's Christian 
name was, nor quite certainly whether he was from 
Boston." 1 That Fisher was the artist would seem to be a 
fixed fact. Mr. William Dunlap, in his History of the 
Kise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United 
States, calls him "that excellent artist and estimable man." 
Mr. Samuel L. Gerry, in his illustrated paper on the old 
artists of Boston, which appeared in the February number 
of the New England Magazine of the current year, refer- 
ring to his companions, says, "About this time, say 1833, 
the four walls of the Harding gallery were covered by a 
joint exhibition of four artists, viz. : Chester Harding, 
Alvan Fisher, Thomas Doughty and Francis Alexander." 
He further observes that Fisher "sought the White Hills 
and was often with Doughty and Harding an habitue' of 
Thompson's little tavern at North Conway," addiug that 
"those pioneers of the mountains were about half artist 
and half trout fishermen." It is apparent that such works of 
art as have been herein referred to are useful in other ways 
and for other purposes than as mere object lessons. Their 
great value for reproduction alone, and thus their protection 
from absolute loss by fire or otherwise, can hardly be over- 
estimated. We are encouraged to hope that the valuable 

i It is probable that the date is 1832-3 as the reverse of the canvas is marked, 
apparently by the artist,— " A. Bancroft, Mt, 77," and his birthday was 
November 10, 1755. 

356 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

portrait gallery now collecting under this roof will be amply 
provided for in that spacious, well-lighted and lire-proof 
library building of the future. Perhaps the surest way of 
adding to such a collection of portraits, and being ready for 
special opportunities, would be the establishment of an art 
fund for that purpose. And here the fact is once more 
noted that we still greatly desire an oil portrait of Hon. 
Edward Everett, our president from 1841 to 1853, that out- 
set of deceased presiding officers may be made complete. 
The Society's early interest in the securing of portraits is 
indicated by the following paragraphs from Librarian 
Christopher C. Baldwin's diary, dated Greenfield, Septem- 
ber 16, 1833 : "1 must not omit to mention what 1 saw in 
Judge Newcomb's parlor. It was a full-length likeness of 
General Warren, by Copley, in the most perfect preserva- 
tion ; and also that of his lady, by the same artist. I cannot 
describe the pleasure I had in looking at them. As a portrait 
the likeness of the General was much the better. I could not 
get them for the Library of the Antiquarian Society though 
I projected several schemes to that end." We may well 
wonder what became of the coveted treasures. 1 In this con- 
nection it may be added that the same diary, of date June 
1, 1834, also preserves the following facts of special inter- 
est to this Society, viz. : "AVilliam Bentley Fowle, Esq., 
gave me this information in relation to the painting of Saint 
John which hangs in the Library. Some sailors from his 
uncle's Parish in Salem were at Leghorn at the time 
Bonaparte was transferring the paintings and statuary from 
Italy to Paris. As those articles were brought to Leghorn 
in their passage to Paris, these Salem sailors were required 
to render some assistance relating to them, and as they did 
not understand French, could only understand by signs what 
was doing. When they found out that the whole of the paint- 
ings and statuary had been stolen, one of them cried out 

* Thesejportraits, which were for a time 0-11 exhibition in the Corcoran Ait 
Gallery in Washington, were afterward in the possession of the late Dr. Buek- 
niinster Brown of Boston.- See Memorial History of Boston, 111., 6U-68. 

1801.] Report of the Librarian. 357 

* Parson Bentley must have some of them' and thereupon 
seized this Saint John, brought it to Salem and gave it to 
him, and at his decease, he bequeathed it to the Antiquarian 

Information is desired as to the name of the artist who 
modelled our wonderfully life-like medallion of Governor 
James Sullivan. Possibly both the art and the name of the 
artist are lost, but it is known that a Polish exile of family 
and education who was befriended by Levi Lincoln, senior, 
when Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts under Gov- 
ernor Sullivan in 1807 and 1808, produced this medallion 
of the Governor, and one of the Lieutenant-Governor now 
owned by Mrs. John \\ r . \Y r etherell, of Worcester. It is 
also known that similar work was done by C. Rauschner in 
1810, two years after the death of Governor Sullivan, but 
our late associate, Mr. Thomas G. Amory, in his Life 
of Sullivan, makes no mention of the likeness. Such 
work is " worthy to be had in remembrance" and the 
name of the worker may well be earnestly sought thai we 
may honor it. 1 have placed the medallion upon the office 
table and with it a small but interesting collection of sil- 
houettes, photographs and engraved heads, for identification. 
A like desire for information leads me to ask for light as to 
Mr. Talcott, a peripatetic artist who sometime after 1836 
painted our curious, full-length portrait of Mr. Robert 
Bailey Thomas, of Farmer's Almanack fame. It may inter- 
est members to know that this portrait has been photo- 
graphed for reproduction in number 100 of the Almanack, 
it being that for the year 1892, and that the Hon. Samuel A. 
Green, M.D., has prepared a brief sketch of Mr. Thomas 
to accompany it. 1 Again, our first printed list of givers 
and gifts which was published wilh a communication from 
the President, October 24, 1814, and is headed "Articles 

i Another likeness of Mr. Thomas may be found in the issues of 1837 ami 
1S3S, and a "Concise Memoii 1 » — autobiographical— In those of 1883 to U*37 in- 
clusive, and ISo!). 

358 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Presented to the Society since October, 1813," contains the 
following exasperating entry : "Portrait of Charles Pax ton, 
Esq., Painted by Copley — By a Lady." This fine portrait 
which hangs alongside our north staircase is, with hardly a 
shadow of doubt, a Copley, but whence did it conic to us? 
Neither the "Book of Donations" nor the correspondence 
of the period helps us in our search. 

It is just three-score years and ten since the Committee 
to report on the state of the library — Rejoice Newton and 
Samuel Jennison — said, "Thus far the Society has pro- 
ceeded under favorable auspices. It remains for its mem- 
bers, by their exertions, to justify the confidence inspired 
by its early promise. While these are continued we may 
reasonably flatter ourselves that it will reflect honour on its 
founders, prove an object of publick utility and vindicate its 
claim to publick patronage." To which I may be allowed 
to add that we need not apologize for our past and that the 
signs are full of hope for our future. 

Respectfully submitted. 



1891.] Givers and Gifts. 359 

ffitfaers anri (Sifts, 


Adams, Mr. Henry, Washington, I). C— His "Historical Essays." 
Bancroft, Mr. Hubert H., San Francisco, Cal.— His "Literary In- 
dustries : a Memoir." 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester. — " St. Andrew's Cross"; and "St. 
John's Echo," in continuation. 

Barton, Wm. Sumner, Esq. .Worcester.— Three books; and seventy- 
live pamphlets. 

Bell, Hon. Charles H., Exeter, N. H. — His "New Hampshire at 
Bunker Hill." 

Brinton, Daniel G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— One pamphlet. 

Chandler, George, M.D., Worcester. — "Genealogy of the Ames 
Family"; three books; and twenty pamphlets. 

Chase, Charles A., Esq., Worcester. — Five books; one hundred and 
sixty-nine miscellaneous pamphlets: eight lithographs; one manu- 
script ; and one photograph. 

Clarke, Mr. Rouert, Cincinnati, Ohio. — The " Twentieth and Tvventy- 
lirst Reunions of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland"; and 
Green's " Spanish Conspiracy." 

Davis, Andrew McF., S.B., Cambridge. — Ten books; and two hun- 
dred and twenty-one pamphlets. 

Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. — Two books; and ninety-one 

Davis, Hon. Horace, President, San Francisco, Cal. — His "Biennial 
Report of the University of California." 

Dexter, Prof. Franklin B., New Haven, Conn. — Davis's "Four 
Rocks, with Walks and Drives about New Haven" and "Yale Uni- 
versity Obituary Record, 1890-91." 

Edi.s, Mr. Henry H., Charlestown. — " Rolls of Membership of the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, 1844-181)0"; and two 

Foster, Mr. William E. — Two pamphlets. 

Gage, Thomas II., M.D., Worcester.— His Address at the Jubilee 

3(50 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Mooting at Central Church, Ma} 12, 1801; and His "First and Second 
Annual Reports of the Memorial Hospital anil Washburn Free 
Dispensary.", Daniel C, LL.D., Secretary, Baltimore, Md.—" Proceedings 

of the Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund." 
Green, Hun. Andrew H., New York. — "The Seventh Annual Report 

of the Commissioners of the New York State Reservation at Niagara." 
Guken, Hon. Samuel A., M.D., Boston. — Six of his brochures; six- 
teen books; and one hundred and twelve pamphlets. 
Green, Mr. Samuel S., Librarian, Worcester. — His "Annual Report 

on the Free Public Library, for 1890." 
Greene, J. Evarts, Esq., Worcester. — Manuscript documents relating 

to Metlakahtla, Alaska. 
Hale, Rev. Edward E., D.D., Roxbury. — His "Life of Christopher 

Columbus" ; fourteen numbers "Proceedings of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society"; and the " Boston Commonwealth," as issued. 
Hall, Rev. Edward II., Cambridge. — "Record of the Service of the 

Forty-fourth Massachusetts Militia in North Carolina." 
Higginson, Col. Thomas W., Cambridge. — His "Life of Francis 

Higginson"; and the " Cambridge Public Library : its History, etc." 
Hill, Mr. Hamilton Andrews, Boston. — His " Richard Henry Dana." 
Hitchcock, Prof. Edward, Amherst. — His " Anthropometric Table of 

Amherst College, 1881-1891"; and his Thirtieth Annual Report. 
Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester.— His " Government in Canada ami 

the United States Compared " ; his Obituary Notices of Charles Devens, 

Henry M. Dexter, and Edward I. Thomas ; one hundred and six books ; 

one hundred and eighty-eight pamphlets; three engraved heads; 

three files of newspapers; two photographs; and one manuscript. 
Jameson, J. Franklin, Ph.D., Providence, R. I. — His " History of 

Historical Writing in America." 
Jones, Col. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, 6a.— His "Annual Address 

before the Confederate Survivors' Association, 1891"; and his 

" Tribute to John McPherson Berrien." 
Mead, Mr. Edwin D., Boston. — Circulars relating to the "Old South 

Moore, George H., LL.D., Superintendent, New York. — His "Report 

on the Lenox Library for 185*0." 
Nelson, Hon. Thomas L., Worcester. — One book; and thirty-three 

Paine, Rev. George S., Worcester.— The "Spirit of Missions," in 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester. — One hundred and eleven numbers 

of magazines; one hundred and seventy-six miscellaneous pamphlets; 

1891.] Givers and Gifts. 361 

four liles of newspapers; three lithographs; and one photograph. 
Perry, Kt. liev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Iowa!— His "Gen- 
eral History of the American Church"; sixteen pamphlets; and the 

"Iowa Churchman," as issued. 
Poolu, William Fred., LL.D., Chicago, III.— The "Dial," as issued; 

and World's Congress circulars. 
Pouter, Hev. Edward G., Lexington.— His "Historical Sketch of 

Bedford, England ": and three historical pamphlets. 
Salisbury, Mr. Stephen, Worcester.— Ten books; two hundred and 

thirty-eight pamphlets ; and thirteen liles of periodicals. 
Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, Ohio.— Two Ohio maps, 1890; and five 


Staples, Hon. Hamilton B., Worcester.— His "Day at Mount Vernon 
in 1797." 

Washburn, Hon. John D., Worcester.— Hilty's " Les Constitutions 

FedSrales de la Confederation Suisse." 
Williams, J. Fletcher, S.B., St. Paul, Minn.— " History of St. Paul," 

1891; and four Minnesota documents. 
Winsor, Justin, LL.D., Cambridge.—" Harvard University Bulletin "; 

and " Bibliographical Contributions," as issued. 


Adams, Mr. Charles Francis, Quincy.— Eighty-three selected books; 
and one hundred and ten pamphlets. 

Backus, Hon. William W., Norwich, Conn. — The " Illustrated Popu- 
lar Biography of Connecticut." 

Baldwin, William II. , President, Boston. — Boston Young Men's Chris- 
tian Union Report, 1891. 

Barton, Mr. Francis A., San Francisco, Cal. — Numbers of California 

Bumis, Mr. John M., Editor, Worcester. — " Camp and Lake," as 

Bemis, Merrick, M.D., President, Worcester. — "Natural History 
Camp, Lake Quinsigamond, Season of 1891." 

Benjamin, Mr. Walter 11., New \'ork.— His " Collector," for October, 

Bigklow, Mr. Horace II., Worcester. — "Genealogy of the Bigelow 
family of America from 1042 to 1890." 

Blanchard and Company, Messrs. Frank S., Worcester. — Their 
"Practical Mechanic and Electrician," as issued; and one pamphlet. 

Bliss, Mr. Eugenk P., Cincinnati, Ohio.— His " In Memoriam Elizabeth 
Haven Appletou." 

BG2 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Bowes, Mr. Jamks L., Liverpool, Bug.— His "Vindication of the 

Decorated Pottery of Japan." 
Brooks, Rev. William II., D.D., Secretary, Boston. — Bishop Clark's 

" Memorial of Bishop Benjamin II. Paddock." 
Brower, Mr. J. V., Commissioner, St. Paid, Minn. — "The Source of 

the Mississippi River." 

Burgess, Rev. Francis G., Worcester.— Eight pamphlets; and the 

'• Spirit of Missions," in continuation. 

Caneield, Mrs. Penelope S., Worcester.— Twelve valuable works. 
Carpenter, Rev. Charles C, Andover. — Mis " Necrology of Audover 
Theological Seminary , 189U-'J1"; and four pamphlets. 

Ciiace, Mrs. ELIZABETH, Central Falls, li. I.— Her "Anti-Slavery Remi- 
niscences 7 '; and "The Outlook," for June 25, 1891, containing an 
article from her pen. 

Chamberlain, Mr. Alexander F., Worcester.— His "Aryian Element 
in Indian Dialects," No. 1. 

Chamberlain, Hon. Mellen, Boston, — His " Memorial of Capt. John 
Cochrane, 1774—1781." 

Ciianey, Henry A., Esq., Detroit, Midi.— One newspaper. 

Clark, Rev. George P., Ilubbardston. — Files of "The Voice," and 
" Woman's Journal," 1889-90, in continuation. 

Conaty, Rev. Thomas J., D.D., Worcester.— His " Monthly Calendar 
of the Sacred Heart." 

Cook, Mr. Henry EL, Banc— His " Gazette," as issued. 

Crane, Mr. John C, Millbury. — Papers relating to the Gla/ier Expe- 
dition of 1891. 

Crunden, Mr. Frederick M., Librarian, St. Louis, Mo. — His Annual 
Report for 1889-1890. 

Curtis, Mr. William E., Washington, 1). C. — Three pamphlets relating 
to the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 

Cyr, Rev. Nakcisse, Boston. — Two framed and three unframed 

Darling, Gen. Charles W., Utiea, N. ¥\ — His "Versions of the 

Doe and Company, Messrs. Charles 11., Worcester.— Their Daily and 
Weekly Gazette, as issued. 

Dodd, Mead and Company, Messrs., New York. — Their "New Pub- 
lications," as issued. 

Dodge, Jamics H., Esq., City Auditor, Boston. — His Annual Report, 

Dodge, Thomas II., Esq., Worcester. — A framed engraving of his 
Willow Park; and a pamphlet relating thereto. 

1891.] Givers and Gifts. 363 

Dwigiit, Timothy, LL.D., President, New Haven, Conn.— His Yale 
University Report for 1890. 

Earle, Mrs. Alice M., Worcester.— Her "Sabbath in Puritan New 

Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— His " Additional Notes to Ralph 

Earle and his Descendants." 
Eliot, Mr. Charles, Secretary, Boston.— Circular relating- to the 

Trustees of Public Reservations in Massachusetts. 

Estks, Rev. David F., Holden.— Four books; twenty pamphlets; and 
six college newspapers. 

Fiske, Mr. Edward R., Worcester. — His " Library Record," as issued. 

Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York. — Their "Voice," as issued. 

Giddlngs, Mr. Edward J., New York.— His "American Christian 
Rulers, or, Religion and Men, of Government." 

Green, Mr. Martin, Worcester. — Additions to the Worcester Free Pub- 
lic Library, 1883-1890; and miscellaneous newspapers. 

Hall, Lieut. J. Brainerd, Worcester. — Twenty-seven unbound volumes 
of the " Congressional Record "; and his "Veteran," as issued. 

Harrington, Mr. Eden, Worcester. — Worcester Art Students' Club 

. Annual, 1891. 

Hazen, Rev. Henry A., Boston. — The "Congregational Year-Book," 

Herrkra, Sefior Guillermo, Mexico. — Statistical Bulletin of the Re- 
public of Mexico for 1889. 
Hoadly, Charles J., LL.D., New Haven, Conn. — " Register and 

Manual of the State of Connecticut," 1891. 
Holt and Company, Messrs. Henry, New York. — Numbers of the 

" Educational Review." 
Homans Publishing Company, New York. — " Bankers' Magazine," 

for May, 1891. 
llORSKORD, Eben N., LL.D., Cambridge. — His "Defences of Norum- 

Horton and Son, Messrs. Nathaniel A., Salem. — Their "Gazette," as 

Jones, Mr. Harry C. : New York. — Numbers of his " Photo- American 

Kellogg, J. H., M.D., Battle Creek, Mich. — His "Good Health," as 

Kyes and Woodbury, Messrs., Worcester. — Their Calendar, as issued. 
Kinnicutt, Heirs of Mrs. Francis H., Worcester. — Two hundred and 

tweuty-three books: four hundred and ninety-one pamphlets; nine 

flics of newspapers ; and three maps. 

3C>4 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Lawrence, Mr. Frank, Worcester. — Photographs of Columbus and 
of Robert B. Thomas. , 

Lawton, Dr. Christopher P., Worcester. — Numbers of Fayal news- 

Lewis, Prof. Theodore II., St. Paul, Minn.— Four of his Archaeo- 
logical brochures. 

Lincoln, Edward W. , Esq., Secretary, Worcester. — " Transactions of 
the Worcester County Horticultural Society, for 1890-91." 

Lippincott and Company, Messrs. J. B., Philadelphia. — Their "Bulle- 
tin," as issued. 

Lossing, Miss Helen R. M., Dover Plains, N. Y. — Manuscript Bio- 
graphical Sketch of Benson J. Lossing, LL.D. 

McDonald, Arthur, Ph.D., Worcester.— -His "Ethics as applied to 

McKeon, Mr. Francis P., Worcester. — His "Fair Land and Free," a 

McLaughlin, Mr. Angus A., Worcester.— The "Old South Record," 
as issued. 

Metcalf, Mr. Caleb B., Worcester. — Two books; sixty-three pam- 
phlets; and the " Christian Union," in continuation. 

Miller, Heirs of Mr. Henry W., Worcester. — Two hundred and twenty- 
three books; six hundred and ninety-eight pamphlets; twenty-live 
(lies of newspapers; two framed and one un framed engravings; 
four maps; and one manuscript. 

Miner, Mr. E. N., Editor, New York.— Numbers of the "Phonographic 

Moreno, Senor Francisco P., La Plata, B. A. — His " Esploracion 

Arqueologica de laProvincia de Calamarca." 
Moskley, Mr. G. G., Hartford, Conn. — His " Religious Herald/' as 

Moses, Mr. Zebina, Washington, D. C— His " Moses Family." 
Mower, Mr. Mandeville, New York.— Two historical pamphlets. 

Munroe, Mr. Alexander C, Secretary, Worcester. — Publications of 

the Worcester County 'Musical Association. 
Pkntecost, Mr. Hugh D. f Ncav York. — Numbers of the "Twentieth 

Pierce, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.— The Worcester Schools, 1890. 
Poole, Mr. Reuben B., Librarian, New York. — Report of the Young 

Men's Christian Association of New York City, 1891. 
Putnam's Sons, Mi'. George P., New York. — Their Magazine, as 


1891.] Givers and Gifts. 365 

Raymkr, Mr. Charles D., Minneapolis, Minn — Numbers of his 

"Literary World." 
Reinwald, Moses C, Paris, Prance.— His "Bulletin," as issued. 
Kice, Hon. William, Librarian, Springfield.— Publications of the 

Public Library, as issued. 

RICH, Mr. Marshall N., Editor, Portland. Me. — " Board of Trade 

Journal," as issued. 

Rohinson, Miss Mary, Worcester. — Four periodicals, in continuation. 

Rohinson, Mr.. William H., Worcester. — The " Amherst Record," as 

Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester. — Thirty-nine numbers of magazines. 

Rogers, Mr. James S., Saratoga, N. Y. — Two broadsides. 

Rogers, Mrs. James S., Saratoga, N. Y. — Fifteen volumes of unbound 
newspapers; and eleven pamphlets. 

Russell, Mr. E. Harlow, Principal, Worcester.— Catalogue of the 
Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester, 1891. 

Salmon, Mr. John, Worcester. —One copper Token. 

SCRIPTURE, Mr. E. W., Worcester. — His "Arithmetical Prodigies." 

Shaw, Mr. Joseph A., Worcester. — Highland Military Academy Reg- 

• istcr, March, 1891. 

Slafter, Rev. Edmund F., D.D., liegistrar, Boston. — His Annual 
Report on the Enrichment of the Diocesan Library. 

Staples, Rev. Carlton A., Lexington. — His " Chaplains of the Revo- 

Staples, Mrs Mary C. D., Worcester. — " In Memoriam, Judge Hamil- 
ton Barclay Staples." 

Staples, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— His "Voice of Spring" and 
other poems. 

Taft, Hon. William IL, Washington, 1). C. — A Biographical sketch 
of Hon. Alphonso Taft, IX. D. 

Tatman, Mr. Charles T., New York— Numbers of his "Plain Talk." 

Thomas, Amos R., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. — His "Genealogical Records 
of the Descendants of William Thomas of Hardwick, Mass." 

Thompson, Dr. Charles O., Heirs of, Cambridge. — Twenty-seven 
books; live hundred and thirty-three pamphlets; eleven engraved 
heads ; and three photographs. 

Touie, Mr. Edward P., Editor, Pawtucket, R. I.— The * First Maine 
Bugle," for July, 1891. 

Towne, Enoch H., Esq., City Clerk, Worcester. — Worcester City Doc- 
uments, 1889-91. 

Trumrle, Mr. Alfred, Editor, New York.— His "Collector," as 

36G American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Turner, Mr. John H., Aye*. — His "Groton Landmark," as issued. 
Verduzco, Scfior Ignacio O., Morelia, Yucatan. — His M Gazeta 

Oiicial," as issued. 
Vinal, Kev. Charles G., Kennebunk, Me. — One pamphlet. 
Vincent, Mr. Frank, New York. — His " Around and About Soutli 


Vinton, Rev. Alexander II., D.D., Worcester.— "All Saints Parish," 

as issued. 
Walker, Rev. D. S., Springfield, 111. — A Vermont copper coin of 1788. 
Walker, Rev. George Lewis, New Haven, Conn. — His sermon entitled 

" From Scrooby to Plymouth." 
Walker, Hon. Joseph H., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 
Wanamaker, Hon. John, Philadelphia, Pa. — His " Book News," as 

Washburn, Willis and Greene, Messrs. J. D., Worcester. — Two In- 
surance periodicals, in continuation. 
Welch, Mr. 0. E., Vineland, N. J.— "The African," for June, 181)1. 
Wesby and Sons, Messrs. Joseph S., Worcester. — Twelve books ; six 

hundred and llfty-three pamphlets; one map; and miscellaneous 

Winslow, Rev. William C., D.D., Boston. — His " Pilgrim Fathers in 

Wolcott, Rev. P. C., Secretary, Davejipqrt, Iowsu—The Thirty-eighth 

Annual Convention of the Diocese of Iowa. 

from societies and institutions. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Its publications, 

as issued. 
Academy of Science of St. Louis. — Its publications, as issued. 
American Baptist Missionary Union. — Their Magazine, as issued. 
American Geographical Society.— Their "Bulletin," as issued. 
American Historical Association.— Their Annual Report for the year 

American Oriental Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Philosophical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Seamen's Friend Society.— Their "Sailor's Magazine," as 

American Society for the Extension of University Teaching.— 

Their " University Extension," as issued. 
American Statistical Association.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Unitarian Association.— One pamphlet. 

1891.] Givers and Gifts. 367 

Board of Editors, Class of '01, W. P. I.— Their "Aftermath." 
Boston Board of Health.— Their " Statements of Mortality," us issued. 
Boston, City of. — Foal* volumes of City Documents. 
Boston City Hospital, Trustees of.— Their Report for 1890. 
Boston Dental College. — Its Annual Announcement for 1891-1)2. 
Boston Public Library. — Its " Bulletin,*' as issued. 
Brooklyn Library.— Its publications, as issued. 
Buffalo Historical Society. — Their publications, as issued. 
Buffalo Library. — Its publications, as issued. 

Bulletin Publishing Company, Denver, Colo. — Numbers of its "Pub- 
lic Library Bulletin." 

Bureau of American Republics.— Its Bulletins, as issued. 
Cambridge (Eng.) Antiquarian Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Canada Geological Survey Department. — Its publications, as 

Canadian Institute. — Its publications, as issued. 
Chicago Historical Society.— Their publications, as Issued. 
Cincinnati Public Library. — Its publications, as issued. 
Civil Service Reform Association.— Their " Record," as issued. 
Columbia College Library. — Eighty-nine books ; seventy-one pam- 
phlets ; and its publications, as issued. 

Connecticut Historical Society. — Their publications, as issued. 
Dedham Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Essex Institute.— Its publications, as issued. 
Free Public Library Commissioners of Massachusetts.— Their 

First Report, 1891. 
Hartford Theological Seminary.— Its publications, as issued. 
Highland Cadet, Board of Editors. — Their periodical, as issued. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.— Their publications, as issued. 
Hyde Park Historical Society.-— Their publications, as issued; one 

book; and eighteen pamphlets. 
Iowa Historical Society.— Their "Record," as issued. 
Jersey City Free Public Library. — Its Catalogue ; and Rules. 
Johns Hopkins University.— Its publications, as issued. 
Kansas City Academy of Science.— Their " Scientist," as issued. 
Library Company of Philadelphia. — Their publications, as issued. 
Maine Congregational Association. — Their annual publication, 1891. 
Maine Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. — "Acts and Resolves," 1891 ; and 

one pamphlet. 

^()8 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Massachusetts (Jkand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons."— Their 
" Proceedings," as issued. 

Massachusetts Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. — Its publications, as issued. 

Massachusetts State Board of Health.— Its "Returns of Mortality," 
as issued. 

Mercantile Library of Philadelphia.— Its publications, as issued. 

Messenger, Editors of the.— Their periodical, as issued. 

Minneapolis Public Library.— Its publications, us issued. 

National Central Library of Florence. — Its "Bulletin," as issued. 

National Co-operative Publishing Company. — Its "Living Issues," 

as issued. 
National Library of Greece.— Catalogue of the Library. 
Newberry Library.— Report Tor the year 1890. 
Newburyport Public Library. — Its publications, as issued. 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society.— Their publications, us 

New York Academy of Sciences. — Its publications, as issued. 

New Yore Commissioners of the Reservation at Niagara.— Their 

Seventh Annual Report. 
New York Evening Post Printing Company. — Their "Nation," as 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Oneida Historical Society. — Their proceedings, as issued. 
Open Court Publishing Company. — Their periodicals, as issued. 
Peabody Institute of Baltimore. — Its Twenty-fourth Annual Report. 

Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology.— Its 

publications, as issued. 
Peabody Reporter Company. — Their " Reporter," as issued. 
Portland Public Library. —Its Second Animal Report. 

Redwood Library and Athen.eum. — Its One Hundred and Sixty-first 

Annual Report. 
Rhode Island Historical Society — Their publications, as issued. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. — Their Journal, as issued. 
Royal Society of Canada. — Their publications Tor the year 1890. 
Royal University oe Norway.— Two of its publications. 
St. Louis Public Library. — Its Annual Report for 1889-90. 
Salem Press Publishing and Printing Company.— Numbers of their 

" Historical and Genealogical Record." 
Sentinel Printing Company. — Their " Sentinel," as issued. 

1891.] Given and Gift*. 369 

Shoe and Leather Reporter, Publishers qf.— Their Annual for 

185)1 ; and the " Reporter," as issued. 
Smithsonian Institution.— Its publications, as issued. 
Societe dks JStudes IIistoriques. — Their publications, as issued. 
Society de Geographie.— Their " Bulletin," as issued. 
Society op Antiquaries oe London. — Their publications, as issued. 

Society oe the Army ok the Potomac— Their Twenty-second An- 
nual Heunion. 

Springfield City Library Association. — Their publications, as issued. 
Spy Publishing Company. — Their Daily and Weekly Spy, as issued. 
Standard Coal and Fuel Company.— One pamphlet. 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin.— Their " Proceedings," for 

Travelers' Insurance Company.— Their " Record," as issued. 
United States Board on Geographic Names. — Its "Bulletin," No. 2. 

United States Department ok Agriculture. — Its "Album of Agri- 
cultural Graphics." 

United States Department of the Interior.— Thirty Department 

. volumes; and the " Patent Office Gazette," as issued. 

United States Department of State. — Two volumes. 

United States Like-saving Service.— The Annual Report of 1880. 

United States Navy Department. — One volume. 

United States War Department.— "Official Hccords: War of the Re- 
bellion," as issued; Index 'catalogue, Vol. XII.; and four miscella- 
neous volumes. 

University of California. — Sixty-three of its publications. 

University of Michigan. — Its Record, as issued. 

Vermont State Library. — Nineteen State documents. 

Victor Immanuel National Central Library ok Komi-:.- Us "Bulle- 
tin," as issued. 

Virginia Historical Society. — " History of St. John's Church. 
Richmond. " 

W P I, Board ok Editors. — Their periodical, as issued. 

Watchman Publishing Company.— Their "Vermont Watchman," as 

Western Reserve Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Worcester Board of Health. — Its "Mortality Reports," as issued. 

Worcester County Institution kor Savings. — Cue hundred and 
forty-two numbers of magazines; aud three files of newspapers. 

370 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Worcester Free Public Library. — Sixty books; four hundred and 
seventy-three pamphlets; and ninety-one files of newspapers, in 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. — Their publications, as issued. 

World's Columbian Exposition. — Its publications, as issued. 

Wyoming Geological and Historical Society. — Santee's "Notes on 
the Tornado of August 10, 1890, in Luzerne and Columbia Counties, 

Young Men's Christian Associations, International Committee. — 
Their "Year-Book," for 1891. 

Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester.— Their publica- 
tions, as issued. 

18111.] Illustrated Americana of llie Revolution. 371 



Of all the four hundred years that have passed sinee 
Columbus made the Western world known to civilized man, 
the most important in their history and its results are the 
eight years of the Revolution in our own country. In the 
long extent of time and material covered by what we call 
" Illustrated Americana," it is a very short period, and the 
engravers who then treated its subjeets have left us a scant- 
ily furnished gallery of their art. To look quite through 
the whole range of plates that illustrate the two continents 
since the days of the great discoverer, we must examine 
thousands, if we would form any adequate idea of their 
actual and relative character. Fewer hundreds are all ^ve 
can find, contemporaneously made, to show, in their way, 
how we grew into a nation, and who helped the growth. 
No great amount of Art as well as few pieces, we also rind. 
It is, altogether, a lot of old plates, some good, more of 
them queer, sought for by petty antiquaries, and not worth 
any profound attention from the masters of thought and of 
history. That may be what they look like when glanced 
at, but they mean a great deal more than they at first show. 
A few notes and remarks about them may be added to a 
necessarily brief mention of them in a former paper. 

They may fairly be considered a class by themselves. 
Every one of them is now uncommon or rare ; every one 
cannot be mentioned here, for this is not a bibliography. 
Conclusions after looking at them, and speaking of some of 

them are all that can be stated here. 

372 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

When the war impended, or began, the earliest demand 
was for maps of our country, especially of the coast. 
Almost as soon there was a call for portraits of the chief 
actors ; and views of places, or illustrations of events soon 
followed. Each sort, largely the portraits, was supplied 
until peace came. 

The maps are distinct from the engravings, and of them 
it may briefly be said that not a few are large, tinely exe- 
cuted, and valuable. On the whole they show a great deal 
of the good work, and give us great help in history. Early 
in the war, London publishers issued sheet-maps ; the 
Gentleman's Magazine furnished others, still interesting, 
to the middle and higher classes ; and the Government sup- 
plied the navy with the imposing and elaborate "Atlantic 
Neptune," issued from 1775 to 1782. 

Most of the plate engravings were in books. We wish 
there were more of these plates showing actions, and espec- 
ially places, for lands, buildings and towns have very much 
changed. Europe then furnished most of the finer artificial 
things used here, and it is not strange that most of the 
plates had their origin there. Art was not really at home 
here, and little here taught it. 

War, however, quickens most things, and brings out men 
to exercise any required skill otherwise dormant. Engrav- 
ing had hardly been attempted here, but the times inspired 
novel eitbrts. While soldiers came from town and farm, 
so also, although in numbers relatively less, appeared pio- 
neers of the art. 

In the great world abroad it was a Golden A«*e of engnw- 
ing. Works were produced in France and Italy that are 
still admired and eagerly sought. England was then the 
home of Strange, 1 Bartolozzi,' 2 and Earlom . 3 Mezzotints were 
favorites, and very many then produced are superb. Some 
of the earliest plates in our Revolutionary Americana are in 

i sir (1787) Iiobert, 1721-92. - Franceso, 1730-1816; in Enu. 1764-1S02. 

8 Richard, 1712-1822. 

1891.] Illustrated Americana of the Revolution. 373 

this style, a large portrait of Gov. Pownall (1777), [ by 
Earlom, among them. The early demand for portraits was 
met by over a dozen large mezzotints of prominent men 
published on sheets in London during 1775, and the three 
subsequent years. Some of them were, however, engraved 
at Augsburg. Over a dozen more, of smaller size — all 
with a remarkable family likeness and rude in workman- 
ship — appeared with German lettering. 

As early as April, 1775, Samuel Okey, Newport, R. I., 
emulous of metropolitan achievements, produced a striking- 
mezzotint of "Mr. Samuel Adams." Some patriotic Rhode 
Islander may be able to tell us more about the engraver. 

A thin little quarto beside the writer shows in a notable 
way some of the exigencies at the opening of the Revolu- 
tion. It is the "Manual Exercise" for instructing troops 
in the Royal, or Loyal, service, issued in Boston in 17G4. 
When training for "rebel" service was started, there was 
a lack of text-books as aids. Copies of this work appear 
to have remained unsold, and were adapted to the occasion. 
The title was suitably altered, and in a heading on page 3, 
appeared the words " The Manual Exercise as ordered" [by 
the Provincial Congress] followed by a neat bit of white 
paper pasted over the original words "by His Majesty." 
Two folding plates that show military forms w T ere retained. 
The treatise then became an aid to something very different 
from the original intent, and the advantages of thrift w r ere 
in due time apparent. 

When soldiers gathered near Boston to begin the war, 
Ralph Earle, later a well-known artist, and Amos Doolittle, 
afterwards an engraver, came in a company from New 
Haven. They visited the sites of the early engagements; 
the former drew, and the latter cut on copper, two views 
of the right at Lexington, and two of that at Concord. 
All were about 12 x 18 inches in size. Two of them give 
a little information about buildings, two show the position 

i Guv. of M;i«. 1757-60. 

374 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

and shape of those at the centre of each town, but scanty 
details ; more is given of costume. Of portraiture there is 
nothing, although in the view of Concord town Earl Percy 
and Colonel Smith are in the foreground. The importance 
of three other British officers is proved by showing them, 
on horseback, as high as a two-storied house. 

It is easy to say that these views are the most accu- 
rate and valuable that we have of the scenes, for there is 
nothing with which to compare them. As early American 
engravings they have an interest and value not theirs as 
works of art, in which f \ey are surpassed by the earliest 
Italian plates on metal made before 1492. By reason of 
their subjects and the little illustration these had at the 
time, they are, however, as Mrs. Stowe's old woman said 
of men in general, "enough sight better than nothing." 
John Norman was another pioneer : he gave us portraits. 
We are aware that our Revolutionary heroes were remark- 
able men : he and Boolittle made them supernatural, with 
large heads, long bodies and dwarfed legs. The latter, it 
has been said, was caricaturing Earl Percy, but with the 
same peculiarities, and more elaboration, Norman shows us 
John Hancock. His full-length of General Warren is bet- 
ter ; in a view of that hero's death he has again proved that 
extraordinary shapes, faces and attitudes are not, in early 
American plates, caricatures, but evidences of style and 
capacity in drawing. 

At a later date, Norman delineated some allegorical 
young women engaged in commemorating the earlier battles, 
who, notwithstanding their looks, were probably not afflicted 
with the mumps. 

Bunker Hill and the battle there, formed a subject for at 
least three remarkable plates. The first, a large one (12 x 
17 inches), was by Bernard Romans, a Dutch engineer in 
the American service. Reduced in size, this view appeared 
in the " Pennsylvania Magazine " of 177;"). Another ( 7-J x 
4J) was published with Cocking's poem, "The American 

1891.] Illustrated Americana of the Revolution. 375 

War," in 1781, and the third (llfx8 in.), "drawn by 
Mr. Millar," in Barnard's History of England, 1783. The 
latter two are evidently from the same drawing. In each 
of the three views there is a river, and at one side a hill ; 
otherwise the topography is impossible, the architecture 
more than dubious, and the action defiant of printed ac- 
counts. They appear to have been drawn by the help of 
a certain map and a lively imagination. 

While the war continued, the portraits outnumbered the 
views, yet even this number is far from being excessive. 

A rival, » f not a superior, had preceded, and was contem- 
poraneous with Doolittle and Norman. Paul Revere's 
plates, so far as they relate to the Revolution, largely treat 
of subjects that were its precursors several years before it 
began. The Stamp Act, the Boston Massacre, scenes of 
events, as his views of Boston, the North Battery, and Har- 
vard College, or portraits, like that of Samuel Adams, or 
political caricatures, show the versatility of his talents and 
his industry. It is a question whether he was not more an 
artist, as well as a more skilful engraver, than any other 
man in the Colonies during his time ; and also whether in 
historical value, as well as in variety of subjects, his are not 
the most important American plates of their date. 

In the meantime, bus}' as he was in political or military 
affairs, he showed that his skill had not been exhausted 
years before, but was used to no little effect in matters of 
importance every day through the Revolution. He en- 
graved plates for the paper that passed as money, and while 
his work might have well been far better, it was a great 
deal better than the " money." 

The later portraits, like the earlier, were as good as 
many of those that appeared during our last war. The Rev. 
James Murray wrote an "Impartial History" (London and 
Newcastle, 1778, 1780), in which there were twenty-six 
busts in small, oval frames. Some years later, John Andrews 
(LL.D.), prepared a history including operations in Europe. 

37C) American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

This work (1785-6) had twenty -four portraits of various 
shapes, generally a little round, set in a sort of wall, that 
are better than Murray's. Histories by Gordon, Kamsay 
•and Stedman contained maps or plans. In 1781, "Im- 
partial History " appeared at Boston, in parts making three 
volumes, 8°, with portraits by J. Norman, notably like 
those in Murray. 

A long article would be required for a description of the 
engraved portraits of Washington. Assiduous collectors 
have found some five hundred specimens — good, bad, or 
indifferent. Of really good, or in some way important, 
theye arc perhaps a hundred, few of which were made before 
1783 ; indeed of the five hundred, a very large part date 
from this century and from its latter half. From the head- 
ing of a handbill, a bust on a postage-stamp or a bank-note, 
to large, full-length plates, we find these presentations of 
the Father of his Country. 

Caricature has a part in history and politics. It appeared 
with some rather striking plates early in the war, but when 
both parties settled to earnest work there was less. Lord 
North is shown with a teapot pouring its contents into the 
mouth of a buxom America held down by Lord Mansfield. 
At a later date, Lord North is pumping water on a pros- 
trate Britannia to revive her in her troubles. Some of the 
caricatures issued in London were, indeed, as severe as the 
most radical American patriot would desire. A large 
plate, with French lettering, dedicated to " Milords" of the 
English Admiralty, by a member of the American Congress, 
shows an Admiral — an eagle dressed as a man — tied to a 
tree, while Congress clips his claws, another party his wings 
and one Dutchman plucks his feathers that a second carries 
away for sale. The drawing is said to be from nature at 
Boston by Corbet in 1778, and the engraving at Philadel- 
phia. Gilray left only one (?) large caricature of events 
in the Revolution : liodney presenting Grasse to George III. 

Of views, one of the earliest is a large and magnificent 

1891.] Illustrated Americana of the Revolution. 377 

plate in the "Atlantic Neptune," Boston as seen from 
Dorchester. The same huge work has live colored views 
of the harbor. It is very much to be regretted that the 
skilled engravers who made them could not have shown us 
the sites or scenes of the early and later battles. Little 
similar comparable work followed. Pel-haps the best was 
"a collection of [16] plates representing the different 
events of the war," engraved by Ponce and Godefroy, and 
issued in Paris. The most extraordinary was a series is- 
sued at Augsbourg, about 1781, purporting to show Boston 
and other places. The full size of the plates was 12 J by 17 
inches — the boldness of the draughtsman was boundless. 
Ger-.ian architecture of the last century was applied in a 
way it never was in America, and although the places were 
made to look as unlike as well could be, anything that ex- 
isted here, the "views" are valuable and curious evidences 
of the manner in which our country was then presented to 
Europe . 

Moderate as is the number of plates produced before 
1784, all of them cannot be mentioned here, nor can more 
than an allusion be made to the far greater number illustra- 
tive of the Re volution issued during the present century, 
most of them during its last half. As plates, the majority 
are the best on the subjects, and as portraits and views, the 
same may be said. By their quantity, and often by their 
quality, they show us not alone what we desire to see, but 
also the regard in which the men of the war and their acts 
have been held by their successors, and the importance since 
attached to each. 

In contrast, while we look over the early plates, we real- 
ize to what a limited extent our country was then a home of 
art, notably at a period when engraving had reached great 
development and diffusion abroad. We realize, as we do 
when examining the cuts made between 1492 and 15. r )0, 
to what a small degree subjects furnished by America were 
treated bv art. The educated and refined world outside 

378 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

does not seem to have been interested in us to a flattering 
extent or to one commensurate with the attention given to 
political and military affairs. We realize, also, the stern 
demands of war on our people, and how little time and 
money they had to spend on illustrations of it. 

But matters are comparative as well as positive. Let us 
see if we were alone in certain respects. A nearly parallel 
case has, of late been presented. 

Two years ago a great nation celebrated on an immense 
scale the centennial of a revolution that utterly changed its 
history. There was a vast and magnificent display of not 
only its own arts and industries, but also those of other 
n-jons. None of the "World's Fairs," or national exhibi- 
tions, during the past thirty years was as large and extra- 
ordinary. It seems as if no other country could surpass, 
rival or equal the Exposition of 1889 ; and the writer 
makes this remark after having seen nearly all the imposing 
demonstrations of the sort. France fully and impressively 
showed her position at the close of a hundred years follow- 
ing the events of 1789. 

Apart from this, yet with important illustrative connec- 
tion, there was in a hall at the Louvre a comparatively 
small exhibition of objects associated with the beginning 
and the first twenty of the hundred years. There Avere gath- 
ered all obtainable portraits, views, painted dishes, flags, 
personal relics, pertaining to the French Revolution, and 
contemporary with it. They were produced when France 
was distinguished for the skill of her engravers, and of her 
workers in fine porcelain and tapestry. For the arts she 
was a home, not a desert. 

Great care had evidently been used to make the collec- 
tion, and what was it? Large, if we take into the account 
the waste by war, political changes, and heedlessness ; not 
large, estimated by the number, industry and active fancy 
of the French. Still, if smaller than might be thought or 
wished, there was probably more than could be gathered 
about our Revolution, or that of England in 1649, or in 

1891.] Illustrated Americana of th e Revolution. 371) 

lf>88. In quality, there was little of the finer art of the 
country, and much that was rude. It was here also shown 
that the most and the better engraved illustrations follow, 
at a distance, the war times to which they refer. 

But another, a deeper, a different impression was also 
made — that there was so little about a very marked period 
in the French Revolution. There were numerous portraits, 
but as to what the originals did, it was suggested that there 
really never was a Reign of Terror. 

A few touching personal relics there were, indeed— -mute 
yet eloquent evidence — a cloth dipped in the blood of the 
Queen, a little suit of clothes made for the Dauphin — some 
of the chief souvenirs that diligent search could procure to 
show that a family sovereign through centuries lived and 
died in Paris. But, if not there, engravings showing the 
Terror exist. 

An American feels very thankful that the great struggle, 
when a new life for his own country began, cannot show 
certain subjects. Rough acts there were — it was time of 
war — but Boston Massacres, or Tory confiscations, were 
local by-play in comparison. Wise, patient heads of lead- 
ers, strong hands of plain folks from shop or farm, in a 
manly fashion worked out our problem — there was not 
submission to a godless rabble of a Lyons, Nantes, or Paris. 
Sins enough here, may be, among individuals, poor enough 
some of our art in our Revolution, but then as now, there 
was that simple yet noble characteristic of the genuine 
American — respect and regard for woman. Not here by 
the current national authority died a beautiful and great- 
hearted woman — most exalted in the land; not here by 
like authority did barbarism slowly grind to death a small, 
helpless boy — whose crime was that he was his father's 
son — the descendant of Saint Louis. 

We could not soar in art, but we did not sink to certain 
depths in founding our Republic. 

Let our Revolutionary plates be scanty, or poor, so long- 
as we had with them the calm, wise heads that made us a 

380 American Antiquarian Society. [Out. 

nation, and along with those heads the plain folks. After 
all, hetter the Yankee, plain as his own barn-door, but go- 
ing to hear the minister preach on a Sunday, and on a 
week-day doing some talking himself in town-meeting. 

When exhaustive search gathers and shows our Revolu- 
tionary illustrations, we are glad to feel that there will he 
no important portion of the subject with a national charac- 
ter that is to be veiled or avoided. 

But there will be one cause for reflection that we may 
well heed. Judging from the rate at which they have al- 
ready disappeared, we are forced to think that by the end 
of another century the illustrations made before 1784 may 
have altogether disappeared. Our patriotic ancestors, in 
many a place and year, heard orations filled with ardent 
eloquence; they printed these with explosions of caps., 
great and small, of italics and exclamation points; and then 
they made waste-paper of the illustrations. In our time, 
the early patriots are eulogized in resounding rhetoric ; the 
bold and graceful signature of the great signer of the 
Declaration of our Independence is lavishly reproduced — 
and the house of John Hancock — one of the most solid, 
picturesque, and historic throughout our wide land — is 
sold for old junk. The libraries of the collectors who take 
care of books are one by one dispersed. By the increase 
of wealth, and the spread of enlightenment, the volumes are 
gathered elsewhere; public thirst for knowledge — and 
amusement — is satiated; and after awhile the plates are 

A hundred years hence when the manners and customs, 
the enterprise and modesty of our times are talked about, 
there will be a chance for tributes not those of flattery. 
Debts are liberally contracted for posterity ; it may prove 
well that we take better care of certain things we have left, 
if we would wish to have it then decided that we, in our 
day, with our means, make our bequests as valuable as 
those left by the men of the Revolutionary time, even in 
their scanty legacies of Illustrated Americana. 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 381 



Every student of American History will find in early 
Boston a favorite subject. In her history are the begin- 
nings of all the great social, political and religious progress- 
ive movements toward the present America. However great 
the pride of the native Bostonian, others not so fortunate 
must excuse and commend it. If Chief Justice Sewall, in 
his dream of the Saviour's visit to Boston (I. Diary, p. 115) 
could have looked forward a century and more, he might 
well have expressed even greater admiration for the "Wis- 
dom of Christ in coming hither and spending some part of 
his short life here." 

Among the many objects so strongly stamped as historic 
by association with the men and events of early Boston, 
none to-day possesses keener interest to members of the 
American Antiquarian Society than the old graveyards. 
It was with great gratification, therefore, that a party of 
gentlemen many of whom are members of this Society, 
was permitted last May, by the invitation of Hon. George 
F. Hoar, to visit the more important of these ancient burial- 
places, and later, in July, by the courtesy of Mr. Charles 
Francis Adams, to visit the old burying-ground and other 
historic places in Quincy. 

The oldest place of burial in Boston is the King's Chapel 
Yard on Tremont street. Long before this place was asso- 
ciated with King's Chapel, it was a graveyard. Tradition, 
coming from Judge Sewall, through Rev. Thomas Prince, 
has it that Isaac Johnson, one of the twelve signers of the 
agreement "to pass the seas (under God's protection) to 


'bnerican Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

inhabit and continue in New England" signed at Cam- 
bridge, August 20, 1629, by Winthrop and his followers, 
one of the first Assistants, and probably the second white 
settler on the Boston peninsula, was buried at the southwest 
corner of his lot, in September, 1630. His lot was the 
square now enclosed by Washington, School, Tremont and 
Court streets. According to this old tradition it was 
around Johnson's grave that the settlers buried their dead, 
and the place remained for many years the only burial- 
ground. 1 

The earliest interment that is recorded on stone is that of 
Governor John Winthrop in 1649.* This old Winthrop 

1 This tradition is [riven in Prince's Annals, Part II. .Section 2, p. 2. as follows: 
" And the late chief Justice Samuel Sewalt, Esq; informed me; That this Mr. 
Johnson was the principal Cause of settling the town of Boston, and so of its 
becoming the Metropolis and had removed hither; had chose for his Lot the 
great square tying hetwecu Cornhill on the S. E, Tree-mount- Street on the 
X. W, Q iieen- Street on the N. E, and School- Street on the S. W; and on his 
Death-Bed desiring to be buried at the upper End of his Lot, in Faith of his 
rising in it, He was accordingly Burled there; which gave occasion for the 
first Burying Ptaae of this TowB to he laid out round about his Grave."— A 
Chronological History of New England iu the form of Annals, by Thomas 
Prince, M. A. Boston, X. E., 1T3G. 

2The funeral of Governor Winthrop has been so beautifully portrayed by 
his worthy descendant, the Honorable Robert C. Winthrop, that his associates 
in this society will gladly pardon me if I pause a moment to repeat his de- 
scription :— " That 13th of April, 164'J, must have witnessed a memorable gath- 
ering on the spot which these windows of ours now look out upon. It re- 
quires no stretch of imagination to depict the scene when the old father of the 
town and colony, who had brought over the Charter of Massachusetts, as 
the first full Governor, nineteen years before, and who had held the otlice of 
Governor, with the exception of four or live years, during the whole period, 
was borne at last, as Governor, to his grave. Dudley, then deputy Governor, 
Endieott, Belliugham, and Bradstrect must certainly have been there. John 
Cotton, John Wilson, Thomas Shepard, and the revered John Eliot, among 
the clergy, could not fail to have been present; and the latter may have heen 
attended by a group of the Indians, to whom he was the apostle, and whom 
Winthrop had uniformly befriended during his life. There is an old family 
record of one of the Pequod Sagamores coming to Boston at the lime, and 
exclaiming, ' He is alive, he is alive' on seeing the Governor's portrait in the 
parlor. Increase Nowell, the old secretary, and John Clark were doubtless 
there, with Winthrop the younger, from Connecticut. Possibly Bradford or 
some of the Pilgrims may have come from Plymouth, and may have given 
Morton his account of the ' great solemnity and honor ' of the occasion. 
The artillery otlicers, probably what is now known as the Ancient and Honor- 

18i>l.] Historic JBurial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 383 

tomb is within a rod or two of Tremont street, and the 
building of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 1 Margaret, 
the devoted wife of Governor Winthrop, was undoubtedly 
buried in the same place in 1(>47. The Winthrop tomb has 
an especial interest for Connecticut as well as Massachusetts, 
for here, too, is buried her first Governor, John Winthrop, 
Jr.- A third Governor, Fitz-John Winthrop, was buried 
here in 1707. 3 

able Artillery Company, whose charter had been signed by Winthrop in 1638, 
are recorded as having been present, and as having taken the responsibility 
of using a barrel and a half of the colony powder, without leave, for funeral 
salutes; for which the -colony indemnified them at the next meeting of the 
General Court There were no religious services or ser- 
mons at funerals at that period of our colonial history Xo re- 
ligious exercises were needed, however, to make the occasion a solemn one. 
Ilutehinson, who had access to all the contemporary records, .speaks of "the 
general grief through the colony'; and it is easy to picture to ourselves the 
authorities and the people of the town ami the neighborhood assembling at 
the Governor's house, and following the corpse, borne by loving hands, for 
there were no hearses in those days, to the tomb or grave, which it is now 
proposed in some quarters to desecrate and do away." (XVII. Proceedings 
Mass. Hist. Soc, 130.) 

1 The horizontal stone slab is inscribed as follows: 


Governor of Massachusetts, 

died 1649. 

Major General 


died Sep'. 7 th , 1717 Aged 7(i Years. 


the Wife of David Sears, 

died Oct'. 2«» 1789 Aged 33 Years. 

- Sewall records his death and burial as follows: "April 5 (107U) Wednes- 
day. Governor Winthrop dyes. Interred old Burying place Monday follow- 
ing." (I. Diary, p. 12.) 

■'- There are two references to the funeral in ScwalPs Diary. The tirst is in 
the list of funerals at which Sewall was a bearer. It is as follows: '-GO Deer. 
4, 1707 The Double. F. J. Winthrop, Governor of Connecticut. Scarf, King, 
Gloves, Escutcheon. Gov. W. Tomb." (II. Diary, p. 11.) In the body of the 
Diary is a fuller account. "Dec. 1. Mr. C. Mather preaches a very good 
funeral sermon. Govr. Winthrop is buried from the Council Chamber, Foot 
Companies in Arms, and Two Troops. Armor carried, a Led Horse. Bear- 
ers. Goyr., Mr. Russell; Mr. Cooke. Major Brown; Col. Hutchinson, Sewall; 
Mr. Secratary, Mr. Sergeant. Father, Son and Grandson iy together in one 
Tomb in the old burying place. Was a vast concourse of people." (II. Diary, 
i). 20 1.) 

384 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Again, in 1717, "the regiment attended in arms" at this 
same tomb at the funeral of Chief Justice and Major-Gon- 
eral Wait Still Winthrop, "excellent for Parentage, Piety, 
Prudence, Philosophy, Love to New England Ways and 
people very Eminent." l 

Probably there is no tomb in New England that contains 
the dust of four men who had so much to do with the plant- 
ing of States as did Governor John Winthrop, his son 
John, and his grandsons Fitz-John and Wait Still. 

Near this tomb which recalls so much of the early politi- 
cal history of New England, is another which brings before 
us with equal vividness the history of the Puritan Church. 2 

John Cotton came to New England in 1()33, having with 
difficulty escaped the High Commission, and having been 
censured by Archbishop Laud because he would not kneel 
at the sacrament. I lis own meeting-house has now wholly 
disappeared, having stood on the site of Brazer's building 
on State street, and his tomb is included within the limits 
of a burial-place generally known as the King's Chapel 
Yard. These early ministers, with the exception of 

i <J The streets were crowded with people; was laid in Gov. "Winthrop 
tomb in Old Burying Place." (III. SewaH's Diary, p. Mb.) 

- The inscription is as follows: 

Here Lyes 
Intombed the Bodyes 

of the Famous, Reverend 

and Learned Pat'tors of the Firf! 

Church of CHRIST in BOSTON: 


M*. .JOHN COTTON, Aged G7 Years; Dec'. DecinK 
the 23 rd , 1652. 

W. JOHN DAVENPORT, Aged 72 Years; Dec". 
March the 15"', 1870. 

M'. JOHN OXONRR1DGE, Aged 6G Years; Dec'. 
Decm 6r the 28 th , 1674. 

M'. THOMAS BRIDGE, Aged 58 Years; Dee". 
September the 26 th , 1715. 

1801.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity . 385 

Thomas Bridge, 1 were all buried before King's Chapel was 
thought of, and their tomb alone should serve most emphati- 
cally to disconnect the history of that church with the his- 
tory of the adjoining graveyard. 

I have been unable thus far to learn the burial-place of 
John Wilson, the first pastor of the first church, although 
there is a Wilson tomb in the King's Chapel Yard referred 
to by Scwall (II. Diary, p. 411), in which a son of Thomas 
Fitch was buried. He died in 1607, possibly before the 
ministers' tomb was built. Sewall, in his letter to his son 
written 1720 to give him an account of the Sewall family, 
states that "in the year 1667 my father brought me" (to 
Cambridge) "to be admitted, by which means I heard Mr. 
Richard Mather of Dorchester, preach Mr. Wilson's funeral 
sermon, 'your fathers, where are they?'" (I. Diary, xiii.) 

Governor John Leverett is intombed in the King's 
Chapel Yard. Sewall refers to his death and burial, but 
only by a brief entry in his almanac, as follows: "1678-9 
March 1(), 1. Governour Leverett dieth. 25, 3 Is buried." 
(I. Diary, p. 48.) He states, however, Vol. III., p. 50, that 
Mrs. Cooke, Lcverett's daughter Elizabeth, was interred 
July 23, 1715, "In Govr. Leverett's Tomb in Old burying 

It is recorded on the bronze tablet- at this gate of the 
King's Chapel Yard that Governor John Endecott was 

1 Thomas Bridge was a friend of Judge Sewall, who records on the day of 
his death, 1715, "7r. 2(J Between 11 and 12 Mr. Bridge expires; with him 
much primitive Christianity is gone, the Old Church, the Town, the Prov- 
ince have a great loss.'' The bearers at the funeral were all ministers and 
represented the Old North, the Koxbury, the Brattle street, the Old South 
and the New North Churches; Dr. Increase Mather, Dr. Cotton Mather; Mr. 
Walter, Mr. Coleman; Mr. J. Sewall, Mr. Jno. Webb. (III. Sewall's Diary, 
59, GO.) 

- In order more permanently to mark the burial-places of the early leaders, 
bronze tablets have been placed on the gates of the old graveyards of Boston. 
These tablets were suggested by Hon. Robt. C. Winthrop and the inscriptions 
were written by Dr. Samuel A. Green. Those on the gates at King's Chapel 
are inscribed as follows :— 

386 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

buried within its limits. 1 The funeral of Lady Andros 
urrcd Friday, February 10, 1687-8. Judge Sewall 




Here were buried 

.John Winthrop 1649, John Eudecott 1665, 

John Loverctt 1079, William Shirley 1771; 


William Phillips 1827, Thomas Litulall Winthrop 1841 


John Winthrop 1676, Fitz-John Winthrop 1707; 


Wait Still Winthrop 1717, Adam Winthrop 1743, 

Oliver Wendell isiS, Thomas Dawes 182>5; 


John Cotton 1052, John Davenport 1670, 

John Oxenbridge 1074, Thomas' Bridge 171"). 



Here were buried 

Jacob Sheafe 1008, John Winslow 1074, 

Mary Chilton 1679, 

A passenger in the Mayflower 

and wife of John Winslow, 

Major Thomas Savage 1682, 

Lady Andros 1688, 

Captain Roger Clap 1690, Thomas Brattle 1713, 

Professor John Winthrop 1770, 

James Lloyd 1831, Charles Bultinch 1S4L 

1 Without attempting from my present investigation to throw doubt upon 
the accuracy of the statement on the above tablet that Governor John 
Endecott is buried in the King's Chapel Burial Ground, I must refer to evi- 
dence which unexplained would show that he was buried in the Granary 
Burial Ground. There is the following extract from the Records of the Select- 
men of Boston to be found in Document 47, 1S7D, of the City of Boston, p. 4; 
"P. IS."). 1721 .March 5. Upon a petition of Mr. John Edwards <»l Boston, 
shewing, that whereas there is a tomb in the South Burying place belonging 
to the Late Governour Endicot, which has been unimproved for many years, 
and there being no family in said town nearer related to the said Oovernour 
Eudieot's family than his, desires he may have liberty granted him to make 
use of it for his family. Granted that the said John Edwards has liberty 
to improve the said Tomb until a person of better right to it appears to claim 
it." There is no stone in either ground to mark the tomb, and I have found 
no reference to either EndicoU or Edwards, that would identify it. 

18U1.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 387 

attended it "having been invited by the dark of the South 
Company." l 

The monument of Thomas Dawes is prominent in this 
burial-ground. Major Dawes was the architect of the first 
Brattle-street church. He was an earnest patriot, his 
name being often associated with the leaders of the Revo- 
lution. a 

The tomb of Oliver Wendell is number one and is in the 
extreme corner on Tremont street, and next to the building 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. In this tomb are 
the remains of the maternal ancestors for two generations 
of Oliver Wendell Holmes, and many of his family connec- 
tions. (Document 96, 1879, City of Boston, p. 56.) 

Near the King's Chapel Yard and on the opposite side of 
Tremont street is a larger burying-ground, called at first 
the South Burying-ground, and later, the Granary. 3 This 

1 She was buried in the tomb of Benjamin Church. There is the following 
reference to her burial in Bridginan, p. 318: a slab on the bottom of the Church 
tomb states " here lies the bones of Lady Anne Aiulros." ( Bridgmau's King's 
Chapel Inscriptions, p. 318.) 

2 His epitaph is as follows: 


Born Aug'. 5, 1731, Died Jany. •>, 1809, Mt. 78. 

Of his taste for the Grecian simplicity 

In ARCHITECTURE there are many monuments 

Which he raised when that art was new to us. 

The records oi' Massachusetts shew 

That he was one of her active LEGISLATORS 

From the year 1770, until he was 70 years old; 

When he retired, with faculties unimpaired. 

To the fiscal concerns of this Metropolis, 

To its literary and other Institutions, 

He was a zealous friend. He was an ELECTOR 

At the three tirst elections of President 

of the U. S. and discharged various trusts 

To his own honor and the public weal. 

' j The tablets on the gates are as follows :— 



Within this ground are buried 
John Hancock, Samuel Adams 

388 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

name was taken from the old public granary which stood 
on the site now occupied l>y the Park-street Church. This 
building was used as a large storehouse for grain, at which 
the poorer people could purchase at a slight advance of 
cost, and would seem to be an old precedent for the muni- 
cipal coal-yard, of which much is heard to-day. 

The earliest date associated with this old graveyard is 
1060. Tf Governor Endicott was buried there, his must 
have been among the early interments, as he died in 1665. 
Dr. Samuel A. Green thinks that at first the Granary and 
King's Chapel grounds were united and became distinct only 
as Tremont street assumed more importance than a country 
lane. 1 A distinct name, however, seems very early to have 

and Robert Treat Paine, 

Signers of the Declaration of Independence; 


Richard Bellingham, William Dummer, 

James Bowdoin, Increase Sumner, 

James Sullivan and Christopher Gore ; 

Lieut. Governor Thomas Cashing; 

Chief Justice Samuel Sewall; 

Ministers .John Baily, Samuel Willard, 

Jeremy Belknap and John Lathrop. 


Within this ground are buried 
The victims of the Boston Massacre, 
March f». 1770. 

Josiah Franklin and wife, 

(Barents of Benjamin Franklin) 

Peter Faneuil. Paul Revere; 


John Phillips, 

First Mayor of Boston. 

i See Public Document of City of Boston, 1ST9. No. 96, p. 17. 

44 1 cannot tell what has become of the fee of the land, but I have an opinion, 
based upon something 1 have seen, that these two graveyards were originally 
one. King's Chapel Graveyard, the oldest in the city, was probably a tract in 
the outskirts of the village, "and undoubtedly interments were made in a part of 
it which we now call the Granary Burial-grown*. Afterwards, when Tremont 
street was laid out, they found a part of the tract of laud that had not been used 
for burial, and straightened the street and carried it through, making two sepa- 
rate burial-grounds. I have no doubt that at one time in the early history of 
Boston, the two graveyards were spoken of as the same, but the street having 
been laid out, they have practically become two distinct grounds." 

1801.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 38!) 

been applied to the King's Chapel Yard. In 1675, Judge 
Sewall writes that Governor Winthrop was buried in 
the "Old Burying place." Again, in 1685, he records that 
Father Gamaliel Wait and Father John Odlin were buried 
in the "First Burying place," and in the March following 
that "Father Porter was laid in the Old Cemetery." 
These adjectives may have served to distinguish the King's 
Chapel Yard from the North or Copp's Hill Burying-place, 
but there seems to be ground to hold that they refer, also, 
to the South Yard or Granary, which contained Sewall's 
own tomb, and to which he does not as a rule apply any 
word of description, although in January, 1701, he records 
the burial of "Mrs. Thair, in the new burying-place close 
to the alms house ground." (II. Diary, 29.) When the 
Granary and Copp's Hill yards were first used in 1660, an 
order was passed by the selectmen, November ,5th, direct- 
ing that "the old burial place shall be wholly deserted for 
some convenient season and the new places appointed for 
burial only made use of." This order has been supposed to 
refer only to the Copp's Hill ground, and the word "places" 
has been quoted as "place." The original record, however, 
shows that the word used was "places." It probably re- 
ferred to both Copp's Hill and the Granary. It would seem 
to be, therefore, strong evidence that even in November, 
1660, the ground now known as the Granary and the "old 
burial ground" were distinct. 

The earliest tombs were arranged without much order. 
They are scattered throughout the yard, usually marked 
with a large horizontal slab. There are rows of tombs on 
the four sides, in all two hundred and three. 

One of the oldest tombs is that of Governor Richard 
Bellingham, who died in 1672. Governor Bellingham's 
family seems wholly to have disappeared in a few years, 
and in 1810, we find Gov. James Sullivan interested in re- 
pairing and enlarging this tomb. (City Doc. 47, 1879, p. 
11.) Here Governor Bellingham was carried on his death 

390 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

in 1672. There are two slabs over this tomb. The first is 
almost level with the ground, the second is supported 
above it. 1 

Another tomb of the same period as that of Governor 
Bellinghain is the Hull or Sewall tomb. In this were 
placed the remains of Capt. John Hull, the old treasurer 
and mint master of Boston, his wife, and their daughter 

1 The inscriptions are as follows: — 











The Bellingham family being extinct, 

The Selectmen of Boston in the year 17S2 

assigned this Tomb to 

James Sullivan, Esq. 

The remains of Governor Bellinghain 

are here preserved, 

And the above inscription is restored 

from the ancient Monument. 

The family tomb of 


Late Governor and Commander-in-Chief 

of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

who departed this life 

on the 10 th day of Dec 1 ". A. D. 1808 —aged (i-t years. 

His remains are here deposited 

During a life of remarkable industry, activity and 

usefulness, amidst public and private contemporaneous 

avocations, uncommonly various, 

be was distinguisbed for zeal, intelligence and fidelity. 

Public-spirited, benevolent and social, 
be was eminently beloved as a man, eminently esteemed 
as a citizen, and eminently respected as a Magistrate. 

Huic versatile ingenium Sic 

pariter ad omnia fuit, ut, ad id unum diceres 

quod cum que ageret. 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 391 

Hannah, her husband Judge Sewall and their children, and 
many descendants. There are many references to this 
tomb in Se wall's diary. 

December 25, 1696, Sewall visits the tomb, at the funeral 
of his daughter Sarah, and makes an entry in his diary 
descriptive of the tomb and also characteristic of the writer. 
He writes, "Twas wholly dry and I went at noon to see in 
what order things were set ; and then I was entertained 
with a view of, and converse with, the Coffins of my dear 
Father Hull, Mother Hull, Cousin Quinsey, and my six 
children : for the little posthumous was \now took up and 
set upon that that stands on John's ; so are three, one upon 
another twice, on the bench at the end. My Mother ly's 
on a lower bench, at the end, with head to her husband's 
head ; and I ordered little Sarah to be set on her grand- 
mother's feet. 'Twas an awfull yet pleasing Treat ; Having 
said, The Lord knows who shall be brought hither next, I 
came away." 1 (I. Diary, p\ 443.) 

The body of Rev. Samuel Willard, Sewall's pastor at the 
Old South Church, and Vice-President of Harvard College, 
was placed temporarily in the Hull-Sewall tomb, September 
15, 1707, and was removed to the "new tomb built by the 
South Congregation," July 31, 1712. 

Samuel Sewall of Burlington, Mass., in a letter to 
Thomas Bridgman, September 21, 1853, states that forty 
persons in all were buried in this tomb before the Revolu- 
tion. The more prominent of these persons, in addition to 

1 The slab is inscribed 

Hon 1 Judgtc Sewall's 


Nov) the properly of his 

Heir a. 

Philip R. Ridgway 



IS 12 

N« 185 

Ralph Huntington. 

302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the names already given, were Rev. Joshua Moodey, first 
pastor of the Church at Portsmouth, Rev. William Cooper 
of the Brattle-street Church, who married Judge Sevvall's 
daughter Judith, and Dr. Joseph Sewall, pastor of the 
Old South Church. 

The tomb of Lieutenant-Governor Dummer is near the 
centre of the rear of the ground. It is marked by a 
monument inscribed as follows : — 

This TOMB 

of the Dummer 

and Powell Family's 

was repaired by 

William Powell} 

Oct r 1786. 

The next tomb in order of date, that I care to mention, 

is that of Peter Faneuil, the richest P>ostonian of his day, 

and the donor of Faneuil Hall. This tomb is near the 

southwest corner of the yard. The first public oration 

in Faneuil Hall, his gift to Boston, was in eulogy of the 

donor, who had but recently died. 1 

The Granary Yard contains the bodies of many of the 
leaders of the Revolution, the more prominent being John 
Hancock, Samuel Adams, Robert Treat Paine and Paul 

The Hancock tomb is on the south side. On a small 
slate stone are the words : — 

No. 16. 
Tomb of 

1 The" inscription is below: At the foot of the slab is the first inscription, 
which can now be faintly traced. 


March 3, 1743, 

Jones. Davenport. 


P. Funal. 


1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinit//. 393 

This Hancock tomb at first stood in the name of Mr. 
John Hill, but to the list of the Selectmen's office at the end 
of the volume of records from 1715 to 1729 is added in dif- 
ferent ink "Now Thomas Hancock." 

Thomas Hancock, the uncle of Governor Hancock, died 
17G4. The body of Governor Hancock was placed in his 
uncle's tomb. The funeral was attended by troops and 
crowds of people, and even the venerable Samuel Adams 
followed the body to the grave, so long as his strength 
would permit. 

Samuel Adams is buried in the Checkley tomb, which is 
partly under the sidewalk oh Tremont street, and about 
midway between the gateway and the Tremont House. 
The small stone is so near the sidewalk that the inscription 
can easily be read through the fence. At the top is the 
Checkley Coat of Arms and below the inscription. Adams 
married for his first wife Elizabeth Checkley, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel Checkley, and in this way became connected 
with this old family. The tomb is number sixty-eight. It 
is the first of thirteen tombs confirmed to the builders, their 
heirs and assigns, by the selectmen of Boston, March 23, 
173G-7 and was then recorded in the name of Mr. Richard 
Checkley. 1 

Near the centre of the yard rests the body of Paul 
Revere. 2 

About sixty feet from the north side of the yard and 
twenty from the sidewalk were buried the bodies of the men 

i X° G8 Richard Checkley 1737 

Hooce meum Corpus, de Funere Viq, Sepulchri 
Salvator Jesus, Sarciet ille meus 
Christus erit pestes, Mors Frigida Tuq Sepulchruni 
Exitium certum, Mox erit ille Tuuin 
A modest stone marks the place, inscribed as follows :— 



in Boston, 

January 1731, 

Died May, 1818. 

394 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

killed in the "Boston Massacre." Ne stone marks the 
place, although it is said that for a long time a larch-tree 
served as a graceful monument. 

The Franklin monument opposite the entrance is the 
most prominent monument in the Granary Yard. The in- 
scriptions tell their own story. 1 

In connection with the Franklin monument is an interest- 
ing headstone discovered last spring, when the surface of 
the Granary Burial-ground was spaded and levelled. This 
stone was in memory of Josiah Franklin's first wife, two of 
their children, and one child of Josiah and Abiah. 2 


Lie Here Interred 
'i 1 hey lived lovingly together in wedlock fifty five years. and 

without an estate, / 

or any gainful employment, by constant labor and honest industry, 

maintained a large 
family comfortahly, and brought up thirteen children and seven 

grandchildren res 
pectably. from this instance, reader, re encouraged to diligence 

in thy calling, and dis 
trust not Providence. He was a pious and prudent man; shea dis- 



J. F. Born 1G55, Died 11U, A\. 89, 
A. F. 1CG7, 1752, — 85. 

The original inscription having been nearly obliterated 
A number of citizens erected this monument, 




2 The copy given below was made by Dr. Samuel A. Green, and is to be 
found in remarks on "The New England Courant, | and its | Young Pub- 
lisher Benjamin Franklin, | 1721-1726." | made by Dr. Green at the meeting 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, June 11, IsL'i. The line through 
the inscription represents a break in the stone. 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 395 

The burial-ground next visited was the Copp's Hill 
Ground at the North End. 1 Copp's Hill and the Granary 
were first used as burying-grounds about the same time, in 
1G59 and 16(>0, respectively. The earliest reference to this 
burying-ground in SewalTs diary is in 16B5/6, February 3d, 
when Mr Henry Phillips was buried "in the New burial 
place." This is the name commonly used by Sewall, 
although he also refers to it as the "North Burial place.'" 
(I. Se wall's Diary, p. 484.) The present enclosure is made 
of four parcels purchased by the town at different times for 


V 9 1689 


V 14 1684) 


Y i{> ?] 10-S8 


FEB'CJ] Y 5. [70J 

f The tablet sit I lie gate is inscribed a^ follows:— 


Here were buried 

Increase Mather 1723, Cotton Mather 1728, 

Samuel Mather 178#, Andrew Eliol 177s 


Thomas Lake, David Copp, Nicholas Upshall, 

John Phillips, Anthony Hayward, John Clarke, 

and others of the early inhabitant- 

uf Boston. 

On this ground were planted 

the British Batteries 

which destroyed the Village of Charlestown 

during the Rattle of Bunker Hill 

JuB« 17, L77. r ). 

396 American Antiquarian Society. [0°*- 

the purpose of a burial-ground. The oldest portion is the 
northeast corner. The oldest authentic inscription bears the 
date 1661. It is found on a stone recently unearthed and 
is as follows : — 

David son to David 

Copp and Obedience his 

wife aged 2 weeks 

Dyed Dec 22 


The tomb which has by far the greatest interest is the 
Mather tomb near the easternmost corner of the yard. 1 

The reference in Sewall to the death of Dr. Increase 
Mather is found in Volume III., p. 326, and the date of his 
death is given as Friday, August 23. The funeral took 
place the following Thursday, August 29. ."Thursday, 
Aug. 29th, is buried, Bearers Lt. Govr. Dummer, Samuel 
Sewall ; Mr. President Leverett, Mr. Peter Thacher of 
Milton ; Mr. Wadsworth, Mr. Colman. Was carried 
round the North Meeting House and so up by Capt. 
Hutchinson's and along by his own House and up Hull 
Street, into the Tomb in the North burying place and laid 
by his first wife. Were a vast number of followers and 
spectators." (SewalPs Diary, HI. 326.) There is an apparent 
conflict between the date of his death as given by Sewall 
and the date on the slab. I have seen no reason to doubt 
the date given by Sewall, which is confirmed by the Boston 
Neivs- Letter. 

1 There is a plain horizontal stone slab, on which is inscribed :— 


Tom n 

The Reverend Doctors 

Increase, Cotton 

& Samuel Mather 

were interred in this Vault, 

'Tis the Tomb of our Father's 

Mather Crockers 

I died Aug' 27"* 1723 M 84 

C died Feby 13"' 1727 M 05 

S died June 27"> 1735 M 79. 

1891.] Historic Burial- Places of Boston and Vicinity. 397 

The death and burial of Dr. Cotton Mather are also re- 
corded by Sevvall. The following extracts are taken from 
his diary for 1727-8: "Febr. 13 Tuesday Dr. Cotton 
Mather dies. Monday Febr. 19 Dr. Cotton Mather is in- 
tombed : Bearers, the Revd. Mr. Column, Mr. Thacher ; 
Mr. Sewall, Prince ; Mr. Webb, Cooper. The Church went 
before the Corps. First the Revd. Mr. Gee in mourning- 
alone, then 3 deacons, then Capt. Hutchinson, Adam 
Winthrop Esqr Col. Hutchinson - Went up Hull Street. 
I went in a coach. All the council had gloves; I had a 
pair. It seems when the mourners returned to the House, 
Mr. Walter said, My Bror. had better bearers : Mr. Prince 
answered They bore the better part. Mr. Walter prayed 
excellently." It would seem from this extract that the date 
of Cotton Mather's death as fdven on the stone slab is mis- 
leading, and that the date on the gate represents the true 
date, after the necessary change from Old to New Style has 
been made. 

In this same tomb, Rev. Mather Byles was probably buried. 

The tomb was opened in 1884, on the death of Rebecca 
Eaton Parker. Edward McDonald, the superintendent, 
states that the remains of the Mathers are on the right side 
of the tomb. It is a large tomb, and undoubtedly contains 
a score and more of bodies. 

The Hutchinson tomb should be mentioned in any ac- 
count of Copp's Hill burial-ground, however brief. This 
tomb is marked by a slab on which are the Hutchinson 
Arms, and the name Thomas Lewis. This tomb seems to 
have been appropriated, and the original name chiselled off. 
It is doubtful if the remains of any of the first occupants 
are there to-day. It is probable that the bodies of Thomas 
Hutchinson, and Elisha Hutchinson, father and grandfather 
respectively of Governor Thomas Hutchinson, were placed 
in this tomb and also the bodies of the wife and son of the 
Governor, who, after his retirement to England, writes to 
have them removed to Milton. 

398 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

There are several stones that are said to bear the marks 
of English liullets, having been used as targets by the un- 
welcome Redcoats. The stone of ('apt. Daniel Maleom 
would seem to be the stone most likely to receive such at- 
tention from the British soldiers, as tlie stone records that 
he was 

a true son of Liberty 

a Friend to the Publick 

an Enemy to oppression 

and one of the foremost 

in opposing the Revenue Acts 

on America. 
Copp's Hill derives additional historic interest from the 
fact, as stated on the gate, that there the batteries were 
placed which were tired upon Charlestown, June 17, 1775. 
The surface of Copp's Hill probably is the largest area 
within the limits of the old Boston that can suggest to-day 
its appearance at the time of the battle of Bunker Hill. 

The Phipps-street Burial-ground in ChaiMestown is older 
than Copp's Hill and the Granary. When all of the mem- 
bers of the party had gathered near the Harvard Monument 
which crowns the hill, Mr. James F. Hunnewell kindly 
made a statement regarding the burial-ground in substance 
as follows: "The early settlers generally brought with 
them the English custom of burning their dead near their 
places of worship. The Phipps-street Burial-ground is an 
exception to that custom. It is an early example — proba- 
bly the first in New England — of a rural cemetery. The 
meeting-house was in the market-place, and no time before 
the Revolution did the town extend above Thompson 
Square. There were only scattered buildings in this part 
of the town. It was a retired place in the country, very 
secluded, and not far from the waters of a bay, across which 
a person could look to Cambridge and Harvard College. 

"The earliest burials in town were very near the market- 
place. \' r ery early in the history of the town, probably in 

18D1.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston anil Vicinity. 309 

1040, this burial-place was laid out. There is one interest- 
ing feature about the arrangement of the graves. The 
early families are all represented and the location and 
direction of their graves correspond with the relative posi- 
tions of their houses. For example, here are graves of 
Russells, Carys, Frothinghams, Samsons, Phippses ar- 
ranged roughly to correspond with the arrangement of their 

"The earliest stone bears the date of 1042, and marks the 
grave of Maud Russell. Another early stone is that of 
John Fownell, 1054. There are eight stones in all dated 
earlier than 1670, and one hundred and fifty-eight earlier 
than 1701. Not many persons of wide reputation are 
buried here, but there arc very many good respectable 

"The Harvard monument was placed here by the College 
in 1828. John Harvard died 1038 and it is doubtful 
where lie was buried. There is a tradition that there was 
a Harvard stone in this burial-ground which stood until the 
Revolution." This story is told by Edward Everett in his 
oration at the dedication of the monument erected by the 
college, as follows : "There is a tradition that till the Rev- 
olutionary war, a gravestone was standing within this en- 
closure over the spot where his ashes repose. With other 
similar memorials it was destroyed at that period; and 
nothing but the same tradition remains to guide us to the 
hallowed spot. Upon it we have erected a plain and simple 
but we trust permanent memorial." 

It would seem that the inference from all that can be 
learned on the subject is that the remains of Harvard are 
near the top of this hill. The names of the most prominent 
people are found here. In 1828, Edward Everetl was liv- 
ing in Charlestown and must have been acquainted with 
persons who could remember how things looked at the Rev- 

The celebrated stone of Elizabeth Phillips is found in 

100 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

this yard. She was the midwife whose presence at the 
birth of three thousand children in the course of a busy 
professional life extending over fifty years is recorded on 
her gravestone. 1 

Some mischievous person has changed this most worthy 
record from 3,000 to 130,000 by prefixing the figure 1 and 
adding an 0. 

The Mather tomb in the Copp's Hill Burial-ground asso- 
ciates that place with the Old Burial-ground of Dorchester, 
for in this latter place is buried Richard Mather, the third 
minister of Dorchester, of whom this Society possesses an 
original picture. He was the father of Increase and the 
elder Samuel, and the first of his name in Massachusetts. 
Richard Mather died in 1669. a Sewall states that he heard 

1 The inscription is as follows : — 

Here Lyes Interred y e Body of 
M™ Elizabeth Phillips, Wife 
to M' Eleazer Phillips; Who 
was Born in Westminster, in Great 
Jlrittain, & Commiflioih'd by John 
, Lord Bishop of London, in y Year 

1718, to y Ollice of a Midwife; & came 
to this Country in yjfear 1719 & by 
y c Blessing of God has Brought into 
this world above 7^0000 Children. 
Died May ,h 1761, Aged 70 Years. 

- The inscription in memory of Richard Mather is as follows : — 
DOM. Sackr 


(sed nec totus nec mora diuturna) 

laetatus gknuissk parks 

inckrtum est utrum doctioran mkliok 

anima t \c gloria ngn queunt human! 

Divinely rich & learnd Richard Mather 


Sons like him prophets great keioicd this ka 


Short time his sleeping dust herks goukrd 
not his ascended spirit or renown 

II 1) M in Aug. 10 An* in Done. N A 34 an 

obt. Apr 22 10G9 Akt Suae 73. 

IS 91.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 401 

him preach, presumably at Cambridge, the funeral sermon 
of John Wilson, in 1G67. At the entrance to this burial- 
place is another of the bronze tablets for which Boston is 
indebted to Dr. Green. 1 

The monument of Governor Stoughton is the object of 
greatest interest in the Dorchester Burial-ground. Sewall 
refers to the death and funeral of Governor Stoughton, July 
13 and 15, 1701, but evidently he did not attend the 
funeral. Later, however, Feby. 1, 1703/4, he visits Dor- 
chester, and writes, "Before Lecture, T rid into the Bury- 
ing place and read Mr. Stoughton's Epitaph, which is very 
great." (II. Diary, p. 94.) 

The epitaph to which he refers was repaired by Harvard 
College in 1828, and can be distinctly read to-day , a 

1 The inscription is as follows: — 


Here wore buried 


William Stoughton 1701, William Tailer 1732; 


Richard Mather 1609, Joslah Flint 1680, 

John Dauforth 1730, Jonathan Bowman 1775, 

Moses Everett 1813, ThaddeuslVIason Harris 1842; 

Major Gen. Humphrey Atherton 1G61, 

William Pole, Schoolmaster, 1674, 

John Foster, First Printer of Boston, 1681, 

Isaac Royall 1739, James Blake, Annalist, 1750, 

anil Ebenezer Clapp 1881. 

Gulielmus Stoughtouus, Armiger, 

Provinciae Massachusettensis in Nova Auglia Legatus 

deinde Gubernator; 

Nec-non Curiae in eadem Provincia Superioris 

Iusticiarius Capitalis, 

Hie Jacct 
Vir Conjugij Nescius, 
Religione Sanctus, 

Virtute Clarus, 

Doctrina Celebris, 

Ingenio Acutus 

Sanguine et ammo pariter Illustris, 

402 American Antiquarian Soviet//. [Oct. 

"The monument over Stougrhton's grave in the Dorches- 
ter Burial-ground having fallen, the Corporation of the 
College, in 1828, caused it to he repaired, and the tablet 
which was 'cracked in two' cemented. The elegant epi- 
taph on it, adapted, it is said, by Mather, corresponds 
nearly word for word with the one by Aimonius Proust dc 
Chambourg, Professor of law in the University of Orleans, 
which is inscribed on the tomb of Blaise Pascal, who died 
in 1('>02." (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, vol. I., p. 207.) 

This epitaph was the tribute of the President of Harvard 
College to the Chief Judge who sat on the trials of the Salem 
witches, and who, as tradition states, felt no repentance for 
the deeds of that court, saying he had no confession to 
make as he had acted according to the best light God had 
given him. (I. Sewall's Diary, p. 44(5.) 

The tomb of Humphrey Atherton is marked with a large 

Aeijuitatis Amator, 
Leginu Propugnator, 

Colle.<;ij Stouii'htoniani Pundator, 

Literaruiy & Literatorum Faotoi Celcberrimus 

Impietatis & Vitij Hostis Acerrimus, 

Hunc Khctores amant Facundura, 

Hunc Scriptorcs riorunt Eleganfcem 

1 1 line. Philosopui quaerunt Sapienteni 

Hunc Doctores laiulant Theologum, 

Hunc Pii venerantur Austerum, 

11 unc. Omnes Mirantur; Omnibus [gnotlim 

Omnibus licet NoLum 

Quid Plura, Viator! Quern perdidimus 

Stouglitonuni ! 

Hen ! 

Satis ilixi, Urgent Lachrymae, 


Vixit Aunos Septua^inta ; 

Septimo Die Julij, Anno Salutis 1701 


Heu! lieu! ( hiatis Luctus ! 

181)1.] Historic Buria l-Places of Boston and Vicin ity . 403 

horizontal slab, at the top of which is a sword and below an 
inscription. 1 

It is unfortunate that Major-General Humphrey Atherton, 
whose virtues are recorded in this epitaph, is said to have 
met his death as he was riding home from a review of his 
troops in Boston, as his horse came into collision with a 
stray cow. The manner of his death undoubtedly gave rise 
to stories not wholly creditable, as we find that "Thomas 
Maule, Shopkeeper of Salem," was called into Court in 
1695 to answer for his printing and publishing a pamphlet 
"stuffed with notorious Lyes and Scandals." The book 
was ordered to be burned and the writer acknowledged that 
what was written concerning the circumstances of Major- 
General Atherton's death was a mistake. (1. Se wall's 
Diary, p. 416.) 

The epitaph oyer the tomb of William Pole, school- 
master, is one of the most remarkable in this burial-ground. 
It is as follows : — 

y . epitaph .ok. William . Polk, which . he. hemself 

made . while . ii e . was . yet . living . in . remembrance .ok 

his . own . death . a . left . it . to . be . ingravkn . on . his 

t ty 




& . TAKE . A . DEAD . MANS . LKSSON . BY . V . WAY 

i [Sword.] 





With .Christ, he. lives, now .crowned, his .name. was. IIymphrey 

I IK . DYED . THE . Hi . OK . SEl'TKMliKIt . l»'i'l 

•10-1 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

WHAT . I . AM . NOW . WHAT . ODDS . TWEET . ME . & . THEE 



e e 



The Old Roxbury Burial-ground at the corner of Wash- 
ington and Eustis streets is the last of the more important 
burial-places of Boston. 1 

The Dudley tomb is covered by a perfectly plain slab 
inscribed with the one word dudley. Yet this tomb 
approaches most nearly in historic interest the Winthrop 
tomb in the King's Chapel Yard. 

Here are the remains of YVinthrop's Deputy, Thomas 
Dudley, who was also four times called to serve as Gov- 
ernor. His son, Joseph Dudley, for many years Governor, 
is buried in the same tomb. 2 

1 At the gate is the inscription :— 


Here were buried 


Thomas Dudley 1653, Joseph Dudley 1720; 

Chief Justice Paul Dudley 1752, Col. William Dudley 1743 


John Eliot, the apostle to the Indians, 1 090 , 

Thomas Walter 1725, Nehemiah Walter 1850, 

Oliver Peabody 1752, Amos Adams 1775, 

Eliphalet Porter 1S33, 


Benjamin Tompson, Schoolmaster and Physician, 1714. 

- We have the following account of his funeral :— a 

"April 3 (1720) Govr. Dudley is buried in his father Govr. Dudley's Tomb 
at Roxbury. Boston and Roxbury Regiments were under Arms, and 2 or 3 
Troops: Bearers, His Excellency Governor Shute, Samuel Sewall; Col. 
Townsend, Col. Applcton; Mr. President Leverett, Col. Samuel Brown. 
Scarvs, Rings, Gloves, Scutcheons. Counselors and Ministers had scans, 
and Consular}' Men. Col. Otis, Thaxter, Quincy, Dows, Nordeu, Judge 
Lynde, Col. Pain were there out of Town .... were very many people* 
spectators out of windows, on Fences and Trees like Pigeons. The Bells in 
Boston were rung for the Funeral; which was finished when the sun was 
near an hour high." (III. SewalPs Diary, p. 249.) 

1 891.] Historic Burial- Places of Boston a nd Vic in ky . 405 

Paul Dudley, the son of Joseph, rests with his father 
and grandfather. He was a talented and able lawyer and 
judge, and served from 1745 to his death in 1752 as 
Chief Justice, and was the founder of the Dudleian lect- 
ures at Harvard. 

The Parish tomb 1 is near the Dudley tomb and is most 
noted as containing the ashes of John Eliot. 2 

1 Here lie the remains of 



Apostle to the Indians. 

Ordained over the First Church Nov. 5, 1632 

Died Mav 20, 1690. A«>cd. LXXXVI. 

Also, of 


Ordained Oct. 19, 1718, Died Jan. 10, 1725, 

Aged XXIX. 


Ordained Oct. 17, 1088. Died Sept. 1750. 



Ordained Nov. 7, 1750. Died May 2!), 1752 

Aged XXXII. 


Ordained Sept. 12, 175:1. Died Oct. 5, 1775 

Aged LIV. 


Ordained Oct. 2, 1782. Died Dee. 7, 1833. 

Aged LXXV. 

- Sewall has the following parages relating to the death and funeral c# 

Eliot: " Wednesday, May 21, 1G!)0. Mr. Eliot dies about one in the morning: 1 

visited him as I came from New York : This puts our election into mourning." 

" Friday, May 23. After having sat in Council awhile went to Mr. Eliot's 

funeral; Goveruour [Simon Bradstreet] and Dept. Governour [Thomas I>an- 

forth] &e. there. Bearers, Mr. Allin. Morton, Willard. Fiske, Ilobart, 

Nebcin, Thatcher. Mr. Torrey and Danforth not there. Mr. Dinner of York 

there: He comes to ask help; Tis doleful news we have to celebrate Mr. 

Eliot's funeral with. Casteen is said to head about 70 French, ami Indians are 

above Two Hundred. Capt. Willard came away the very day before the 


40!) American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Another .stone which attracted general attention was that 
which marks the burial-place of "ye herse" 1 of Mr. Benj. 
Tompson, learned schoolmaster and physician, and re- 
nowned poet of New England/ 2 

This completes the account of the more prominent graves 
visited under the circumstances stated. The account is 
necessarily brief and dry, and cannot express the satisfac- 
tion and gratification of all members of the party, and their 
keen appreciation of the kind thoughtfulness of their leader 
and host. 

Later, in July as has already been stated, the same party 
visjted Quincy as guests of Mr. Charles Francis Adams. 

The Old Braintrey Burial-ground, or the Hancock ceme- 
tery of Braintrey, as it was known before there was a town 
of Quincy, deserves a high place in a list of the historic 
graveyards of Xew England. Representatives of many of 
the leading- colonial families were buried there, families 
which have since become still more eminent by the lives of 
many honorable and famous descendants. 

As in several other burial-grounds already described so 
here there is a " Ministers' Tomb." In it were placed the 
bodies of the following ministers of the First Church : — 

Rev. Moses Fiske, 3d minister; Rev. Joseph Marsh, 

1 The use of the word "herse" on gravestones was at that time not un- 
common, and other instances will he found in LSraintree. The original mean- 
ing was the eoflin or vessel containing a hody, but now it is applied only to 
the vehicle fur the dead. 

- The inscription on this stone is; — 







17}:; A A ETA TIS Sl'AE 7_>. 





18D1.] Historic Burial- Place* of Boston ami Vicinity. 407 

4th minister; Rev r . John Hancock, 5th minister; Rev. 
Anthony Wibird, 7th minister; Rev. Peter Whitney, 8th 
minister. 1 

1 On the face of the horizontal slftb is the inscription: — 

M 1 . Fi>kc\ : 1 .' 1 Minister in this Town dec Aug 10, ITOs 

in the 36 th year of his ministry .Et <;.">. 

TJraintrey ! thy Prophet's gone tliis tomb inters 

The reverend Moses Fisk his sacred herse, 

Adore Heav'ns Praise-fill art that fonn'd tiie man 

Who soul- not to himself hut Christ oft wan 

Sail'd thro Hie Straits with Peter's family. 

Renowned and (iaius's Hospitality 

Paules patience, James hi- prudence, .Johns sweet love. 

Is hauled, enter'd clear'd, erown'd above, 

Obiit August the X MDCCVIII Aetatis 
suae LXV1 
Mr Ann Marsh died May 27. 177:! Age 9.">. 
Rebuilt by tin- Ladies of Quimw, 1 s l -J . 

Mr Fisk's wives were here entombed 

viz Sarah dec Dee 2, 1G02 .Et 39 

2 1 " 1 Anna formerly wife of Dan 1 Quiney 

and mother of lion John Quluey 

dec July 21, lfilS /Et [4 ?] "i 

On the sides are the inscriptions:-- 

Here rest the remains of 

Rev. Joseph Maush, 1 th Minister of the 

1-' Con-. Church in this Town, Av^ March s. 1725-6, 

in the IP' year of hi- age, and the 17 th of hi- ministry : 

Rev -John Hancock, 5" 1 Minister of the 

T' Cong. Church in this Town, and father of 

John Hancock the Patriot, dee'' May 7, 1714, 

in the 42' 1 year of his age, and the is" 1 of bis ministry; 

Rev Anthony Wiijird, 7 ,h Minister of the 

l-< Cong Cluireh in this Town, 

dec 1 June P h 1SO0 in the hi' 1 ' year 

of his Ministry, aged 72 year.-. 

Here rest the remains of 

NORTON Quincy Esq. (\e^ Sep. 29, lsui, .Et 84 >•■- ll mo 2 d\ 

REV Peter Whitney, S 11 ' Minister of the L-« Cong, church 

in this Town, dec' March 3, 1843, in the 74 th year of his age 

and the 44 th of his mini-try, 

and M r * Jane, his wife, dee 1 ' Nov. 11. 1S32, in the 57 th year of her age; 

Abbt Warren, daughter of Rev W. P. Lunt 

dec 1 ' Sept 12, 1841, .Et 15 mos. 1 d\ 

408 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Tlio stone that bears the earliest date is over the first 
minister, Kev. William Tompsbii. 1 

The earliest interment, however, of which there is rec- 
ord is that of Mrs. Joanna Hoar, mother of John Hoar, 
ancestor of the illustrious Massachusetts family bearing this 
name. The tomb in which she was buried is known as the 
tomb of her son Dr. Leonard Hoar, President of Harvard 

1 It is inscribed :— 


m« William tomtson 


lie teas a learned, solid, sound divine, 

Whbse name and fame in boath England did shine. 

- The inscription which was restored some years ago by the Honoruble 
George F. Hoar, is as follows:— 

three precious friends under this tombstone lie, 

Patterns to aged, youth, and infancy, 

a great mother, 11 er learned son, with child, 

tue first and least went free. uk was exiled 

In love to Christ, this country, and dear friends 

He LefT his own, cross' d seas, and for amends 

Was here extoll'd, envy'd,all in a breath, 

His noble consort leaves is drawn to death, 

Stranger changes may befall us ere we die, 

Blest they who well arrive eternity. 

God, grant some names, O though New England's friend, 

Don't sooner fade than thine, if times don't mknd. 

Epitaph wrote for the Tomb of 

Leonard Hoar, Doctour of 

Phisicke who departed this life 

In boston the 28 November 

Was interred here the o December 

and was aged 45 years. 

Anno Dom. 1675, 

The great mother referred to in this epitaph is Mrs. Joanna Hour, who died 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 40J) 

One of her daughters, Margery, married Rev. Henry 
Flint, both of whom are buried near by under a stone with 
the following inscription: — 

Here lyes interred y e Body of y c Rev d M 1 ' Henry Flynt 

who came to New England in y c Year 1635, was 

Ordained y e first Teacher of y v Church of Bmintry 

l()3 l J, and Died April 27, 166&. He had y e 

Character of a Gentleman Remarkable for his 

Piety Learning Wifdom & Fidelity in his Office. 

By him on his right hand lyes y l Body of Margery 

his beloved contort who Died March 1686/7. her 

maiden name was Hoar. She was a Gentlewocman 

of Piety, Prudence & peculiarly accomplished 

for inftructing young Gentlewoemen, many being 

fent to her from other Towns, efpecially from Boston. 

They descended from antient and good family* in England 

The ancestral line of President John Adams can be 
.traced, step by step, on the tombstones in this cemetery. 

First, there is Henry Adams the emigrant, in whose 
memory is the following inscription, written by John 
Adams : — 

In memory of 

IT E N R Y A I) A M S 

who took his liight from the Dragon 
persecution in Devonshire, in England, 
and alighted with eight sons, near 
Mount Wollaston. One of the sons 
returned to England : and after taking- 
time to explore the country, four 
removed to Medfield and the neighbour 
ing towns. 'J' wo to Chelmsford. One on 
ly, Joseph, who lies here at his left hand 
remained here, who was an Original 
Proprietor in the Township of Braintree 

incorporated in the year 1031). 
This Stone and several others have been 
placed in this yard, by a great-great grandson 
from a veneration of the piety, humility, 
simplicity, prudence, patience, temperance, 

410 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

frugality, industry, and perseverance of 
his Ancestors, in hopes of recommending 

an imitation of their virtues to their 

This inscription is on a marble slab set into a flat granite 
slab. At the foot is the original stone in which there is a 
recess in which probably a metal plate bearing an inscrip- 
tion was placed. 

The inscription accompanying the above in memory of 
Joseph Adams, senior, is as follows: — 


to the memory of 

Joseph Adams, senior 

who died December (>, 1694, 

and of Abigail his wife 

whose first name was 

Baxter, who died Aug, 27, 

1692 : by a great grandson 

in is 1 7 ' 

The third step in the line of descent is represented in the 
inscription : — 

In memory of 

Joseph Adams, son of 

Joseph senior and grandson of 

Henry and of Hannah his wife, 

whose maiden name was 

Bass, a daughter of 

Thomas Bass & L'uth Aldcn, 

1 'Hit; older stones marking the graves of Joseph and Abigail (Baxter) Ad; 
are inscribed :— 







10 9-2 






1 6 U 4 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston aial Vicinita. 411 

parents of John Adams, 

and grand parents 

of the lawyer 

John Adams. 

Erected December 1823. 

Another stone, similar to the three already described, 
marks the burial-place of John Adams, son of Joseph, Jr., 
and father of the " Lawyer" and President, inscribed as 
below : — 


to the memory of 

M K John Adams 

who died 

May 25, A D 1761 

Aged 70. 

The name Quincy is seen on many stones in this old 
Imryi rig-ground. 

The grave of Edmund Quincy is marked, 

Edmund Quincy 
A. I). 1698, 

Aged 70 Years. 
Judge Sewall visited Edmund Quincy, who was an uncle 
of Hannah, his wife, several times in his last illness. His 
death is recorded by Sewall in 1697-8 "Seventh day, Jan y 
8. between ten and 11 m. Parmiter comes in, and tells us 
that Unckle Quinsey died between 7 and 8 last night. A 
true New England man, and one of our best friends is gone. 
Fourth day Jan y 12 1G97-8 wont to the funeral of my 
dear Unckle, Went in the coach, our horse failing us, . . 
Had my wife, Cousin Quinsey, and Madam Dudley. Bear- 
ers were Col. Paige, Lt. Col. Hutchinson, Mr. Addington, 
Mr. E 1 " Hutchinson, Major Townsend, Capt. Dumer, 
Major Hunt, and Ens. Peniman ; had scarves. Ens. 
Peniman was the only commision officer of Braintry that 
could come abroad. Ministers there, Mr. Torrey, Mr. 
Willard, Mr. Fisk, Thacher, Danforth, Baxter; 1 saw from 
Boston Capt. Hill, Mr. Eliot, Mr. Tay, Benet ; Mr. Palmer 

412 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

waited on his father and mother Hutchinson." (I. Diary, 

The wife of Edmund Quiney was Joanna Hoar, daughter 
of Mrs. Joanna Hoar and sister of Mrs. Margery Flint and 
President Leonard Hoar. 1 

One other inscription should he given in this connection. 
It is in honor of Josiah Quiney, Jun., and was written by 
John Quiney Adams. 3 

1 The stone marking her grave is inscribed :— 





DYED Y Kit'.' OF 

MAY 1680. 

- Sackkd 

To the memory 



late of Bofton, Barrister ;it Law, 

Youngest Son of Josiah Quiney. late of this town. Esquire. 

Brilliant Talents, uncommon Eloquence, and indefatigable amplication 

Raised him tu the highest eminence in his profession. 

His early enlightened, inflexible attachment to 

The caul'e of his Country, 

Is attested by Monuments more durable than thi>, 

ami transmitted to poi'terity 

By the well known productions of his Genius. 

lie was born the 'Jo 1 February, 1744, 

And died the 26"> April 1775. 

His mortal remains are here deposited, 

With those of Abigail his wife, 

Daughter of William Phillips, of Boston, Esquire, 

Horn on the Uth of April 1745, 

Died on the 25th of March 1798* 

In contemplating this Monument 
as the frail tribute of filial gratitude and ail'edion. 
Glows thy bold breast with patriotic flame? 
Let his example point the paths of fame; 
Or seeks thy heart, averse from public strife, 
The milder grace of domestic life? 
Her kindred virtues let thy soul revere, 
And o'er the best of mother* drop a tear. 

1891.] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 413 

The Adams line is continued in the granite church which 
stands near the cemetery. Under the vestibule of this 
church in vaulted chambers are the bodies of John Adams, 
his wife Abigail, John Q.uincy Adams and Louisa Catherine 
Adams. Memorial tablets have been placed on either side 
of the pulpit in the body of the church. 1 The burial- 


D. 0. M. 

Beneath these Walls 

Arc deposited the Mortal Remains of 


Son of John and Susanna [Boylston] Adams, 

Second President of the United States. 

Born £-g October 1735. 

On the fourth of July 1776 

Me pledged his Life, Fortune and Sacred Honour 

To the Independence Of His Country. 

On the third of September 1783 

He aflixed his Seal to the definitive Treaty with Great Britain 

Which acknowledged that Independence. 

And consummated the Redemption of his Pledge. 

On the fourth of July 1826 

He was summoned 

To the Independence of Immortality, 

And to the Judgment Of His God. 

This House will bear witness to his Piety : 

This Town, his Birth-Place, to his Munificence: 

History to his Patriotism : 
Posterity to the Depth and Compass of his Mind. 

At his Side 

Sleeps till the Trump shall Sound 


His beloved and only Wife, 

Daughter of William and Elizabeth [Quincy] Smith. 

In every Relation of Life a Pattern 

Of Filial, Conjugal, Maternal and Social Virtue. 

Born November \\ 1744, 

Deceased 28 October 1818. 

Aged 74. 

Married 25 October 1764. 
During an Union of more than Half a Century 

414 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

chamber is entered from the basement of the church and is 
guarded by a granite door which is opened with difficulty. 
On either side of the entrance are the bodies of John Adams 
to the left, and Abigail Adams on the right. The original 

They survived, in Harmony of Sentiment, Principle and Affection 

The Tempests of Civil Commotion ; 

Meeting undaunted, and surmounting 

The Terrors and Trials of that Revolution 

Which secured the Freedom of their Country ; 

Improved the Condition of their Times : 

And brightened the Prospects of Futurity 

To the Race of Man upon Earth. 

From Lives thus spent thy earthly Duties learn ; 
From Fancy's dreams to active Virtue turn : 
Let Freedom, Friendship, Faith, thy Soul engage, 
And serve like them thy Country and thy Aire. 


A - O 

Near this Place 

Reposes all that could die of 


Son of John and Abigail [Smith] Adams, 

Sixth President of the United States, 

Born 11 July, 17G7. 

Amidst the Storms of civil Commotion 

He nursed the Vigor 

Which nerves a Statesman and a Patriot, 

And the Faith 

Which inspires a Christian. 

For more than half a Century, 

Whenever his Country called for his Labors, 

In cither Hemisphere or in any Capacity, 

He never spared them in her Cause. 

On the twenty fourth of December, 1814, 

He signed the second Treaty with Great Britain, 

Which restored Peace within her Borders, 

On the twenty third of February, 1848, 

He closed sixteen years of eloquent Defence 

Of the Lessons of his Youth, 

By dying at his Post 
In her ffreat national Council. 

1 Si) 1 . ] Historic Burial-Places of Boston and Vicinity. 415 

chamber was only for two bodies, but it was enlarged to- 
wards the right for the bodies of John Quincy Adams and 
his wife. Each bod}' is in a massive granite sarcophagus, 
securely sealed by heavy granite slabs. Each sarcophagus 
is marked in plain capital letters with the full name. 

John Louisa 

John Adams. Abigail Adams. Quincy Catherine 

Adams. Adams. 

From this historic and sacred church the party proceeded 
past the site of the oldest church in Braintree, in the mid- 
dle of the highway, to the Episcopal Church, where records 
were shown under date of 1728 in the hand of Rev. 
Ebenezer Miller, who was appointed Missionary for Brain- 
tree, N. E., in 1727. The records of baptism of slaves, 
and prayer-books mutilated by the tearing out of the pray- 
ers for the King, were historic relics dearly prized. In the 

A Son worthy of his Father 

A Citizen, shedding glory on his Country, 

A Scholar, ambitious to advance Mankind, 

This Christian sought to walk humbly 

In the Sight of his God. 

Beside him lies 

His Partner for fifty Years 


Daughter of Joshua and Catherine [Nnth] .Johnson. 

Born, 12 February, 1775, 

Married, 20 July 1707, 

Deceased, 15 May, 1852. 

Aged 77. 

Living through many Vicissitudes, and 

I'nder high Responsibilities, 

As a Daughter, Wife and Mother, 

She proved equal to all. 

Dying, she left to her Family and her Sex 

The blessed Remembrance 

Of a Woman that feareth the Lord.' 

•• Herein is that saying true, one soweth and another reapeth. I sent you to 

reap that whereon 
Ye bestow cd no labor, other men labored and ye are entered iuto their labors/' 

41 (5 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Episcopal cemetery is the tomb of Ebenezer .Miller, who 
died in 17b'3, and the grave of Ralph Shirley, an infant 
son of Governor Shirley, who was born Jan., 1734, and 
died while his parents were in Quincy, Aug., 1737. 

The old Adams houses where, it is stated, John Adams 
and John Quincy Adams were born, are together, a short 
distance from the centre of the city. These houses are still 
carefully preserved and aire occupied. 

The old Quincy house is an inviting residence, after the 
colonial style. The house was built in 1705, or 1707, by 
Edmund Quincy, 3d, who married Dorothy Flynt. Here 
was the home of Tutor Flynt, the well-known tutor of 
Harvard College. The tutor's chamber is still pointed out. 
Indeed, the house and grounds are so little changed that 
Judge Sewall, could he visit them, would' know perfectly 
how to turn into Cousin Quincy's, and how to find "the 
chamber next to the Brooke," in which he lodged, March 
28, 1712. 

The pleasures of a visit to the old Quincy house were an 
introduction to those of seeing the Adams homestead, the 
home of John Adams in his old age, of his son and grand- 
son, filled with the family portraits and with the library of 
John Quincy Adams close by. A description of these 
pleasures and many others of the day is not properly within 
the scope of my subject, and reference to them is given 
merely to complete an outline of the day spent at Quincy. 

The last inscription in honor of the Adams line is the 
following, over the grave of Hon. Charles Francis Adams 
in the Mount Wollaston Cemetery : — 

This . stone 

marks . the . grave . of 





Born. is. August. 1807 

Trained . from . ms . youth . in . politics . and . letters 


1891.1 Historic Burial -Places of Jioston and Vicinity. 417 

which . had . inspired . his . fathers 

ile . was . among . the . first . to . serve 

and . among . the . most . steadfast . to . support 

That . new . revolution 

Which . restored . the . principles . of . liberty 

to . public . law 

and . secured . to . his . country 

the . freedom . of . its . soil 

During . seven . troubled . and . anxious . years 

Minister .of . hie . United . States . in . England 

afterwards . arbitrator . at . the . tribunal .of. geneva 

ile . failed . in . no . task . which . his . government . imposed 

yet . won . the . respect . and . confidence 

of . two . great . nations 

Dying . 21 . November . 1880 
ile . left . the . example 

OF . nidi . POWERS . NOIiLY . USED 

and . the . remebrance 
of . a . spotless . name. 

by . his . side 

sleeps .his .wife 

Abigail. Brown 

Daughter . of . Peter . Chardon 

and. Anne (Goriiam) Brooks 

Born . April . -2") . lsus 
Married . September . ;> . 1829 

Died. June. 0. 1SS9 

hls . companion . and . support 

in . private . life . and . public .station 

Loved .and . honored 

Trusted . and . true 

. ■ 

a-:> Bun 

1891.] The Galapagos Islands. 119 

only influenced in ;i small degree by man. After I had re- 
signed my position with Professor Marsh, in January, 1890, 
it occurred to me that it might, perhaps, be possible to 
bring together the necessary funds for an expedition, to 
the islands. In February, I worked out a plan for an expe- 
dition, which was presented, through Prof. v. KuplTer, to 
the Royal Academy of Berlin. The matter was discussed 
by the Academy but it was concluded that the high sum of 
20,000 marks, which I had considered necessary for a com- 
plete biological and physiographical survey of the islands 
would probably not be in accordance with the results ob- 
tained. After this the matter was laid before various 
institutions in this country, but with the same negative 
result. During this time, I published two papers on 
the Galapagos; one about the gigantic tortoises, and one 
about the variation of the lizard Tropidurus. It was in 
the latter paper that I expressed, for the first time in 
print, my opinion of the continental origin of these islands. 
After I had been appointed to Clark University, I took 
up the matter again, more and more convinced of its great 
importance. On the 10th of December, 1890, a paper was 
read before the Biological Club of the University : ''Ideas 
on the origin of the Galapagos Islands and the origin of 
species." A trial to interest Clark University failed, 
however. Later on I spoke about the importance of the 
expedition at Boston, New York and Princeton. Every- 
where I found great interest, but it seemed impossible to 
bring together the necessary funds. At last I sent my paper 
to the printers. At that moment, Mr. Stephen Salisbury 
came forward and offered a sum which seemed large enough, 
with other amounts contributed by the Elizabeth Thompson 
Fund of Boston and my friend Prof. H. F. Osborn, to 
secure the success of an expedition. In Mr. C. F. Adams 
of Champaign, 111., who had great experience through his 
collecting trips in Borneo and New Zealand, I found a most 
useful companion. We left New York on the City of Para, 

420 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

on which steamer, through the great courtesy of Mr. 
George J. Gould, we had received free passage. We ar- 
rived at Panama, May 9th, and at Guayaquil, May 13th, but 
it was not before June 1st that we could leave Guayaquil for 
the islands on a small sloop. Chatham, the most eastern of 
the islands and the only one inhabited, was reached in the 
evening of June 9th. Mr. Manuel Cobos has established 
there an extensive sugar plantation with great success. 
Besides cotl'ee, many other tropical fruits are cultivated. 
Wild cattle exist there in abundance as in some of the 
other islands. We remained at Chatham, making extensive 
collections, until one of Mr. Cobos's sloops arrived from 
Guayaquil* This was engaged, and on June 27th, we left 
Chatham to visit the other islands. The rent w r e had to 
pay for the sloop was higher than anticipated; and I have 
again to acknowledge the liberality of Mr. Salisbury and 
Mr. Gould, without which the successful accomplishment 
of the expedition would have been impossible. During the 
two months following, all the islands south of the equator 
with the exception of Narborough, were visited. It was 
intended on the second trip to examine the other islands, 
but unfortunately this plan could not be carried out com- 
pletely. When we reached Chatham, I found news from 
home necessitating an immediate return. Therefore only 
Tower, Hindloc and Abingdon were visited. Wenman and 
Culpepper, two small, rocky islands to the northwest were 
not. touched at. Notwithstanding the programme could 
not be followed entirely, the expedition proved to be a 
great success. The collections made are the most extensive. 
I may mention for instance, that on Albemarle, where so 
far only four species of birds had been collected, more than 
forty were obtained. Animals which had not been found 
since Darwin's visit in 1835 were again secured. A pecul- 
iar gull which had been considered exceedingly rare, only 
tive specimens being in existence in all the museums of the 
world, was found to be quite common, and to show a very 

1891.] The Gcddpagos Islands. 421 

much more extensive distribution than was supposed. Of 
the gigantic tortoises, a large collection was made, notwith- 
standing the many hardships which were experienced. 
Some of these tortoises had a weight of more than four 
hundred pounds ; one of them is the largest ever carried 
from the islands, so far as I know, the carapace having a 
length of four feet in straight line. 

The collections and observations made on the islands 
seem to prove without doubt, that the opinion of the 
continental origin of the islands is the correct one. These 
volcanic islands are nothing but the tops of volcanic moun- 
tains of a greater area of land, which has sunken below the 
level of the ocean. This is proved by the absolutely har- 
monious distribution of the organisms. We do not tind 
the same animals on the islands, but nearly every island 
has its own raees. This important fact was for the first 
time noted by David Porter, who pointed out that the dif- 
ferent islands contain different races of the tortoise. This 
view was fully supported by Darwin, who states that the 
inhabitants of Charles Island could tell from the aspcet of 
the tortoise from which particular island it came. The 
same is true for many of the land birds, for the lizards, the 
land shells, and for some of the insects. 

Now let us suppose for a moment, that the opinion gen- 
erally believed to-day, that the Galapagos are oceanic 
islands lifted out of the ocean, is correct. In this case 
there must have been a time when not a single Organism 
existed on the islands. Only by accidental introduction 
from some other part of the earth could the islands be 
populated ; but on such a supposition we are absolutely 
unable to explain the harmonious distribution, we cannot 
explain why every, or nearly every, island has its peculiar 
race or species, not represented on any other island. If 
some animals could be carried over hundreds of miles to 
the islands, why are they not carried from one island to tin; 
other? But besides that, how could we make plain the 

422 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

presence of such peculiar forms as the gigantic land-tor- 
toises for instance? According to the elevation theory, we 
can only think of an accidental importation of these tortoises 
by some current, because they are unable to swim. After 
the islands had been elevated out of the sea, it happened 
once, by a peculiar accident, that a land-tortoise was car- 
ried over. Alone it could not propagate. This was only 
possible after a similar accident imported another specimen 
of the same species, of the other sex, to the same island. Or 
we could imagine that at the same time animals of both 
sexes were thus accidentally introduced. By this we could 
at least explain the population of a single island. But how 
did all the other islands become populated? To explain 
this we would have to invoke a thousand accidents. 

The most simple solution is given by the theory of sub- 
sidence, however. All the islands were formerly connected 
with each other, forming a single large island ; subsidence 
kept on and the single island was divided up into several 
islands. Every island developed, in the course of long 
periods, its peculiar races, because the conditions on these 
different islands were not absolutely identical. 

That it has been made probable, that the Galapagos are 
of continental origin, I consider one of the most important 
results of the expedition. If the Galapagos originated 
through subsidence, we can believe the same of the Sand- 
wich Islands, which also show harmony in the distribution 
of their organisms. It is not at all improbable that formerly 
large continental areas spread where we find to-day the 
Pacific Ocean ; that an Atlantis, a Lemuria, so often de- 
murred at, existed after all. New, extensive and methodi- 
cal explorations of the different groups of islands in the 
Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, which have to be made, 
will be able to decide this interesting question. 

Another great result will, 1 feel certain, come to light 
after the collections have been fully worked up. The 
change of the species can be followed, stage by stage, on 

1891.] The GaUpar/os MancU, 423 

the different islands ; so far as I can anticipate, it will be 
shown that variation goes on in definite lines determined l>y 
the surroundings; that the surroundings and time are the 
most important and principal factors of variation, and that 
natural selection plays only a secondary role, and very 
often none at all. 

424 American Antiquarian Socieii/. [Oct. 



It has l)oen the good fortune of this Society, through the 
four-score years off its existence, that at every period in its 
history there lias been at least one man who stood forward 
to render such service as should best promote its interests. 
Our founder gave his valuable collection of books and 
newspapers as a nucleus for the library, and bestowed 
upon us the first libraiy-building as a depository for its 
treasures and such accretions as it should receive in follow- 
ing years ; finally crowning his frequent benefactions with 
rich bequests for its maintenance and perpetuation. In 
later years, the work has been well kept up ; now by those 
who were diligent and unwearying in i»leanin<r from every 
Held the choicest grains, to be garnered in the magazine ; 
now by those whose intelligent muniticence has builded a 
newer arid a larger storehouse, or has furnished the means 
to employ skilful reapers, or to increase the gathered har- 
vest. Prominent among those to whom the Society 
must ever be indebted, stands the name of William Lincoln, 
who gave it his unintermitted attention during his all-too- 
brief a lifetime. 

Mr. Lincoln was the brother, and by twenty years the 
junior, of the Hon. Levi Lincoln, long a Councillor of the 
Society. Born at Worcester, on September 2<>, 1802, he 
was the seventh and youngest child of that Levi Lincoln 
who, coming to Worcester in December, 1775, was at 
once appointed Clerk of the courts which had then just 
been re-opened, was for four years Judge of Probate, was 

1891.] WOlim Lincoln. 423 

a member of the Legislature and State S tor, a Repre- 
sentative in Congress, Attorney-General of the United 
States under President Jefferson, and Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Commonwealth in 180? and 18 v . On the death of 
Governor Sullivan, in 1808, he aeted a- Governor for the 
remainder of the term. In 1811, he was appointed a 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United S( 
President Madison, who accompanied the notice of his 
appointment with a letter ot the most tattering nature. 
- . _ :owing weaknes- oi vision compelled him to decline the 
high honor, and indeed, to give up all active professional 
duties. A few years of rest, however, brought hack his 
eyesight in some measure, and he was able to give his per- 
sonal attention to fitting the subject oi this sketch for 
admission to advanced standing at college. The mother y*l 
William Lincoln was Martha Waldo, daughter ot Daniel 
Waldo, a Bo-ton merchant of high character, who. after a 
temporary sojourn in Lancaster, removed to Worcester in 

William Lincoln joined the junior ela<s at Harvard 
College in 1820, graduating in 1822. lie at once I* _ 
the study o( law with his elder brother. Levi Lincoln, dr.. 
and the hitters partner. John Davis, and was admitted to 
the Worcester bar in 1825. He joined the Amei 
Antiquarian Society in the same year, and served it 
Librarian, as Corresponding Secretary, and S 'ary for 
Domestic Correspondence, and a- a member o\' the Com- 
mittee o\ Publications. 

On the shelves of this Society is a pamphlet giving an 
oration by "Master William Lincoln,* delivered duly 4. 
1Mb, •• in commemoration of American Independei 
before an assembly of youth.'' Master Lincoln was a mere 
youth at that time, for he was hut fourteen years and one 
month of age. This is a most remarkable pamphlet. exhilv- 
itinil a considerable acquaintance with his! an ex- 

ceptional maturity of intellect. Eight years later, while a 

42fi American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

student at law, he was called to deliver the address at the 
municipal celebration of the same anniversary. The cus- 
tom of holding such a celebration was followed, almost 
annually, in Worcester for some sixty years beginning 
with 1791. In the same year in which he joined this Soci- 
ety, 1 <S 2 5 , he established, with Mr. Christopher C. Baldwin, 
the Worcester Magazine and Historical Journal. This was 
intended to contain a particular history of each town in the 
County. Historical notices of eight towns and a general 
view of the County were furnished by various writers, but 
the publication was suspended after seventeen months, for 
want of support by the community. 1 The Worcester County 
Athena'iim was incorporated Marcb 12, 1830, on the plan 
and with the same objects as those of the Athenaann at 
Boston. Over 3,000 volumes were collected, which were 
stored in a room of Antiquarian Hall, and finally became 
merged in the library of this Society. Mr. Lincoln was 
Secretary of the organization. Mr. Lincoln delivered the 
annual address before the Worcester Agricultural Society 
at their fair in the autumn of 1829. On the death of Isaac 
Goodwin in 1832, Mr. Lincoln was chosen in his stead 
as Secretary of the Worcester County Institution for 
Savings, an office which he faithfully tilled for eleven 

It was a pleasant custom for some twenty years in 
Worcester, inaugurated by the Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft, 
for the children of the public schools, on a certain day in 
April, to repair to some church in the village and listen to 
an address, suited to their capacity and their needs, deliv- 
ered by some gentleman of scholarly ability. Such an 

1 The Manuscript Diary of Librarian Baldwin has the following entry : — 

" Feb. 10, ISoO In the evening settled with William Lincoln, Esq. : 

adjusting the eoneerns of our partnership which was formed iu 1825 in the edi- 
tor and proprietorship of the Worcester Mci(jo?:ine and Historical Journal, 
We lose our labor and much money besides." 

Disgusted with the lack of appreciation of the work, the writer adds: — " I 
believe in the doctrine of total depravity." 

1891.] William Lincoln. . 427 

address was given by Mr. Lincoln, in the spring of 1836. 
In 1838, he was appointed a trustee of the State Lunatic 
Hospital at Worcester, succeeding his friend Edward 
I). Bangs, Esq. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. He represented his native town in the 
Legislature from 1835 to 1840 inclusive, and was a promi- 
nent member thereof. 

The history and services of the MassacJiusetts /Spy, 
founded by Isaiah Thomas, and still published in Worces- 
ter, are familiar to the members of this Society. Mr. 
Lincoln gave his services for several years to another 
weekly newspaper in Worcester, which was always con- 
ducted with marked ability. The first number of the 
National ^Jujis, established in support of the views and 
policy of President Jcil'erson, appeared on December 2, 
1801. It was originated by Francis Blake, a most gifted 
gentleman, and was for a long time remarkable for the large 
amount of original matter which it published from the pens 
of its editors and many of the ablest writers of the county. 
Its editors from 1801 to 184<> were: Francis Blake, 
Edward Bangs, Levi Lincoln, Samuel Brazier, William 
(J. White, Enoch Lincoln, Edward D. Bangs, Pliny 
Merrick, William Lincoln, Christopher C. Baldwin, 
William JST. Green, Samuel F. Haven and Alexander II. 
Bullock. Of these thirteen gentlemen all were members of 
tin's Society save three (whose names are printed in italics). 
William Lincoln and Messrs. Haven and Bullock all filled 
the editorial chair for two terms of service. During Mr. 
Lincoln's second term, from January, 1838, until the latter 
part of 1840, being a member of the State Legislature, he 
gave a weekly review of its proceedings in an intelligible 
and interesting form. Each number of the JEyis also con- 
tained a column of " historical collections," specially com- 
piled for the paper. The literary and poetical selections 
were of a high order. The editorial articles were able and 
dignified, often keen but never malignant nor abusive. 

428 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The great work of Mr. Lincoln's life was the history of 
his native town of Worcester, which appeared from the 
press as an octavo volume of three hundred and eighty-four 
pages, early in the year 1837. It was dedicated to his be- 
loved pastor, the Rev. Aaron Bancroft, D.D. To accom- 
plish his object, said the preface, "the Hies and records 
of the colonial and provincial governments, of the original 
proprietors of the town and its parishes, churches and soci- 
eties, of the county courts and registries, and the series of 
newspapers from the commencement, have been examined ; 
private journals and papers, the recollections of the aged 
inhabitants, the treasures of the garrets, and the knowledge 
of the race in active life, have been collected, with some 
labor." So thorough and faithful was the labor that very 
little was left for other gleaners in the same field : and 
while some historical students have found considerable mat- 
ter that is of interest on special lines, such general histories 
of the town and city as have since been hastily written, 
have adopted or adapted Mr. Lincoln's work for the period 
which it covers. 

A Resolve of the State Legislature, passed March 10, 
1837, authorized the Governor to procure the publication 
"of the Journals of each Provincial Congress of Massachu- 
setts, with such papers connected therewith as illustrate 
the patriotic exertions of the people of the State in the 
Revolutionary contest." Mr. Lincoln was appointed by 
Governor Everett to carry this resolve into effect, and at 
once devoted himself to the congenial task. To perfect 
the work, he sent circulars through the Commonwealth, 
asking for suitable materials, and especially for copies 
of the Instructions to the Representatives in the General 
Court in 1774, and to the Delegates in each Provincial 
Congress ; names of the Delegates in the Provincial Con- 
gress, and notices of the life and character of each ; copies 
of notes and proceedings relating to public measures previ- 
ous to the War of the Revolution, and during that contest ; 

1891.] William Lincoln. 429 

names of the several Committees of Correspondence and of 
Safety, or Inspection, in the town or county ; copies of the 
votes of the town relating to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, under the Resolve of the General Court, May 10, 
1776 ; and especially for the original records of the con- 
ventions held by the Committees of Correspondence. The 
circular .slated that the copies or original papers which 
might he furnished would be finally deposited in the 
library of the American Antiquarian Society, unless their 
return was desired by the senders. A considerable mass 
of the material received in response to the circular, is now 
stored in our library. The published volume, of 738 
pages, appeared in 1838, with the title: "The Journals of 
each Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in 1774 and 
177 ;") , and of the Committee of Safety. With an Appendix 
containing the Proceedings of the County Conventions — 
Narratives of the Events of the 19th of April, 1775 — Pa- 
pers relating to Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and other 
documents illustrative of the early history of the American 
Revolution." It is safe to say that much of the matter thus 
collected would have been destroyed ere now, but for the 
wisdom of the Legislature in its original action, and the 
good judgment of Governor Everett in his appointment of 
the agent to carry it into ell'ect. And it is very probable 
that the idea of inaugurating the work originated in the 
mind of Mr. Lincoln himself. 

It has been shown that Mr. Lincoln was connected with 
many societies and institutions. It is the testimony of his 
contemporaries that in all these he wielded a laboring oar. 
He was interested in their objects, and his active tempera- 
ment made him useful and conspicuous in furtherance of 
the end to be accomplished. As a gentleman fanner, the 
Agricultural Society appealed to his sympathy, and his pen 
and his presence added much to the attractiveness of the 
annual exhibitions. For several years, he was chairman 
of the judges of swine, and his reports were crisp and 

430 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

luscious as the choicest bits which those animals furnish 
for the table. 1 

1 We give some extracts from these reports, copied from the tiles of the 
National -Fjj'ix:— 

Massachusetts is a glorious commonwealth. Her renown heretofore has been 
wreathed with the valor of her warriors, the wisdom of her statesmen, and the 
worth of her citizens. If hereafter, in the vicissitudes of human affairs, 
patriotism shall grow faint, and public and private virtue become impaired, 
the fame of our own beloved state may rest secure on the greatness of her 
pi;<s; and the lustre of her people, if unhappily it grows dim, be rekindled by 
the >olid excellence of the inmates of the pens. ... 

In approaching the pleasant society of females, the loveliness of form anil 
feature, sometimes leads admiration away from the handsomeness of doings 
to the grace of beings. The incorruptibleness of the court permitted no such 
seduction. The sow of Messrs. J. G. & D. II. Perry appeared before them 
with ten "sweet pledges" of maternal affection, frolicking merrily, and taking 
the young responsibility of feeding plentifully. The venerable matron, mother 
of this decimal family of suckers, who played over and around her, of the 
greatest boar of the festival, and of another troop of chubby, white-haired 
children, was thrice blessed in being worthy of the tirst premium of five 
dollars. The second premium was awarded to Mr. Aaron Howe of Worcester, 
for a sow, beginning life by acquiring the rudiments of good breeding in 
Hold-en, and subsequently gaining legal settlement in Worcester 

The excellence of the State Lunatic Hospital is known wherever the name 
of the best charity of our government has been heard. Its works in pork 
were exhibited in three splendid editions, an octavo set which had been kept 
five months; four thick quartos, six months and ten days old, and a series of 
gigantic volumes of fat. The swine belonging to the institution appeared to 
be perfectly rational, and of sound sense, and clear memory. Eight of them 
in one vast brood, gave examples of the results of good treatment, a ton-and-a- 
half in weight. They resembled independent sub-treasury depositaries. When 
they stood, they lied; for they could not stand: they could scarcely sit; if they 
endeavored to place them-elves upright in one direction, by an easy transition 
they revolved into another equally perpendicular. There were no objects 
bearing comparison with their huge dimensions except the vegetables trans- 
planted from Wetherslield, celebrated in Morse's Geography as the paradise 
of beauty and of onions, by Dr. Woodward, whose unrivalled skill not only 
restores to the disordered and enfeebled mind its healthful action and vigor, 
but gives to the earth he cultivates, new powers of production. While the 
mouths of our committee have watered at the prospect of the living barrels of 
food in the pens, the eyes of another have doubtless been moistened in con- 
templating the odoriferous roots which have graced the hall. It was gratify- 
ing to know the patriotic spirit which animated the vast delegation of swine 
from the hospital. With a promptitude worthy of all approbation, they took 
measures to reach their appointed place the day before the fair. How the 
journey was performed is not known: to have rolled over the distance would 
have been the easiest mode of locomotion for shapes as deep as broad, as 
broad as long. Loosening the green earth, around, on their arrival, they 
stretched themselves on its feathery pillow to rest. The chairman, moved 
with deep anxiety for their repose, viewed them by lantern at midnight, 

1891.] William Lincoln. 431 

Mr. Lincoln was never married. His boyhood was spent 
in the paternal home on a part of the estate once owned by 
Samuel Hancock, and by John Hancock, which his father 
pin-chased in 1781. The son succeeded to the ownership 
of this estate, and found the highest delight in adorning 
and beautifying the tract of some half-dozen acres immedi- 
ately about the mansion-house. Here were planted the 
choicest flowers and the rarest trees. A beautiful pond, 
which has since been tilled by the road-bed of a railroad, 
added to the beauty of the scene, and on its surface floated 

when they slept ill the silver beams of the moon, like small mountains covered 
with snow. The music of their dreams lloated as softly on the air as the 
melodies of Mr. Frank Johnson's celebrated hand, which has poured its sweet 
notes of hand on the ears of Queen Victoria. Nothing could alloy such happi- 
ness except the sad deprivation of the privilege of becoming members of the 
society and participating in its agreeable exercises. It has always been diffi- 
cult to conceive how one pig could look another in the face without laughing 
from reilected enjoyment. These creatures had no faces to look at, the chief 
extremity, absorbed by the body, was only distinguishable from the termina- 
tion which follows in the footsteps of it» predecessor, by a delicate, white pro- 
jection appearing as the representative of its absent constituent the snout. . . . 

One of the most lively writers of American sketches, in whose hand char- 
coal marks white, exclaims, "I wish I was a pig: there's some sense in 
being a pig that 's fat : pigs are decent behaved people and good citizens, though 
they have no votes." No considerate spectator of the calm content and philo- 
sophical repose of the inmates of the pens could refuse to respond with heart- 
felt sincerity to such reasonable wish ami opinions. Pigs do not buy lands, 
nor build houses, nor pay taxes, nor have bills left with the attorney for col- 
lection, nor subject themselves to the caprice of any court except that of the 
judges of <wine. They are not abused for owning bank shares, nor obliged to 
borrow money to support tlrose who denounce them. They never burst their 
boilers, nor have messengers sent under an assignment process to confiscate 
their estates to defray the costs of settling them. IMgs are above being 
politicians. \o hog of respectability was ever heard to express an opinion on 
the sub-treasury system or to commit himself in relation to the vexed ques- 
tion of the licence laws. Nor has it been ever known that a pig lias reversed 
the aspiration of happiness already quoted, by praying that he might be a 
man. There is no comparison between pigdom and manhood.— National 
AJf/is', Oct. 24,1838. 

A delegation from the Court soon after their appointment, proceeded ou a 
mission to examine the condition of the swine in other regions. They found 
that the hog was treated with highest consideration in the Empire State, lie 
was permitted to frequent the principal places of resort in the Commercial 
Emporium, and in the cities, towns, and villages of New York. There he 
attended lectures and political meetings, went down into cellars, ascended the 
steps of the palaces of merchants, and visited the homes of the husbandman. 

432 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

a canoe of birch-bark, in which Mr. Lincoln took pleasure 
in giving his friends a ride. The writer of this sketch re- 
members having been led more than once by an elder 
brother to see "Lincoln's Garden," as the place was called ; 
and the surpassing beauty of the scene, and the kindly 
greeting of the "lord of the manor" produced an impres- 
sion upon the mind of the child which is still fresh in the 
recollection. The mansion-house was occupied for several 
years by the Hon. John Davis, before he built a residence 
nearly opposite, and Mr. Lincoln lived as a boarder in Mr. 
Davis's family. The house was removed from the estate 
some forty years ago, and still stands upon its modern 
site, only a few rods north from the hall of this Society. 

Mr. Lincoln was of medium height, probably about the 
same as that of his brother Enoch, to whom the chroniclers 
ascribed a stature of five feet and seven inches. His frame 
was well knit, his gait was sprightly, Ids eye was keen and 
twinkling, and his manner both dignified and affable. lie 
was very sociable in his nature, and warm in his friend- 
ships. He attached himself to men who could appreciate 

Like other free and independent citizens he was given to hospitality, and cul- 
tivated acquaintance with strangers by overturning them into the mud, so 
as to engage closer intimacy. His legs, a world too long, were imitated from 
the red deer; his dark body, two worlds too lank, seetned to have been whetted 
on the new invented revolving patent metallic razor grind-stone. The long crow- 
bar shaped nose formed a convenient implement for throwing up stones or 
throwing down walls. Looking like a greyhound on stilts, he was so licet 
that the fever and ague could not overtake and shake him in a fair chase, and 
so thin that his shadow could not keep up with him in the. race. The hog of 
Ohio, more dignified, reclined his colossal form beneath the Buckeye tree 
and refreshed his appetite with the fruits showered down from the forests. 
In Illinois, the beautiful prairies swarmed with legions of swine. There, 
where earth, rolling into waves of verdure, expands in seas of green, the pigs 
cropped the fairest flowers for their feasts, and reposed, when weary, beneath 
bowers festooned with the crimson drapery of the creeper, and gathered for 
their couches blossoms as rich and rare as those which bent to the breezes 
which swept over Eden. There is neither time nor space now afforded lor 
describing that which is indescribable. The comparison led to the conclu- 
sion:— That a New England pig, well provided with means of support, and 
in good condition and comfortable circumstances, had better hold fast by the 
pens of the descendants of the Puritans, than to devote life, fortune, and 
honor to a pilgrimage towards the Paradise of the West. — National *K<fi$, 
Noo. 10, 1841. 

1891.] William Lincoln. 433 

him and at the same time contribute their share of improv- 
ing conversation. He was especially intimate with Libra - 
rian Christopher C. Baldwin, and the diary of the latter 
gentleman is full of allusions to occasions on which they 
met. That which we call "society" as it existed in 
Worcester up to the middle of this century, if we consider 
l)Oth its quality and its proportion to the whole population 
of the place, was unsurpassed by that of any town west of 
Boston ; and in this charming circle Mr. Lincoln held a 
conspicuous place. At the tea-table and the evening party 
he was a welcome and a lively guest. 

While the History of Worcester will always stand forth 
as the monument of Mr: Lincoln, it is to be regretted that 
few of his fugitive addresses and poems (of which it is 
known that he wrote some) are now extant. A great part of 
his miscellaneous literary work has been lost, and chiefly, 
perhaps, because it was never reduced to writing by him- 
self. Among the manuscript papers in his handwriting 
which have come into the possession of this Society are 
found what appears to be a quite complete record of his 
legal practice, with memoranda of the points upon which he 
based his pleas to the court and jury. There are full note- 
taken while in college, of Professor Ticknor's lectures on 
French and Spanish literature, and Professor Edward 
Everett's lectures upon Greek. As the work of his later 
life, we find a Lyceum lecture on Cemeteries, also his 
Fourth of July address, delivered at Worcester, in 1831, 
and repeated at New Worcester, then a village in the out- 
skirts of the town, in 1839. 

Among his papers we find some attempts at a diary, 
kept for a short time in his college course, but it was not 
until after the death of his friend Baldwin, when the care- 
fully kept journal of the latter came into his custody, that 
he made daily entries that are of interest. We give a few 
extracts from the^e sheets, which throw light upon the 
character of the man : — 

-1 31 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

"November 7, 1S35. I was principally occupied to-day 
in looking over the papers of Isaac Goodwin, Esq., which 
were placed in my hands for the purpose of settling his 
estate. They were kept in a very confused manner, and it 
is very difficult to find documents which are wanted. 

"Many persons sutler pecuniary loss and perhaps injury 
to reputation from want of care in the preservation of 
papers, and those which arc kept, from want of correct and 
methodical arrangement are useless to those who own them 
as well as to others who may become interested. I en- 
deavor myself to be attentive to this matter, hut I fear if 
I should be removed that man)- valuable papers would be 
lost in the immense mass of documents in my possession, 
for want of understanding the system I have adopted. 

"Jvoir. 2. During the year past, I have made great im- 
provements on my land. The old barns have been re- 
moved and a new one of excellent construction built. A 
new house built for G. \V. Richardson on the street. The 
garden has been extended, new walks made and planted, 
the ground levelled, and the whole brought into a condition 
of great beauty. 1 have labored, year after year, to render 
the home which my father had so much ornamented a fair 
spot : altho' the plan is not yet perfected, it will reijuirc 
but few years to give height to the tree- and render most 
of the ground elegant. 

"Nov. ft. The love of plants is with me a deeply fixed 
passion. Altho' at times I grow indifferent to the garden, 
yet the interest revives whenever I can work or wander 
about the walks. I have no higher enjoyment than to 
plant trees unless it be to contemplate the growth. It is 
pleasant to consider that they will stand in the beauty o\' 
their maturity long after tin- hand that set them shall be 
perished, and altho' other generations with that tone of 
innovation which they will call desire of improvement may 
hew them away, they will acknowledge the correctness of 
the taste that planted even while the axe is laid at the root. 

-'Nov. 7. Dined with Stephen Salisbury, Esq., whose 
wedding I attended at Charlestown. N. II.. two years ago 
this day. His wife's maiden name was Rebecca Dean, 
daughter of Aaron Dean of Charlestown. 1 * stood up.' as 
it i> termed, as Bride's-man, at the wedding. 

ik In the evening, I was nominated by the Whig party as 
candidate for Representative in the General Court. I was 

1891.] William Lincoln. 485 

also nominated by the Jackson men on their tieket. But 
their vote was afterwards reconsidered and a list of exclu- 
sive administration candidates put up. There is so much 
division in reference to politics, parishes, temperance and 
other circumstances that the election will be very doubtful. 

" JYov. S. I have never nought for office in the manner 
in which others have courted the favor of the people* I have 
seldom attended caucuses or town meetings, and have 
never hesitated to adopt a course of conduct because 1 sup- 
posed it would be unpopular. Office, if it comes, will be 
as much unsolicited in fact as it is often said to be by those 
who attain it by great exertion. 

" Jan. 1, 1841. On the beginning of the year, I look 
backward. Whatever , wrong has been done to me I for- 
give ; whatever wrong I have done to others. I repent, and 
will endeavor to make reparation : the bad habits in which 
1 may have indulged, 1 will attempt to reform, and I re- 
solve that life during the coming year shall be as pure in 
motive and as upright in action, as it is possible for human 
resolution to accomplish." 

Mr. Lincoln was never in sympathy with the attempt to 
punish or prohibit the sale of intoxicating liquor. But the 
so-called " Washingtonian Movement," which substituted 
moral suasion for legal penalties for the dealers, and incul- 
cated abstinence on the part of the people, received, his 
heart}' support. Me enlisted, all too late, in the cause, and 
left behind an able and earnest temperance address, which 
he delivered, in the winter of 1842-3, at Lancaster, 
Worcester, Sterling, Holden and Fitchburg. It must have 
been at some social temperance gathering in Worcester 
that he made the following response to a toast to his 
fraternity : — 

"Mr. Chairman. — The sentiment which has just been 
given contains some allusion to the fraternity of Old Bach- 
elors. As T believe I am the only representative of that an- 
cient and honorable body at this board, I venture in their 
behalf to return their grateful acknowledgments for the 
distinguished honor which has been done to them and to ex- 
press their thanks for the very flattering manner in which 
the company have received the complimentary notice. 

430 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. '91. 

"I described myself as being the representative of the 

body alluded to. That was a mistake. I believe that I 
am the body itself, and you will see how small it is. Yes 
sir, I am the last of the Mohicans. There are no old bach- 
elors now ; they have g"one out to temperance meetings and 
have found themselves surrounded by such fair faces and 
bright eyes that they have taken the pledge of matrimony, 
and I only am left to tell the story- Formerly there was 
a goodly company of these good-natured ! harmless ani- 
mals, hut they have disappeared as rapidly as if our 
wise legislature had put them into the aet concerning crows, 
blackbirds and other vermin, and offered a bounty for their 

*• I mourn, sir, with a sorrrow which scarcely knows 
consolation, over the extermination of this amiable race. 
They will he missed in this community. Justice was 
never done to their wants. They were exceedingly useful. 
They would hold a skein of thread for the ladies, take care 
of the children when the mother went out to pick up some 
pleasant scandal, and run of errands for anybody. But 
they are gone, as the poet almost says : — 

"Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, — 
A brcaili may make them as a breath has made; 
liuta bold bacheldry, their country's pride, 
If once destroyed can never be supplied." 

Mr. Lincoln died at the residence of his brother-in-law 

and law partner, the lion. Rejoice Newton, on the 5tb of 
October, 1843. He was buried in ''Rural Cemetery,'" a 
lovely spot near the confines of his ancestral acres, in the 
establishment and adornment of which he had taken a 
special interest. It is difficult to persuade oneself, in con- 
templating the great amount of labor which the man per- 
formed, the wide influence which he exerted, and the 
impress which he left upon his native town and its institu- 
tions, that so much was crowded into a life whose span was 
but a few days more than forty-one years. 

I N D E X 


Abercrombie, James, 98. 
Aberdeen, Earl of, see Gordon, 

Accessions to the library, number 

of, 41, 210, 211, 318. 
Adams, Mi's. Abigail B., her epitaph 

cited, 410, ib. n. 
Adams, Mrs. Abigail C, 417. 
Adams, Mrs. Abigail S., 414, 415. 

Her epitaph cited, 413. 
Adams. Rev. Amos, 404 n. II is 

epitaph cited, -105 n. 
Adams, lion. Charles Francis, 302, 

351. His epitaph cited, 416, 417. 
Adams, Charles Francis, 302, 381, 

40G. Elected a member, 293. 
Adams, Charles Francis, naturalist, 

Adams, Hannah, 208. 
Adams, Mrs. Hannah B., 410. 
Adams, Henry, his epitaph cited, 

409, 410. 

Adams, Henry, gift to the Society 

of his " History of the United 

States" as published, 43. 211. 
Adams, Herbert i>., 161. Presents 

a paper on "The Abbe Brasseur 

de Bourbourg," 274-290. 
Adams, John, 409. Inscription on 

his burial stone cited, 411. 
Adams, Pres. John, 82, 409, 411, 

413-416. His epitaph cited, 4 13 

n., 414 n. 
Adams, Pres. John Quiney, 351, 412, 

413, 415, 416. His epitaph cited, 

414 it., 415 n. 
Adams, Joseph, his epitaph cited, 

410, ib. n. 

Adams, Joseph, 2d, 411. Inscrip- 
tion on his burial stone cited, 410. 

Adams, Mrs. Joseph, 410. 

Adams, Miss Louisa, 78. 

Adams, Mrs. Louisa C, 413, 415. 
Her epitaph cited, 415 n. 

Adams, Ttev. Moses, 70, 78. 

Adams, Samuel, 373, 375, 387 n., 
392, 393. 

Adams, Mrs. Susanna B., 413 n. 

Addinirton, Isaac, 411. 

Adler, Felix, cited, 262, 263. 

Agassiz, Louis, 345, 346. 

Albert, Prince Consort, 254. 

Alden, Buth, 410. 

Alden Fund, 33, 36, 201, 204, 337, 

A Id rich. P. Emory, 291. Elected a 
Councillor, 1 , 293. His gift to the 
Society, 41. Tribute to George 
Bancroft, 139-144. Presents a 
memorial sketch of Hamilton B. 
Staples, 309-315. 

Alexander, Francis, 208, 355. 

Alison, Sir Archibald, 245. 

Allen, Ethan, lithograph stone of, 

Allibone, S. Austin, 247. Letter 
from George Bancroft to, cited, 

Allin, Mr., 405 n. 

Amaron, Calvin E., 328 n. 

American Antiquarian Society, its 
'* Archajologia Americana" cited 
(vol. III., 1-107), 13 n. Hand 
bill giving "Order of Per- 
formances," Oct. 23, 1815, 55, 
56. Founded on most liberal 
principles, 57. deceives the 
medal ami diploma awarded at 
the Exposition Universelle, 215. 
" Order of Performances," Oct, 
23, 1816, 343. 

American Historical Association, 
54, 164, 186, 248. 

American Library Association, 45. 

Americana of the Revolution, Illus- 
trated, article on, by James F. 
Hunnewell, 371-380. 

Ames, Fisher, 82. 

Ames, John G., 213. 

Ames, lion. Samuel, 310. 

Amherst, Jell'ery, Baron, 98. 

Amory, Thomas C, 357. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Anderson, Martin B., obituary 
notice of, 7, 8. 

Andrews, John, 375. 

Andros, Lady, 386, il>. n., 387 n. 

Angell, James 15., elected a mem- 
ber, 1. 

Annapolis Naval Academy, George 
Bancroft instrumental in the es- 
tablishment of, 245. 

Annual meeting of the Society, 
Oct. 21, 1890," 1. Oct. 21, 1891, 

Appalachian Mountain Club, 52. 

Appleton, John, 401 n. 

Apnleton, Thomas G., "A Sheaf of 
Tapers," 241 n. 

"Apple-ton's Cyclopaedia of Ameri- 
can Biography" cited, 04. 

Archer, William S., 245. 

Arnold, Benedict, 72, 73. 

Artaud, Nicolas L., 239. 

Arthur, Pres. Chester A., 305. 

Ashburnham, Mass., 29. 

Asnebumskit, 52. Etymology of 
the word, ib. 

Atherton, Hon. Charles 11., 14. 

Atherton, Maj. Humphrey, 101 a., 
4t)2, 403. His epitaph cited, 403 ». 

"Atlantic Neptune," 372, 377. 

Aubin, J. M. A., 277. 

Auditors, see Smith, William A., 
and Imllock, A. George. 

Backus, William W-, presents to 
the Society his ''History of the 
Backus Family," 44. 

Bacori, Francis, Baron, cited, 209. 

Bacon, Hon. Peter C, 310. 

Bagley, Jonathan, 98. 

Baily, Rev. Jolin, 388 n. 

Balcom, George L., 2, 21. 

Baldwin, Christopher C, 420, 427, 
433. His Diary cited, 4G, 17, 
35G, 357, 420 n. Extracts from 
his Diary noting formation of the 
"Phrenological Society" cited, 
221. Establishes with William 
Lincoln the "Worcester Maga- 
zine and Historical Journal," 420. 

Bancroft, Rev. Aaron, 91, 139, 143, 
154, ib. n., 237, 249, 354, 355, ib. 
n., 420, 428. 

Bancroft, Mrs. Elizabeth, 252, 253. 

Bancroft, Hon. George, 55, 57, 154, 
150, 102, 160. Elected a Vice- 

President, 3. Action of the 
Council on the death of, 138-148. 
Works of, 141. Founder of the 
Round Hill School, Northampton, 

142. Established the "Aaron and 
Lucretia Bancroft Scholarship," 

143. Memoir of, by Samuel S. 
Green, 237-250. II is foreign ap- 
pointments, 245, 247. Degrees 
conferred, 253. 

Bancroft, George, 253. 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, library of , 
208. Presents his " Literary In- 
dustries," 350. 

Bancroft, John C, 253. 

Bancroft, Mrs. Lucretia C, 237. 

Bancroft Scholarship, The Aaron 
and Lucretia, 143, 249, 250 n. 

Bandelier, Adolphe F., his "Notes 
on the Bibliography of Yucatan 
and Central America," 285, 349. 

Bangs, Edward, 427. 

Bangs, Edward 1)., 427. 

Barnard, Mr., 375. 

Barron, Commodore James, 80. 

Bartolozzi, Francesco, 372. 

Barton, Edmund M., 3, 150, 208, 
292. Presents his reports as Li- 
brarian, 38-57, 200-225, 342-358. 
Completes twenty-live years of 
service for the Society, 200. 

Bass, Thomas, 410. 

Baur, George, 295, 290. Presents 
article on "The Galapagos Isl- 
ands," 418-423. 

Baxter, Rev. Joseph, 411. 

Beaumont, Francis, 212. 

Belcher, Goo. Jonathan, 23-25, 

Belknap, Rev. Jeremiah, 129-134, 
388 n. 

Belknap Papers, 129. 

Bell, John J., 32. 

Bell, Samuel, 30. 

Bellingham, Gov. Richard, 382 n., 
388 m., 389, 390. His epitaph 
cited, 390 n. 

Bellows, Henry W., "The Round 
Hill School," 241 n. 

Bender, Prosper, 327. 

Benecke, George F., 239. 

I Jennet, Mr., 411. 

Hentley, llev. William, 343, 314, 

Berlin Ethnological Museum, 201. 

Bigelow, John, his " Life and Writ- 
ings of Samuel J. Tilden," 42. 


Frederick W., '*•*/ roa, Bridge, A'«r. Thoaats, Mi a. 3*6 
143, 144,147. 254 .95,».a- 

Blake, Fraaess Brhfc~aaua, Tfcoma*. 3>i.. 

Blafc.. . Jaa»e». 401 a. Brfcg* * , £•*. Geor_ 

BlaachanL Fraak S., gifts to the Bri~~ % Jfe* Uearietla W, v 1C7. 

+>,**- ISriatoa, iJaairi G-. M* • 4Mr 
- Alexander. 152 Bn-^r aad ai»»>r» * 2*5 

Bli** r Jfrs. Elizabeth U., 253. - Aborigiaal Aatrrieaa AatVj«<s" 

Btu*jd, IV. M!ir. r IL, 221. 2§S, A. cited, 27i _ical 

Blaiaenoaea, Jobaan F. . Bca&arks oa the Edition* of 

Bodleiaa Lilaarj, letter in reiatioa I Laada's Writings" 2at. - Mrths 
to editions of - Mother Goose** of :-vr Xew U'oR»i, " 29*, i*. died. 
Melody" cited. 4o, 

Button, JUo**.. 9&-97, 99. 101. Brabn Xorth Annerieaa Act, 1*1- 
Booklrfadiag Fond, 33. 33, 2V1, 203. 133. Preaadae cited, 1*7. Sec- 
tions 91-93 cited, 1*>-IS3. 

B*^^. _V«*».. deseriptioa of Brock, Bobert A.. Librarian of 
streets of, »4, &. a. Historic Virginia Historical Society, 29B. 

lamal {Maces of, 3*1-417. FVMie Broasktoa, Edirard, 93. 

Docnraents of, cited, 3** a. Browa. Alcraadrr, his "Genesis of 
-loa teat!*!/ Jaly la. 1»12, the Uaited States," 212L Preface 

- B***um Daily Advertiser," 19. Bn,w». .Alpacas R-, 31. 

LUL*.l ia 1*13. *2 Brows. Barkariaster. 33C a. 

" Boston Daily Wni~' 392. Bronm, John Carter. 

■• Bostoa Ly renin for Yoaa~ Broana, CTtL 

Ladies," Dr. Joan Park's -cho**, Broaa. J/rL 

... . Broa-asoa. Mreste* A., 243- 

- Boston Massacre," 394. Balaaca, Charlies. 2rA a. 
Bo*toa MeaMMial -\s*oeiation, 249. Bra&jek, A. • icocze, 
■• Boston News-Letter," 396. Aaditor, 4. 2S3.~ Certimeate as 
Bote*. Ivauav 215. Andilor, 37, 295. 34L 
Bonrboaaiere, A., 31C J BaHoek, slreaadrT IL 
Boargtoi^ lleari, 38U. Bahrer, Sir Hearj Ljttoav 4. 
Boarinot. Joaa G., 186. Ills -Local Baaker Hifl, Battle of, 193, M4. 

Gorenuneat ia Canada," etc i Bantsea, Christian C- 4., Fr<u\ert 

warn* 239. 2.S5. Mibbdjii " of. 
Bowditch, Charles P., elected ai 24a*. 

mra*ber r 151. Baayaa, Joaa, 113. 

Lr ■ .'.-. - : '.■ ■ .- :■-■: , ... .: 

Boaea, Mr*. Aaaie G., letter from Batler, 

Gea. Shenaaa to, cited, 222, 223. Batler, Joaa S.. 22 L 
Boarlej, De t etc iix . 211 B j-Laas, ix. 

Ik>aasaa. Jits. Joaalaaa, 461 a. I Bjles, Exx. Mather, 397. 
Bradford, G*r. Wnhaa^ 392 a. Bttob, Georse GL M-» L#rL 24 

Bradlej, Joseph P., Ids letter to 254. 

George F. Hoar giriae his eati- 

i: :_._•.- : : ^_. .:-.: 

Bradstreet, Gm. Siaaoa, 362 a., 
Ma a. 

. :.--.: 2..: .:. :ii_-_- - 
TaAoi, 161. Sketch of the a 
aad works of, by Herbert I 

Brattle, Thcsaas, 396 a. 

: - . --.' 


American Antiquarian Society, 

Carnan, Thomas, 40. 

Carrigain, Col. Philip, his letter in 
" Collections of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society" cited. 

Carter, Henry, 31. 

Carter, Miss Mary, 90. 

Cary, Lucius, Viscount Falkland, 

Casas, Bartolme de las, Bp., 277. 

Cass, Lewis, 244. 

Casteen, J/ons., 405 n. 

Castlercagh, Viscount, see Stewart, 

Cate, George W., 31, 32. 

Central America, 277-281, 283. 

Chamberlain, Alexander F., pre- 
sents to the Society his bro- ' 
enures, 213. 

Champollion, Jean F., 275. 

Chandler, George, 221. Salutations 
of the Society to, 150. His gift I 
of family history manuscripts, 
211. Additional gifts, 349, 350. 

Chandler, Judge John, 2;;7. 

Chandler, John, presents to the 
Society the John Hancock clock, 

Chandler Fund, 33, 36, 202, 204, 
213, 337, 340. 

Channing, Rev. Wlliam E., 87, 

Chardon, Mrs. Anne 15., 417. 

Chariton, Peter, 417. 

Charles L, 13, 23. Grants Massa- 
chusetts Lay Colonial Charter, 11. 

Charles Island, 418, 421.' 

Charlestown, Mass., historic burial 
places of, 398, 399. 

Chase, Anthony, 221. 

Chase, Charles A., elected a Coun- 
cillor, 4, 293. Elected a member 
of the Committee of Publication, 
4, 293. Elected Recording Sec- 
retary pro tempore, 138, 149, 291. 
Presents obituary notices of 
Alphonso Taft, Benson J. Loss- 
hrg and Lyman C. Draper, 303- 
309. Gilt of a Confederate pass, 
etc., 349. Presents a paper on 
" William Lincoln," 424-436. 

Chase, Henry B., 30. 

Chase, Thomas, 15f>, 1GG. Presents 
an article on "Dr. Schliemann 
and the Arclneologieal Value of 
his Discoveries," 257-273. 

Chateaubriand, Francois A. li. Vis- 
count de, 27G. 

Chatham Island, 418, 420. 

Checkley, Miss Elizabeth, 393. 

Checkley, Richard, inscription on 
his tomb cited, 393 n. 

Checkley, Rev. Samuel, 393. 

Cheever, Henry T., 214. 

Cheverus, .John, Bp., 275. 

Child, Lydia M., cited, 45. 

Childs, George W., 5. 

Chilton, Mary, 386 n. 

Choate, Kufus, 171. 

Christern, Frederick W., 353. 

"Christian Examiner," 15G. 

Church, Benjamin, 3cS7 n. 

Cincinnati, Directory of, 215. 

Chit! in, Mrs. Mary B., her " Bramp- 
ton Sketches," 126. 

Clap, Hoger, 386 a. 

Clapp, Ebenezer, 401 n. 

Clapp, William W., 82. 

Clarendon, Earl of, see Hyde, 

Clark, George F, gifts to the 
Society, 45. 

Clark, John. 382 n., 395 n. 

Clark, Nathaniel II., 32. 

Clarke, James Freeman, his paper 
" On giving Names to Townsand 
Streets" cited. 209. 

Cleveland, Rev. John, 98. 

Cobb, Svlvanus, 115. 

Cobos, Manuel, 4 20. 

Cockayne, Thomas 0., his " Leech- 
doin, Wort-cunning and Star- 
craft," 122. 

Cocking, George, his poem, "The 
American War," 374. 

Cotlinau, John, 2d, 348. His " A 
Story of Old Charlestown " cited, 
346, 347. 

Collin, John T., 21. 

Co-swell. Joseph G., 142. Cited, 
210. Establishes Round Hill 
School with George Bancroft, 

Collection and Research Fund, 33, 
35, 201, 203, 337, 330. 

Caiman, Rev. Benjamin, 385 u., 
39 6, 397. 

Colonial Laws, 215. 

Columbia River, 157-159. 

Columbian Exposition, 294. 

Columbus, Christopher, 160, 1G1, 
277, 348, 371. 

Conant, Edwin, 345. 

Confederate pass with oath of alle- 
giance, 349. 

Congdon, Charles T., his *'Iiemi- 



niecencef of a Journalist" cited, 
24:5. 244. 

"Congregational Quarterly," 103, 
165 n, 

" Congregntionallst," 163, loo. 

Constant, Benjamin, 240. 

Cooke, Eliaha, 383 n. 

Cooke, Mis. Elizabeth, 385. 

Cooper, Rev. William, 392, 307. 

Copley, John S., 206, 356, 858. 

Copp, David, 39(5 Inscription on 
burial-stone cited, 395 u. 

Copp, ( obedience, 396. 

Copp's Hill Burial-Ground, 389, 395, 
397, 398. Epitaph* cited.. ".Oc ih, 
u., 398. Tablet on pate of cited, 
395 n. 

Corbet, Mr. 370. 

Cotton. J.'rv. John, 382 »., 384, ih. 
»., 386 h. 

Council of the Society, members 
elected, 4, 293. Animal Reports 
of, 7-10, 303-315. Action of, 
on death of George Bancroft, 
138-148. Semi- Annua] Ueportof, 

Cousin, Victor, 240. 
Creation, llilborne T., 130. 
Crete, Archa-ological research in. 

261, 205, 207. Legendary history 

of, 208. 
«« Critic," Oct. 11, 1890, cited, 21!). 
Crocker, Mather, inscription on 

tomb cited, 396. 
Crown Point, 1)7-90. 
CtimmingS, David. 30. 
Ciirtius, Ernst, 202, 204. His 

" (iriechisehe Gcschichte," 262 

»., 207 n. Elected a member, 

dishing, h'ev. Jonathan, 120, 131. 
Cashing, Thomas, 388 ». 
Custer, Edward L., 208. 
Cutler, Ebenezer, 3. 
Cyr,, gifts to the Society, 



"Daily Post," April 1, 1735, cited, 

Damon, Rev. Samuel C, 214. 
Dana, lion. Samuel, 30. 
Danforth, Rev. John, 401 »., 106 

It., 411. 
Danforth. Gov* Thomas, 405 n. 
Darwin, Erasmus, 200. 420, 421. 
Davenport, Benjamin, 312. 

Davenport, John, 384 n., 380 n. 

Davis, Edward I.., 210. Elected a 
Councillor, 4. 203. Subscribes 
for the Society for the Stevens's 
" facsimiles," 13. Tribute to 
George Bancroft, 140. Letter 
announcing his gift to the Davis 
Fund. 151. 

Davis, Horace, his gift of California 
State documents, 41. 

Davis, Hon. Isaac, 42, 346. 

Davis, Gov. John, 151, 210, 220, 
4 25, 132. 

Davis, Mrs. John, 355. 

Davis, John C. B., 355. 

Davis, Miss Lillie, 250. 

Davis Kook Fund, 33, 35, 42, 201, 
203, 213. 337, 330, 310. Valuable 
addition to, by Edward E. Davis, 

Dawes, Thomas, 386 n., 0^7. His 
epitaph cited, 387 /'• 

Dean, Aaron, 43 1. 

Dean, Miss bvbecea, 434. 

Deane, Charles, 212. 

Deane, Mrs. Charles, letter accom- 
panying her gift of '• Genesis of 
the United Slates" cited. 212. 

Devens, Hon. Charles, 102. Obitu- 
ary notice of, 107-177. Bibliog- 
raphy of, 170 n. Letter show- 
ing the estimate of the services 
and character of, by Joseph P. 
Bradley, 173 175. 

Devens, Uichard, 167. 

Dewey, Charles A., 312. 

Dewey, Hon. Francis II., 311. 

Dewey, Francis II., elected a mem- 
ber, 293. 

Dewey, Miss Mary C, 312. 

Dewey Fund, 33, 30, 202, 204, 213, 
337, 340. 

Dexter, Elijah, 10:;. 

Dexter, franklin I',., elected " 
Councillor, 4, 298. Assistant Li- 
brarian (J* Yale University, 208, 

His gifts to the Society, 212. 

Dexter, 2?et>. Henry M., 53, 102. 

Obituary notice of, 100-100. 

Bibliography of, 101 »., 105 n. 

His '• English and Dutch Eife of 

Plymouth Men." Itt. Off! to the 

Society of his " English Exiles 

in Amsterdam," 212. 
Dexter, Mrs. Mary, 103. 
Dexter, Morton, ! , 
Dickens, Charles, "Phrenological 

Development of, as given by 


American Antiquarian Society, 

Lorenzo W. Fowler," cited, 219, 

220. His visit to Worcester, 220. 
Dim an, J. Lewis, 284, 285. 
Dinsraore, Samuel, 30. 
Dissen, Ludolph G., 239. 
Dorpfeld, Dr., cited, 2G2. 
Doolittle, Amos, 373-375. 
Dorchester, Mass., Old Burial 

(i round epitaphs cited, 400 U.-404. 

Bronze tablets at the entrance of 

the Old Burial Ground cited, 

401 n. 
Dorsey, George A., 13G. 
Doughty, Thomas, 355. 
Douglas, Stephen A., 1G5. 
Douglass, William, his " Summary 

of the first planting, present state, 

etc., of the British settlements in 

North America" cited, 24. 
Dover, iV. U., 129, 131, 133. 
Dovvs, Benjamin, -104 n. 
Drake, Samuel G., 48, 84 n. 
Draper, James, 307. 
Draper, Luke, 307. 
Draper, Lyman (.'., 291. Obituary 

notice of, 307-309. 
Dudley, Gov. Joseph, 404, 405. 

Account of his funeral cited, 

404 n. 
Dudley, Madam Joseph, 411. 
Dudley, Gov. Paul, 404 »., 405. 
Dudley, Gov. Thomas, 382 n., 404, 

ih. n. 
Dudley, (Jul. William, 404 n. 
Dummer, Jeremiah, 411. 
Hummer, Rev. Shubael, 405 n. 
Dummer, Gov. William, 388 n. 

Inscription on the tomb of cited, 

Duncan, William, 1G7. 
Dun lap, William, his " History of 

the Rise and Progress of the Arts 

of Design in the United States" 

cited, 355. 
Dunstable, Mass., 28, 29. 
Duran, Diego, 277. 
Durham, Earl of, see Lambton, 

John G. 
Duruy, Jean V., 281. 
I) wight, Miss Sarah II., 253. 
Dwight, Theodore F., 351. 
Dyce, Alexander, 212. 

Eames, Wilberforce, his gift to the 
Society, 45. 

Earle, John, 71. 

Earle, John M., 221. 

Earle, Ralph, 373. 

Earlom, Richard, 372, 373. 

Ecstasy and Trance, remarks on, 
by G. Stanley Hall, 296-300. 

Ldes, Henry II., 352. His Diary 
cited, 172 n. 

"Edinburgh Review," 1G0. 

" Educational Review," 241 n. 

Edwards, John, 386 n. 

Eijypt, Archaeological research in, 
261, 2G5, 2GG. 

Eichhorn, Johann G., 23!). 

Eliot, Rev. Andrew, 395 n. 

Eliot, Rev. John, Apostle to the 
Indiana, 16, 382 »., 404 n. His 
epitaph cited. 405 n. Account of 
his funeral cited, ih. n. 

Eliot, Rev. John, letter urging pay- 
ment of salary cited, 135. 

Eliot. Samuel, 130. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 1G7. 

Ellis, George E., g" 153, 207, 241 »., 
242. Elected Secretary of Do- 
mestic Correspondence, 3, 292. 
His address before the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society cited, 24G. 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 92, 15G. 

Endicott, Gov. John, 2, 19, 382 n., 
385, ilSti n., 388. Place of burial, 
386 n. 

Endicott Rock, 2. Inscription on, 
cited, 19. Distribution of the 
seven plaster casts of, 20, 21. 
Cast of, presented to the Society, 

Eustis, Gov. William, 30. 

Evarts, William M., 147. 

Everett, Edward, 165, 171, 245, 255, 
35G, 399, 428, 429, 433. His letter 
to Lord John Russell relating to 
the North Western boundary of 
the U. S. cited, 157-1(50. 

Everett, Rev. Moses, 401 n. 

" Examiner," 8. 


Falkland, Viscount, seeCary, Lucius. 

Faneuil, Peter, 38S v., 392. In- 
scription on tomb of, cited, ih. n. 

Farmer, John, 20, 21. 

Farrington, DeWitt, 31. 

Felt, Joseph !>., his "Ecclesiasti- 
cal History of New England " 
cited, 16. 



Fenwick, Benedict, Bp., 275. 
Field, Eugene, his "Profitable 

Sales," 426. 
Fisher, Alvan, 354, 355. 
Fisher, Maturin L., 221. 
Fisk, Mr., 405 n. 
Fisk, Mrs. Anna, 407 n. 
Fisk, Mrs. Sarah, 407 n. 
Fiske, Rev. Moses, 40G, 411. His 

epitaph cited, 407 ri. 
Fitch, Thomas, 385. 
Fitzpatrick, John B., Bp., 275, 320. 
Fletcher, John, 212. 
Flint, llev. Henry, his epitaph cited, 

Flint, llev. Josiah, 401 n. 
Flint, Mrs. Margery, 412. Her 

epitaph cited, 409. 
Frynt, Henry, tutor, 41G. 
Follcn, Charles, 87. 
Folsoin, George, 154. 
Forbes, Gen. Gordon, 75. 
Force, Peter, 277. 
Ford, He/.ekiah, inscription on his 

powder horn of 1758, 55. 
Foster, John, 401 n. 
Foster, William F., Librarian of 

the Providence Public Library, 

Fowle, William B., 341, 350. 
Fowler, Lorenzo N., his "Phreno- 
logical Development of Charles 

Dickens'* cited, 21!), 220. 
Fownell, John, 3!)9. 
Franklin, Mrs. Abiah, 394 n., 395 

Franklin, Mrs. Ann, inscription on 

burial stone of, cited, 305 n. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 388 n., 394 a. 
franklin, Fbeue/.er, 395 n. 
Franklin, Joseph, 3'J5 n. 
Franklin, Josiah, o^>S n., 395 n. 

inscription on the monument of, 

cited, 394 n. 
Freeman, Edward A., 326 
Freeman, llev. James, 134. 
French Canadians, statistics of 

population in the United States, 

"French-Canadians in New Eng- 
land," paper on, presented by 

Egbert C. Smyth, 310-330. 
Friedrich, Emperor of Germany, 

F'ullerton, W. Morton, his article 

on "English and Americans" 

cited, 54. 
Fulton, Robert, 40. 


Galapagos Islands, 290. Article on, 

by George Baur, 418-423. 
Gale, George W., presents to the 

Society relics of the Mexican 

War, 214. 
Gannett, Ezra S., 134. 
Gardner, Francis, 30?., ib. n. 
Gaspe, Philippe A. de, 120. 
Gatschet, Albert S., 52. 
" Gazette de France," 275. 
Gee, llev. Joshua, 397. 
" Gentleman's Magazine," 372. 
George [II., Kinij of England, 

Gerry, Samuel L., his paper in the 

" New England Magazine" for 

Feb., 1891,' cited, 355. 
Gilbert, Mrs. Alice B., 8. 
Gilbert, Miss Elizabeth M., 8. 
Gill, Charles, gift to the Society of 

his " History of the Gill Family," 

Gilmau, Mrs. Caroline II. , 221. 

list of, 


Givers and Gifts, 

220-230, 359-370. 

Gladstone. William E. 

Godefrov, P., 377. 

Godfrey,' Elizabeth A., 312. 

Goesbriand, Louis De, Bp., 320,321, 

Goethe, Johann W. von, 254. 

Goodwin, Isaac, 420, 434. 

Goodwin, James J., his gift to the 
Society of the " Goodwins of 
Hartford," 213. 

Gookin, Daniel, 209. 

Gordon, George II., Earl of Aber- 
deen, 159. 

Gordon, William, 370. 

(Jore, Gov. Christopher, 388 n. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdiuando, 12. 

Gorges, Robert, 12. 

Goss, llev. Thomas, 99. 

Gould, George J., 420. 

Goulding, Frank P., 311. 

Granary Burial Ground, 380 n., 
387-389, 392, 394, 395. 398. Tab- 
lets on gates cited, 387 »., 38S n. 
Original tract of, 388 u. Epitaphs 
cited, 390 ?i.-393 n. 
j Grant, Gen. Ulysses S., 172, 305. 

Grasse-Tilly, Francois J. P., comnte 

de, 370. 

Great Bunt, The," 20. 

of the word, 26, 27. 



American Ant (qua Han Society. 

Greece, Arclneolo^ical research in, 

Green, Andrew U., his gift to the 
Society, 42. 

Green, Dr. John, 221, 346. 

Green, Samuel A., 3, 0, 150, 165, 
206, 214, 292. 3ol, 357, 385 u., 
38s, 394 »., 401. Remarks on 
Eudieott Rock, 2. Elected a 
Councillor, 4, 293. Presents Re- 
port of the Council, 7-10. Pre- 
sents an article on " The Northern 
Boundary of Massachusetts in its 
Relation to New Hampshire," 11- 
32. Librarian of Massachusetts 
Historical Society, 208. (rifts to 
the Society, 211." 

Green, Samuel S., 146, ICG, 207, 
351. Elected a Councillor, 4, 
293. Tribute to George Bancroft, 
144, 145. Proposes congratula- 
tions be sent Dr. George Chand- 
ler, 150. Librarian of the Worces- 
ter Free Public Library, 208. 
Presents a memorial sketch of 
George Bancroft, 237-25(1. 

Green, William N., 427. 

Greene, .J. Evarts, 53. Elected a 
Councillor, 4, 293. Tribute to 
George Bancroft, 147, 14s. Pro- 
poses motion lor the acceptance 
of the additional gift to the Davis 
Book Fund, 151, 152. 

Greenough, Charles P., elected a 
member, 151. 

Greenwood, Jicv. Francis W. P., 91. 

Griiler, Rnfus A., his use of early 
powder horns in possession of 
the Society, 54, 55. 

Groton, Mass., 13, 14, 28. 

Guadeloupe, IF. /. , condition of 
rich planters in 1795, 71. 

Guild, Reuben A., Librarian of 
Brown University, 208. 

Gullager, Christian, 353. 


Hakes, Jliss Gertrude, gift to the 
Society of " The Hakes Family," 

Hakes. Harry, 213. 

Hale, Edward E., elected a member 
of the Committee of Publication, 
4, 293. Samuel P. Langley's let- 
ter to, cited, 40. Presents note 
from Dr. Hedge, 155, 150. His 

proposed Columbian Celebration, 
160, 101. His record of a con- 
versation with George^Bancroft 
cited, 244, 245. Elected a Vice- 
President, 292. Remarks on his 
election as a Vice-President, 902. 
His letter of May, 1S54. relating 
to the organization of the Wor- 
cester Natural History Society, 
344. 345. 

Hale, Nathan, 82. 

Hall, Edward IE, 0, 207. Presents 
an article entitled -'Reminiscences 
of Dr. John Park." 09-93. 

Hall, G. Stanley, <;. Presents a 
paper on ?* Boy Life in a Massa- 
chusetts Country Town Thirty 
Years Ago," 107-128. Elected a 
Councillor, 293. Remarks on the 
recent expedition to the Gala- 
pagos Islands, 290. Remarks on 
ecstasy and trance, 29U-300. 

Hall am, Henry, -45. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 139. 

Hamlin, Cyrus, reminiscences of 
George Bancroft. 152, 153. 

Ilamon, Edwin, 310, 318, 319, 321, 

Hancock, lico. John, 407, ib. n. 

Hancock, (h>v. John, 374, 380, 387 
» , 392, 393, 431. His clock and 
furniture now in possession of 
the Society, 217. Inventory of, 
cited, 218. 

Hancock, Samuel, 431. 

Hancock, Thomas, 393. Inscrip- 
tion on tomb of, cited, 392. 

Harden, William, Librarian of the 
Georgia Historical Society, 208. 

Harding, Chester, 354, 355. 

Harris, Iieo. Thaddeus M.. 401 r. 

Harrison, den. William II., 142. 

Harvard, John, 399. 

" Harvard Register," 241 n. 

Ilasnebumskit, sec. Asnebumskit. . 

Haven s Samuel F., 208, 217, 219, 
302, 427. His Report as Libra- 
rian, April, 1852, cited, 38. ib. 
Oct., 1853, cited, 42. ib. April, 
1850, cited, 47, 48. ib. April, 
1852, cited, 207. ib. Oct , 1872, 
cited, 221. ib. April, 18C2, cited, 
221,225. ib. Oct., 1803, cited, 355. 
His report on the labors of Abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg with 
bibliography cited, 286-290. 

Haven Fund, 33, 30, 202, 204, 213, 
337, 340. 



Haviland, Col. William, 98. 

" Hawaiian Gazette," 214. 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 243. 

Hayes, Rutherford B., 170, 173. 
Elected a member, 1. 

Haynes, Henry W., 2, 21)2. Libra- 
rian of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, 208. Remarks 
on Gardner's illustrations of the 
" French Revolution," 301. 

Hayward, Anthony, 395 n. 

Ila/.en, Richard, 2G, 30. His sur- 
vey, 25, 27, 29. His journal 
printed in the "New England 
Historical and Genealogical Reg- 
ister" (XX II [.,323-333) cited, 20. 

Heath, Col. William, 101, 102. 

Hedge, licv. Frederick II., 155. 
Note to Edward E. Hale cited, 

Ilecren, Arnold II. L., 239, 255. 

Hegel, George \V. F., 240. 

Ilerschel, Clemens, 31. 

Hewins, Miss Caroline, 45. 

Ileywood, Dr. Benjamin P., 221. 

IliggiDson, Thomas W., 248, 255, 

■ 250, 345. 

Hill, Jiev. Alon/.o, 91. 

Hill, Mrs. Alon/.o, her gift to the 
Society, 213. 

Hill, Hamilton A., his gift to the 
Society of his publications, 211. 
Remarks on the Granary Burying 
Ground, 301. 

Hill, J. Henry, 108. 

Hill, James, 411. 

Hill, John, 3D3. 

Ililty, Carl, 349. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
presents its ''Catalogue of the 
Tower Collection of Colonial 
Laws," 215. 

Iloadly, Charles J., presents to the 
Society "Colonial Records of 
Connecticut," 44. Elected a 
member, 293. 

Hoar, George F., 0, 51, 12G, 150, 
108, 170, 200, 250, 295, 381, 408 n. 
Elected a Vice-President, 3, 292. 
Subscribes for the Society for 
the Stevens's "Facsimiles," 43. 
Gifts to the Society, 43, 348. Pur- 
chase of Asnebumskit, 51. Let- 
ter relative to Asnebumskit, 52. 
Speaks of correction in Spencer 
Walpole's accusation of Edward 
Everett's diplomatic indiscretion, 
156, 157. Presents to the Society 

a copy of Edward Everett's letter 
to Lord John Russell, 157. ib. 
cited, 157-1 GO. Presents the 
Report of the Council, 102-177. 
Letter from Joseph P. Br;idley 
to, cited, 173-175. Presents an 
article entitled "Government in 
Canada and the United States 
Compared," 178-200. Account 
of his visit to George Bancroft 
cited, 251, 252. Remarks on the 
" Boston Daily Whig," 302. 

Hoar, Mrs. George P., her gift to 
the Society, 351. 

Hoar, Mrs. Joanna, 408, 412. 

Hoar, John, 408. 

Hoar, Leonard, inscription on his 
tomb cited, 408 n. 

Hobart, liev. Nehemiah, 405 n. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 387. 

Homer, 259, 203, 264, 268-270 n. 
Origin of the poems of, 270, 

Hooker, Joseph, 1G9. 

Howe, Aaron, 430 n. 

Howe, George A., Loril, 98. 

Hull, Hannah, 391. 

Hull, Capt. John, 390, 391. 

Hull, Mrs. Judith, 391. 

Humboldt, Alexander von, 208, 240. 

Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 239. 

Hunnewell, James F., 294, 301. 
Presents article on ''Illustrated 
Americana of the Revolution;*' 
371-380. Remarks on the earliest 
burials in Charlestown cited, 

Hunt, Major, 411. 

Hunt, Eliphalet, 30. 

Huntington, Daniel, 208. 

Huntington, Joshua, 301. 

Huntington, Ralph, 391 n. 

Hutchinson, Col., 397. 

Hutchinson, Eliakim, 411. 

Hutchinson, Capt. Elisha, 383 ;t., 
397, 411. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, 397. 

Hutchinson, Coo. Thomas, 383 n., 
396, 397. 

Hyde, Edward, Earl of Clarendon, 
eited, 177. 


Ince, Jonathan, 16, 18. 
"Independent Chronicle," Jam 

1785, 134. ib. cited, 135. 
Ingraham, Frederic, 19 ?j. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Jackson, Stonewall, 1G9. 

Jameson, John F., elected a mem- 
ber, 1. 

Jarvis, Edward, 126. 

Jebb, Richard C, 273. 

Jefferson, Pres. Thomas, 81, 82, 
251, 425, 427. 

Jenkinson, Robert B., Lord Liver- 
pool, 160. 

Jenks, William, 154. 

Jennison, Samuel, 358. 

Jewett, Ivers, 30. 

Jolin, Saint, account of the picture 
of, in possession of the Society, 

Johnson, Andrew. 143. 

Johnson, Mrs. Catherine N., 415 n. 

Johnson, Capt. Edward, 14, 15, 19. 
Appointed a Massachusetts Co- 
lonial Commissioner, 13. His 
"Wonder Working Providence 
of S ion's Saviour in New Eng- 
land," 14. 

Johnson, Edward F., his gift to the 
Society of the " Woburn Rec- 
ords," 1640-1673, 44. 

Johnson, Isaac, 381, 382. 

Johnson, Joshua, 415 /;. 

"Journal des Savants," 275. 

Keith, Benjamin, 213. 

Keith, Ziba C, presents to the 

Society his " Genealogy of the 

Keith Family," 213. 
Keller, Otto, 212. 
Kendall, Hon. Joseph G., 221. 
King, Robert, Lord Kingsborough, 

King's Chapel Yard, 381, 384-389, 

404. Epitaphs of, cited, 383 n., 

384 n., 386 n. Tablets on gates, 

386 n. Original tract of, 388 n. 
Kingsborough, Lord, see King, 

Kingsford, William, his "History 

of Canada," 325, ih. ?i., 327 n. 

inney, Benj; 

Society, 44. 
Kinnicutt, Mrs. Fraucis 11., 35 
Kirkland, Iieo. John T., 91. 
Kupller, Prof., von, 419. 

Labua, Yucatan, portion of the 
moulds of the Faeadeof a Temple 
sent to Peabody Museum, 39. 

Lafayette, Gilbert Motier, Marquis 
de, 76, 240. 

Lake, Thomas, 395 n. 

Lamb ton, John G., Earl of Durham, 

Lancaster, Mass., 95, 97, 98, 101. 
John Whitcomb's Orderly-book 
preserved in the Library of, 98. 

Lauda, Diego de, 279. His " Histo- 
ry of Yucatan," 279, 281. 

Lanuley, Samuel P., his letter to 
Edward E. Hale cited, 40. 

Lappenberg, Johann M., 239. 

Larousse, Pierre, supplement of his 
"Grand Dictionnaire Universel 
du XIX. Siecle," 285. 

Lathrop, Peo. John, 388 n. 

Laud, William, Archhp., 384. 

Laval, Francois de Montmorency, 
Bp.. 274, 327. 

"La Verite," 197. 

Leckey, William E. II., elected to 
foreign membership, 151. 

Lee, Francis II. , 44. 

Lee, Mrs. George 11., her " Sequel 
to the Three Experiments of 
Living" cited, 85. 

Leicester, Mass., reproduction of 
"Indian Deed" of, 49-51. 

Leon, Nicolas, elected a member, 1. 

Leverett, Gov. John, 385, 386 u. 

Leverett, John, 396, 404 n. 

Lewis, Thomas, 397. 

Librarian, see Barton, Edmund M. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 33, 
34, 201, 202, 337, 338. 

"Library Journal" cited, 42. ib. 
cited, 215. 

Library of the Society, reports of 
the Librarian, 38-57, 206-225, 
342-358. Improvements, 38. Ad- 
dition of "Biblia Sacra," valua- 
ble manuscript of the 13th centu- 
ry, 40, 41. Special mention of 
value of Spanish-American Al- 
cove, 42. List of Givers and 
Gifts to, 58-68, 226-236, 359-370. 
Successful exchauge of Japanese 
and Spanish-American duplicates 
for rare Americana, 216. 

Lieber, Francis, 87. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 166, 168, 247. 

Lincoln, Col. Benjamin, 102. 



Lincoln, Daniel W., 221. 

Lincoln, Gov. Enoch, 427, 432. 

Lincoln, Levi, the elder, 251, 357, 

Lincoln. Gov. Levi, 154, 34G, 124, 
425, 427. 

Lincoln. Robert T., 157. 

Lincoln, Solomon, 5. 

Lincoln, William, 154, 300. His 
Council Report, May, is.".'.), cited, 
42. ib. 344. His " History of 
Worcester" cited, 347-348. Bio- 
graphical sketch of, by Charles 
A. Chase, 424-436. Establishes 
with C. C. Baldwin the " Worces- 
ter Magazine and Historical 
Journal," 426. Preface to his 
"History of Worcester" cited, 
428. Appointed to publish "Tin? 
Journals of each Provincial Con- 
gress of Massachusetts, 1774- 
1775," 428, 42!). Extracts from 
his Agricultural Reports, cited, 
430 n.-V62 n. His Diary cited, 
434-435. Response to a toast 
cited, 435, 43U. 

Lincoln Legacy Fund, 33, 35, 201, 
203, 337, 339. 

Liverpool, Earl of, see Jenkinson, 
R. B. 

Lloyd, James, 38G n. 

London, JJng., Kent's Directory of, 
cited, 218. 

Lossiug, Benson J., 291. Obituary 
notice ofr~305-307. Bibliography 
of, 300 »., 307 n. 

Loudoun, John C, 98. 

Louis XIV., of France, 320. 

Louverture, F. I). Toussaint, 74, 

Lovewell, Capt. John, 96. 

Lunt, Rev. William P., 407 n. 

Lynda, Benjamin, 404 n. 

Lyon, Irving W.. letter relative to 
clock makers cited, 218, 219. 


Macaulay, Thomas B., Lord, 09. 

McClellan, Gen. George B., 108. 

McCook, Gen. Daniel, 223. 

McDonald, Arthur, his gift to the 
Society of his "Recent Crimino- 
logical Literature," 45. 

McDonald, Edward, 301, 397. 

McMaMer, John B., 348. 

McMicken, Charles, 304. 

Madison, Pres. James, 425. 

" Magazine of American History," 
239 »., 254 n., 327 n. 

"Magazine of Western History," 
308 n. 

Mahon, Lord, see Stanhope, Philip 

Maitland. Gen. John, 75-77. 

Major, Mrs. Agnes, 88. 

Malcom, Capt. Daniel, epitaph on 
his burial stone cited, 3D8. 

Mansfield, Earl of, see Murray, 

" Manual Exercise," 373. 

Manzoni. Italian Consnl, 87. 

Marsh, Mrs. Ann, 407 n. 

Marsh, Rev. Joseph, 400, 407 u. 

Marsh, Othniel C, 418, 419. 

Marshall, John, 40. 

Martinique, If. /., 71-73, 80. 

Mary, Queen of England, 198. 

Mason, John, 12. 

Massachusetts, " The Northern 
Boundary of, in its Relation to 
New Hampshire," by Samuel A. 
Green, 11-32. Schemes for pres- 
ervation of historical and beauti- 
ful sites, 52, 53. 

Massachusetts Colonial llecords, 
14. ib. cited, 15. 
! Massachusetts Provincial Congress, 
letter to John Whitcomb cited, 
104-105. Journals of, 1774-1775, 
428, 429. 

Massachusetts Bay. Colonial Char- 
I ter, granted by Charles L, 1028- 
i 29, 11. ib. cited, 11, 12. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
2, 129, 154, 104, 170, 383. Pro- 
ceedings of, cited, 245, 246, 382 
n., 383 n. 

"Massachusetts Spy," 427. ih. 
Eeb. 9, 1S42, noting arrival of 
Charles Dickens cited, 220. 

Mather, Rev Cotton, 47, 48, 198, 
208, 383 n., 385 7t., 395 n., 397, 
402. Reference to his diary, 47. 
Corrected list of the names and 
number of his children, 48, 
49. Inscription on tomb cited, 
396 n. 

Mather, Rer. Increase, 385 n., 395 
n., 396, 400. Inscription on the 
tomb of, cited, 390 n. 

Mather, Rev. Richard, 385, 400, 
401 n. His epitaph cited, 400 n. 

Mather, Rec. Samuel, 395 u., 400. 
His " Life of Cotton Mather," 48. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Inscription on the tomb of, cited, 
3!)G n. 

Maule, Thomas, 403. 

Maximilian, Emp. of Mexico, 280. 

May, Col. John, 353, 354. 

May, Samuel, 214. 

Mead, Edwin ])., elected a member, 

Meade, George G., 172. 

Medford. Mass., establishment of 
the iirst "Female Academy," 83. 

Members, names of those present 
at meetings, 1, 119, 21)1. Election 
of, 1, 2!>3, 294. 

Mercier, Honore, 198. His "Gener- 
al Sketch of the Province of 
Quebec" cited, 332, ih. n. 

Merriam, John McK., 300. Presents 
an article on " Historic Burial- 
places of Boston and Vicinity," 

Merrick, Pliny, 427. 

Merrimack River, its relation to 
the Northern boundary of Massa- 
chusetts, 11-32. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical 
Association, gift to the Society 
of their publications, 214. 

Middleton, Edmund S., gifts to the 
Society, 45. 

Millar, Mr., 375. 

Miller, Itev. Ebenezer, 415, 416. 

Miller, Henry W., 351. 

Miller, John, 100. 

Milman, Henry II., 245. 

Ministers of New England, Finan- 
cial Embarrassment of, in the 
last century, 129-135. 

Mitchell, George, 25. 

Montreal, Canada, 99. 

Moodey, Joshua, 392. His "Artil- 
lery Election Sermon of 1074," 

Moore, George II., his gift to the 
Society, 42. Librarian of Lenox 
Library, 208. 

Morton, Rev. Charles, 405 u. 

Morton, Hon. Marcus, 30, 163. 

Morton, Thomas, 382 n. 

"Mother Goose's Melody," opinions 
concerning the publisher of, 40. 

Motley, -John L., 142, 144. 

Mufioz, Tomas, 282. 

Munroe, James, 194. 

Murray, Reo. James, 376. His 
" Impartial History," 375. 

Murray, William, Earl of Mans- 
jield, 376. 

Mycenae, Greece, excavations at, 
260, 261, 263-266, 269, 270, 


Nancrede, Joseph, 71. 

Napoleon 1., Emperor, 172. 

Napoleon III., Emperor, 281. 

"National /Egis," 427. ih. cited, 
430 n.-432 n. 

Nebraska Bill, 165. 

Nehem, Mr., 405 n. 

New England Historic Genealogi- 
cal Society, 216, 352. 

" New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register," 2(5, 353. 

"New England Magazine" cited, 
346. tb. cited, 355. 

" New England Repertory," estab- 
lished in 1803, 81. Name changed 
to " Boston Daily Advertiser," 82. 

NeAvbury, Francis, 40. 

Newcomb, Richard E., 356. 

Newell. William W., his "Plays 
and Games of American Chil- 
dren," 114. 

Newton, Gen. John, his ollicial re- 
port cited, 169. 

Newton, Rejoice, 154, 358, 436. 

Niebuhr. Barthold G., 240. 

Norden, Justice, 404 n. 

Norman, John, 374 376. 

North, Frederick, Earl of Guilford, 

North Western Boundary of the 
United States, proposed line of 
settlement by Edward Everett, 

Norton, Andrew, his " Genuineness 
Of the Gospels," 91, 92. 

Nourse, Henry S., 6, 351. Presents 
an article on "A Forgotten Pa- 
triot," 91-106. His gift to the 
Society of " Birth, Marriage and 
Death Register of Lancaster, 
Mass.," 211. 

Nowell, Increase, 382 n. 


Odlin, John, 389. 

Ohio, account of A Singular An- 
cient Work in, by Frederic VV. 
Putnam, 136, 137. 

Okey, Samuel, ^73. 

Olcott, George, elected a member, 



Orchomenos, Greece, 261, 263, 2GS. 
Oregon, 156, 159. 
Osborn, Henry F., 419. 
Otis, James, 404 n. 
Oxonbridge, John, 384 u., 38G n. 


Paige, Lucius R., 14!), 293. His 
letter to Samuel A. Green, 150. 

Pai^e, Nicholas, 411. 

Pain, Col., 4i)4 n. 

Paine, Frederick W., 221, 34G. 

Paine, Nathaniel, 3, 150, 207, 209, 
211, 292, 293. Elected Treasurer, 
3, 292. Elected a member of the 
Committee of Publication, 4, 293. 
Submits his Reports as Treasurer, 
33-37, 201-20."), 337-341. Tribute 
to George Bancroft, 14G. His 
Council Report, 1866, cited, 217. 
His paper before the Natural 
History Society cited, 345-346. 
His " Portraits and Busts in 
Public Buildings at Worcester in 
1876," 354. 

Paine, Robert T., 388 n., 392. 

Paine, Dr. William, 55. His oration 
delivered Oct. 23, 1815, cited, 

Palmer, Thomas, 411. 

Palmerston, Henry J. T., Lord, 245. 

Paris Exposition Hniverselle, 
awards medal and diploma to 
American Antiquarian Society, 

Paris, Treaty of, 198. 

Park, Andrew, G9. 

Park, Dr. John, 6, 207. Reminis 
cences of, by Edward EI. Hall- 
G9-93. His diary cited, 71-81,, 
83, 90-93. His " Outlines of 
Ancient History and Chronolo- 
gy," S(i. Collector of rare books, 

Park, Johu C, his letter cited, 

Park, Mary C, 69. 

Parker, Rebecca E., 397. 

Parker, Theodore, 92. 

Parkman, Francis, 180. 

Parmiter, Mr., 411. 

Partridge, George, 102. 

Pascal, Blaise, 402. 

Paxton, Charles, 208, 358. 

Peabody, Andrew P., 20G, 244. 
Elected a Councillor, 4, 293. 

Reminiscences of George Ban- 
croft's preaching, 153. 

Peabody, Endicott, elected a mem- 
ber, 293- 

Peabody, Rev. Oliver, 404 n. His 
epitaph cited, 405 n. 

Peabody Museum of American Ar- 
chaeology and Ethnology, 2, 136, 
294. Remaining moulds of the 
farade of a Temple at Labna re- 
moved to, 39. Presents to the 
Society a cast of Endicott, Hock, 

Peel, Sir Robert, 159, 245. 

IVlham, Peter, 208. 

Peninian. Ensign, 411. 

Percy, Hugh, Earl, 374. 

Perry, Dexter II., 430 n. 

Perry, Josiah G., 430 n. 

Phelps, Fannie, :'»05. 

Philip IIP, 161. 

Phillips, Eleazer, 400 n. 

Phillips, Mrs. Elizabeth, 399. In- 
scription on her burial stone 
cited, 400 n. 

Phillips, Henry, 395. 

Phillips, John. 388 n., 395. 

Phillips, Wendell, 171. 

Phillips, William, 386 n., 412 n. 

Phipps, Sir William, 198. 

Phipps-street Burial Ground, 398. 

Pilling, James C, gift to the 
Society of his "Bibliographic 
Notes," 45. 

Pius IX., 275. 

Pitt, William, Earl, 98. 

Planck, Gottlieb J., 239. 

Pocahontas, 324. 

Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Asso- 
ciation, Publications of, 43. 

Pole, William, 401 n. His epitaph, 
403, 404. 

Polk, James K., 142, 244, 245, 254. 

Pomeroy, Col. Seth, 101, 103-105. 

Ponce, N., 377. 

Poole, William F., Librarian of 
Newberry Library, 208. Gifts to 
the Society, 211. 

Port au Prince, \V. /., 78-77. 

Porter, Abel, 389. 

Porter, David, 421. 

Porter, Iiev. Eliphalet, 401 n. His 
epitaph cited, 405 n. 

Portland, Me., 214. 

Portland, Oregon, 214. 

Powell, William, 392. 

Pownall, Gov. Thomas, 373. 

Pratt, John B., 238. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Preble, Jedediah, 101. 

Prentice, Rev. John, 95, 96. 

Prescott, Col. William, 104, 105. 

Prescott, William II. , 255, 275. 

Prince, Ilea. Thomas, 301, 381, 397. 
His "Annals oi' New England" 
cited, 382 n. 

Proust de Chambonrg, Aimonius, 

Publication Committee, Note of, v. 

Publishing Fund, 33, 36, 201, 203, 
337, 339. 

Putnam, Frederic W., 6, 295. Re- 
marks on Endicott Rock, 2. 
Presents a paper on "A Singular 
Ancient Work," 136, 137. His 
letter accompanying cast of Endi- 
cott Hock cited, 214. Remarks 
on American archeology and 
ethnology, 294, 295. 

Putnam, Israel, 103. 

Quebec Act, 198, 199, 331, 335. 

Quincy, Mrs. Abigail, 412 n. 

Quincy, Daniel, 407 n. 

Quincy, Mrs. Dorothy F., 41G. 

(Quincy, Edmund, 412. Account of 
his funeral, 411. 

Qtiinc)vEdmund, M, 391, 411, 416. 

Quincy, Mrs. .Joanna II., her epitaph 
cited, 412 n. 

Quincy, John, 404 n., 407 n. 

Quiucy, Josiah, Jr., 412. His epi- 
taph cited, H>. n. 

Quincy, Norton, 407 n. 

Quincy, Mass., Old Praintrey Buri- 
al Ground, 40G. Inscription on 
the Parish Tomb cited, 407 n. 
Epitaphs cited, 408 n., 412 n.- 
415 n. 


Ramsay, David, 376. 

Rantoul, Robert, 243, 244. 

Raumer, Frederick von, 255. 

Rauschner, C, 357. 

Rawsou, Aman, 8. 

Rawsou, Edward, 8, 303. 

Rawson, Guillermo, obituary notice 

of, 8, 9. 
Rea, Caleb, 98. 
Readc, John, his " The Half Breed," 

325 n. 
Id eder, Miss Mary A., 166. 

Renan, Joseph E., cited, 45. 

Revere, Paul, 375, 388 n., 392. In- 
scription on his burial stone, 
393 n. 

Rice, Franklin P., gift to the 
Society of his " Dictionary of 
Worcester and Vicinity," 44. 

Rice, Mrs. William W., her gift to 
the Society, 351. 

Richardson, George W., 434. 

Richmond, Col. Ezra, 102. 

Ridgway, Philip It., 391 n. 

Rio, Antonio del, 275. 

Ripley, George, 255. 

Robert College, Constantinople, 152. 

Roberts, Charles II., 32. 

Robinson, George D., 151. 

Rockwell, Julius, 165. 

Rodney, Sir George, 376. 

Rogers, Samuel, 245. 

Rojo, Dona Justiua, 8. 

Romans, Bernard, 374. 

Rouverie, Marquis de, 76. 

Roxbury, Mass., Old Burial Ground, 
tablet on gate of, 404 n. Epi- 
taphs cited, 405 n., 406 n. 

Royal Society of Canada, 323 n. 

Royall, Isaac, 401 n. 

Royce, Josiah, 41. 

Ruggles, Timothy, 101. 

Rules and Regulations of the Li- 
brary, xiii. 

Russell, James, 383 n. 

Russell, John, Lord, 156, 245. Let- 
ter from Edward Everett to, 
cited, 157-160. 

Russell, John, 346. 

Russell, Maud, 399. 


Sabin, Joseph, "Dictionary of 
Books relating to America," 285. 

Sackville, Lord, see West, Lionel S. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Senior, 43, 347. 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, 43, 208, 
221, 238, 239, 346, 434, cited, 207, 
208. His "Troy and Homer," 260. 

Salisbury, Stephen, 149, 206, 292. 
President, 1, 149, 291. Elected 
President, 3, 292. Presents eu- 
gravings of his grandfather and 
himself, 43. Subscriber for the 
Society for the Stevens's "Face 
similes," 43. Tribute to George 
Bancroft, 138, 139. Reads a 
letter from Lucius R. l^ige, 150. 
His gift to the Society, 211. 



Interest in excavations in Central 
America, 200. Contributes funds 
towards the expedition to the 
Galapagos Islands, 410, 420. 

Salisbury Building Fund, 33, 36. 38, 
. .. 204. 337, 340. 

Salverte, Anne Joseph E. 15. de, 
cited, 209 

San Domingo, HI /., 73. Insur- 
rection of 1798 F4-78. 

Santa Lucia, Island of, 72. 

Savage, Edward B. i 

Savage, Thomas, 3^6 n. 

Savigny, Friedrich K. von, 240. 

Sawyer, Joseph, 95. 

Scammons, C>1. James, 104. 

Schleiermacher, Friedrich E. D., 

Schliemann, Ileinrich, 156, 166. 
Archa-ological Value of his Dis- 
coveries, article on, by Thomas 
Chase, 257-273. Facts relative 
to his early life, 258 

Schlos>L-r, Friedrich C, 240. 

Schoolcraft, Henry U., 277. 

Schuchhardt, Carl". 26S n., 27u, 271. 
cited, 26o, 269. 

Scars. Mrs. Ann W.. inscription on 
her burial >tone, 383 n. 

Sears, David. 383. 

Seilhamer, George «>.. ose of early 
newspaper tile> in the preparation 
of his " American Theatre," 39. 

Semi-Auiuial Meeting of the Soci- 
ety. April 2D. 1891. 149. 

Sewall, John, 31a. 

Sewall, 1?> c. .Joseph, 3^5 n., 392. 

Sewall, Judith, 392. 

Sewall, Samuel. Chief Justice, 333 
n., 388 ,(., 389, 391. 392. 39<>. I \ 
400, 404 n. IIi> diary cited. 3-1, 
3-3 >:.-3-5. ih. /'., 389. 391, 
397, 401. 403-405 »., 411. 412. 

Sewall, Samuel. 391. 

Sewall, Sarah, 391. 

Shakespeare, William. 4, 5. 

Shaw, Hon. Lemuel, 315. 

Sheafe, Jacob, 3S6 n. 

Sheldon, George, 120. 

Shepard, Ber. Thomas. 382 

Shepley, judge, George F., 170. 

Sheridan, Gen. Philip H.. 176 . 

Sherman, Roger, 16. 

Sherman, Gen. William T.. 221. 
His autograph letter. 222-22.".. 
His "Memoirs'" cited, 224. 

Shiun, C. Howard, his " Plea for a 

Pamphlet Age " in the " Critic " 
cited, 219. 

Shippen, Rush II.. his letter rela- 
tive to George Bancroft's theolo- 
gy cited, 252. 2a 

Shirley. Ralph. 416. 

Shirley, <■ -. William, 386 »., 416. 

Shutc, Gov. Samuel, 404 n. 

Sibley, John L., his »• Harvard 
Graduates, 1 ftfl 403 

Sickles, Daniel E., 169. 


Smith, Charles C 6, 301. Elected 
a nuinhcr of the Committee of 
Publication, 4. 293. Presents a 
paper on the " Financial Embar- 
rassments of the Xew England 
Ministers in the Last Ceuturv,*' 

Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth i>., 413 n. 

Smith. Col. Francis, 374. 

Smith, William. 413 n. 

Smith, William A., elected an Au- 
ditor, 4. 293. Certiiieat 
Auditor, 37. 205, 341. His gifts 
to the Society, 212. 

Smith>ouian Institution, notice of 
a less liberal distribution of their 
reports cited, 39. 

Smyth. Egbert C-, 291. Elected a 
Councillor, 4, 293. Presents 
paper on *■ The French-Canadians 
in New England." 316-336. 

Society of the Cincinnati. 54. 

y of the Sous of the Revolu- 
tion, 54. 

SpofFord, Xelson, 31, 32. 

Squier. Ephraim G., 277. 

Stanhope, Philip IE, Lord Mahon, 

Staples, Francis H., 312. 

Staples. Hamilton B.. 291. Memo- 
rial sketch of, by P. Emory 
Aldrich. 309-315. Ills lasl » 
to the Society, 350. 

Staples, Mrs. Hamilton B.,312, ■' 

Stark, irtn. John. 105. cited. 153. 

Stebbius, Calvin, elected a member, 

Stedman, Char' - ' 

Stevens, Benjamin F., his Supple- 
mental Prospectus ^••Facsimi- 
les" cited. 43. 44. 

Stevens, Henry, his '• Catalogue of 
. English Library" cited. 352. 
ns's ■ F : sira - Manu- 

scripts in European Archives 
relating to America," 43, 44. Sub- 


American Antiquarian Society. 

seriptions to, 33, 3;-S7. Subscrib- 
ers fur the Society, Stephen Salis- 
bury, George F. Hoar, Edward 
L. Davis, 43. 

Stewart, Robert., Vise. Castlereagh, 

Stillinan, William J., '273. 

Stoddard, Elijah B., 3, 126, 152. 

Stone, Mrs. Ellen, her gift to the 
Society, 45. 

Stoughtun, Goo. William, 51, 401, 
102 His epitaph cited, 401 a., 
4 02 h. 

Stowe, Mrs. Harriet B., 105, cited, 

Strange, Sir Robert, 372. 

Stratford, Charles .1., 17. 

Stuart, Frederick T., 43. 

Sullivan, Goo. James, 357, 388 '/>., 
38!), 425. His epitaph cited, 31)0 n. 

Suite, Benjamin, 323 n , 325 n. 

Sumner, Charles, 165, 302. 

Sumner, Gov. [ncrea*>e, 388 u. 


Tacitus, Cains Cornelius, cited, 175. 

Tai"t, Alphonso, 291. Obituary 
notice of, 303-305. 

Taf't, Henry W., his gift to the 
Society of '■ l'ocumtmk Valley 
Memorial Association " publica- 
tions, 43. 

Taft. Peter R., 303. 

Tailer, Gov. William, 401 u. 

Talbot, Com. Silas, 80. 

Talcott, Mr., 357. 

Tanguay, Vai>i>e, his " Dictionnaire 
Genealogiquc des Families Cana- j 
diennes," 324. 

Tarbox, Increase N., 1G5 n. 

Tasehereau, Cardinal Elzear Alex- 
ander, 33G. 

Tay, Isaiah, 411. 

Taylor, Doct. John, 102. 

Taylor, Gen. Zachary, 142, 108, 245. 

Tenuy Fund," 33, 36, 201. 204, 337, 

Thacher, Iiev. Peter, 134, 396, 397, 
cited, 135. 

Thacher, Samuel C, 91. 

Thacher, Iiev. Thomas, 405 a., 411. 

Thair, see Thayer. 

Thaxter, Samuel, 404 n. 

Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, 389. 

Thomas, Amos It., letter accompa- 
nying his " Descendants of 
William Thomas" cited, 351. 

Thomas, Benjamin P., 207, 221. 

Thomas, Cyrus, his " A Study of 
the Manuscript Troano," 286. 

Thomas, Edward I., obituary 
notice of, 106, 167. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 166, 249, 351, 427. 

Thomas, Col. John, 101-104. 

Thomas, Robert B., 357, ih. n. 

Thomas Local History Fund, 33, 
35, 201, 203, 213, 337, 339. 

Thompson, Charles O., 351. 

Thompson, Mrs. Charles O., her 
gift to the Society, 351. 

Thompson, Edward II., 39, 295. 

Thompson Fund, Elizabeth, 419. 

Thornton, Miss Elizabeth P., pre- 
sents to the; Society the manu- 
script Indian Deed of the Town- 
ship of Leicester, 49. 

Thornton. J. Wingate, 49, 51. 

Thucydides, 267 «., cited, 261, 270. 

Thwaites, Reuben G., 308 n. 

Ticknor, Miss Anna E., "Memoir 
of Joseph G. Cogswell," 241 n. 

Tieknor, George, 433. 

Ticonderoga, 54, 55, 73, 98. 

Tillinghast, Caleb B., 351. 

Tiryns, Greece, 261, 266, 269, 270. 
Discovery of an ancient palace, 
262, 263. ' 

Tompson, Uenjamin, 404 n., 4o6. 
His epitaph cited, ih. n. 

Tompson, Iiev. William, his epi- 
taph, 408 ». 

Toppan, Robert N., his gift to the 
Society of a collection of medals, 

"Toronto Mail," March, 1890, 
cited, 328. 

Torrey, Miss Louise M , 305. • 

Torrey, Iiev. Samuel, 405 n. t 411. 

Toussaint-Louverture, see Louver- 

Townsend, Penn, 404 /£., 411. 

Treasurer, see Paine, Nathaniel. 

'fro v Ortolano, Juan de, 281. 

Troy, 258, 263-269, 270, 272. 

Trumbull, J. Hammond, 207, 208. 
Elected Secretary of Foreign Cor- 
respondence, 3, 292. 

Tucker, Daniel, 21. 

Tuckerman, Charles K., cited, 238. 


United States, its Government and 
that of Canada compared, by 
George F. Hoar, 178-200. 

Upshall, Nicholas, 395 n. 



Valnais, Monsieur de, French Con- 
sul. 87. 

Van Burcn, Martin, 142, 243, 244. 

Varnhagen von Ense, Charles R., 

Virchow, Rudolf, 261. 


Wadsworth, Ilea. Benjamin, 39G. 

Wait, Gamaliel, 389. 

Waldcck, Frederic de, 280. 

Waldo, Daniel, 425. 

Waldo, Martha, 425. 

Walker, Francis A., 53, 1G9. 

Wallent, Robert F., 1G. 

Wallent, Thomas, further facts re- 
lating to his gift to the Society 
in 1834, 45-47"! 

Walley, Reo. John, 99. 

Will pole, Spencer, his "Life of 
Karl Knssell," 15G, ib. cited, 157. 

Walter, Reo. Nehemiah, 385 n., 
397, 404 n. His epitaph cited, 
405 n. 

Walter, Rev. Thomas, 404 n. His 
epitaph cited, 405 n. 

Ward, linn. Artemas, 101, 102, 105. 

Ward, John Q. A., :i53. 

Warren, (fen. Joseph, 102, 103, 
35G, 374. 

Warren, U. S. Ship, referred to in 
John Park's Diary, 78-80. 

Washburn, Goc. Emory, 49, cited, 
51. His " History of Leicester," 

Washburn, John 1)., 1, G, 149. 
Fleeted Recording Secretary, 3, 
292. Speaks of the intltience of 
members abroad, 5, G His gift to 
the Society of "Zurich nnd das 
Schweizerische Landes Museum," 
212. His note accompanying gift 
of Dr. Hilty's Swiss Constitution, 
cited, 34U. 

Washington, Gen. George, 104, 105, 
139, 353, 37G. 

Webb, Reo. John, 385 n., 397. 

Webster, Daniel, 153, 172 n., 245. 

Weedcn, William B., 129. Presents 
to the Sociity his " Economic 
and Social History of New Eng- 
land," 43. 

"Weekly Messenger," July, 1812, 
cited, 354. 

Weirs, The, 21. Derivation of the 
name, 17. 

Wendell, Barrett, his letter of July 
10, 1890, correcting the list of 
number and names of Cotton 
Mather's children cited, 48, 49. 

Wendell, Oliver, 38G «., 387. 

West, Lionel S., Lord Sackcille, 5. 

West Indies, 71. 

Wetherell, Mrs. John W., 357. 

Wheeler, Henry M., gift to the 
Society, 45. 

Whetcomb, see Whitcomb. 

Whitcomb, Col. Asa, 94, 99. 

Whitcomb, Becky, 9G. 

Whitcomb, John, 95. 

Whitcomb, Col. John, G. "A For- 
gotten Patriot," paper on, by 
Henry S. Nourse, 94-10G. His 
Orderly Book preserved in the 
Lancaster Library, 98. Letters 
relating to his appointment as 
"first Major-General" of Massa- 
chusetts, cited, 103. Letter from 
the Provincial Assembly to, 
cited, 104, 105. 

Whitcomb, Mary, first resident 
medical practitioner in Lancas- 
ter. 95. 

Whitcomb, Mrs. Kebecca, 95. 

White, Capt. John, 06. 

White, William C, 427. 

Whitinore, William 11.. his repro- 
duction of " Mother Goose's Mel- 
ody."' 40. 

Whitney, George, 32. 

Whitney, Mrs. Jane, 407 n. 

Whitney, Rev. Peter, 407, ib. n. 

Wibird, Reo. Anthony, 407, ib. 

Wisrht, Moses, 208. 

Wilkins, Mary E., her "A Humble 
Romance," 12G 

Willard, Abijah, 101. 

Willard, Joseph, 14. 

Willard, Reo. Samuel, 388 »., 391, 
405 n., 411. 

Willard, Col. Samuel, Jr., 97. 

Willard, Major Simon, 15, 19, 
405 ii., Sketch of, 13, 14. 

William and Mary, Regents of Eng- 
land, 23. 

William 1., Emperm vf (•crinani/, 
1 14, 254. 

Williams, J. Fletcher, his gifts to 
tin.- Society, 43, 350. Librarian 
of the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, 208. 


'buerican Antiquarian Society, 

Williams, Simon, 70. 

Wilson, Henry, 302. 

Wilson, Heo. John, 382 n., 385, 401. 

Winans, Mr., 328. 

Winnipiseogee Lake Cotton and 
Woollen Manufacturing Compa- 
ny, 214. Their distribution of plas- 
ter easts of Endicott Hock, 20. 

Winslow, John, 38(5 n. 

Winsor, Justin, 4. His " Narrative 
and Critical History of America," 
13, 285, ib. cited, 278. Librarian 
of Harvard University, 208. 

Winthrop, Adam, 38G n., 397. 

Winthrop, Goo. Fitz-John, 3*3, ib. 
n., 384, 380 u. 

Winthrop, John, Gov. of Mass., 14, 
353, 382, 381, 38G »., 380. De- 
scription of his funeral, 382 u., 
383 n. Inscription on his burial 
stone cited, 383 n. 

Winthrop, John, Gov. of Conn., 

382 n.-384, 380 n. 
Wiuthrop, Prof. John, 38G n. 
Winthrop, Mrs. Margaret, 'dsil. 
Winthrop, Robert C, 138, 237, 254, 

255, 385 n., cited, 245. Remarks 
at Semi-Annual Meeting, 153-155. 
His description of dor. Win- 
throp's funeral cited, 382 ?j,,383 n. 

Winthrop, Thomas L., 38G n. 

Winthrop, Wait Still, 384, 38G n. 
Inscription on his burial stone, 

383 n. 

Woburn, Mass., 14. 

Woodward, Dr. Samuel B., 221, 430 

Worcester Art Society, Exhibition 
of Portraits, 208. 

Worcester County Athemeum, its 
library merged into American 
Antiquarian Society, 420. 

Worcester County Musical Associa- 
tion, 219. 

Worcester Free Public Library, 
207, 248. 

Worcester Jail, 340-348. 

Worcester Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory, 34G. 

'• Worcester Magazine and Histori- 
cal Journal," 420, il>. n. 

Worcester Natural History Society, 
references to the organization of, 

Worcester Society of Antiquity, 
committee appointed to mark 
historic spots, 209. 

Wiirtcle, Frederick C, 352. 


Ximenes, Francisco, 279. 


young, licv. Alexander, 91. 
Yucatan, 279, 280.